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FM 3-05.222 

(TC 31-32) 



Special Forces Sniper 
Training and Employment 



April 2003 



DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: 

Distribution autliorized to U.S. Government agencies and tlieir contractors only to protect teclinical or 

operational information from automatic dissemination under the International Exchange Program or by 

other means. This determination was made on 5 December 2003. Other requests for this document 

must be referred to Commander, United States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and 

School, ATTN: AOJK-DT-SFD, Fort Bragg, North Carolina 28310-5000. 

DESTRUCTION NOTICE: 

Destroy by any method that must prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document. 



Headquarters, Department of the Army 



Field Manual 
No. 3-05.222 



*FM 3-05.222 (TC 31 32) 

Headquarters 

Department of the Army 

Washington, DC, 25 April 2003 



Special Forces Sniper 
Training and Employment 



Contents 

Page 

PREFACE iv 

Chapter 1 THE SPECIAL FORCES SNIPER 1-1 

Mission 1-1 

Selection of Personnel 1-1 

Qualifications of SOTIC Graduates 1-5 

The Sniper Team 1-5 

Sniper Team Organization 1-6 

Sniper Training 1-6 

Chapter 2 EQUIPMENT 2-1 

Sniper Weapon System 2-1 

Telescopic Sights 2-6 

Leupold and Stevens MSA Telescope 2-7 

Ammunition 2-10 

Observation Devices 2-13 

Sniper Team Equipment 2-29 

Care and Cleaning of the Sniper Weapon System 2-33 

Troubleshooting the Sniper Weapon System 2-41 



DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors only 
to protect technical or operational information from automatic dissemination under the International Exchange 
Program or by other means. This determination was made on 5 December 2003. Other requests for this 
document must be referred to Commander United States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and 
School, ATTN: AOJK-DT-SFD, Fort Bragg, North Carolina 28310-5000. 

DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method that must prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of 
the document. 



This publication supersedes TC 31-32, 29 September 1997. 



FM 3-05.222 



Page 

Chapters MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING 3-1 

Firing Positions 3-1 

Team Firing Tecliniques 3-17 

Sigliting and Aiming 3-19 

Breatli Controi 3-28 

Trigger Controi 3-29 

Tine Integrated Act of Firing One Round 3-31 

Detection and Correction of Errors 3-34 

Application of Fire 3-37 

Ballistics 3-40 

Sniper Data Book 3-48 

Zeroing the Rifle 3-51 

Environmental Effects 3-59 

Slope Firing 3-66 

Hold-Off 3-69 

Engagement of Moving Targets 3-72 

Common Errors With Moving Targets 3-76 

Engagement of Snap Targets 3-76 

Firing Through Obstacles and Barriers 3-77 

Cold Bore First-Shot Hit 3-78 

Limited Visibility Firing 3-78 

Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Firing 3-79 

Chapter 4 FIELD SKILLS 4-1 

Camouflage 4-1 

Cover and Concealment 4-10 

Individual and Team Movement 4-12 

Tracking and Countertracking 4-25 

Observation and Target Detection 4-43 

Range Estimation 4-57 

Selection and Preparation of Hides 4-67 

Sniper Range Card, Observation Log, and Military Sketch 4-80 

KIM Games 4-91 

Chapters EMPLOYMENT 5-1 

Methods 5-1 

Planning 5-2 

Organization 5-5 



Chapter 6 



Appendix A 
Appendix B 
Appendix C 
Appendix D 
Appendix E 
Appendix F 
Appendix G 
Appendix H 
Appendix I 
Appendix J 
Appendix K 
Appendix L 
Appendix M 
Appendix N 
Appendix O 



FM 3-05.222 

Page 

Command and Control 5-7 

Target Analysis 5-10 

Mission Planning 5-14 

Sniper Support in Special Operations Missions and Collateral Activities 5-18 

Countersniper 5-30 

Conventional Offensive Operations 5-32 

Conventional Defensive Operations 5-35 

Civil Disturbance Assistance 5-37 

SNIPER OPERATIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN 6-1 

Urban Terrain 6-1 

Sniper Support in Urban Operations 6-9 

Urban Hides 6-14 

Weapons Characteristics in Urban Terrain 6-23 

Engagement Techniques 6-24 

WEIGHTS, MEASURES, AND CONVERSION TABLES A-1 

MISSION-ESSENTIAL TASKS LIST B-1 

SUSTAINMENT PROGRAM C-1 

MISSION PACKING LIST D-1 

M82A1 CALIBER .50 SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM E-1 

FOREIGN/NONSTANDARD SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEMS DATA F-1 

SNIPER RIFLE TELESCOPES G-1 

BALLISTICS CHART H-1 

SNIPER TRAINING EXERCISES 1-1 

RANGE ESTIMATION TABLE J-1 

SNIPER'S LOGBOOK K-1 

TRICKS OF THE TRADE L-1 

SNIPER TEAM DEBRIEFING FORMAT M-1 

SNIPER RANGE COMPLEX N-1 

AERIAL PLATFORMS 0-1 

GLOSSARY Glossary-1 

BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography-1 

INDEX lndex-1 



III 



Preface 

This field manual (FM) provides doctrinal guidance on the mission, personnel, 
organization, equipment, training, skills, and employment of the Special Forces 
(SF) sniper. It describes those segments of sniping that are unique to SF soldiers 
and those portions of conventional sniping that are necessary to train indigenous 
forces. It is intended for use by commanders, staffs, instructors, and soldiers at 
training posts. United States (U.S.) Army schools, and units. 

FM 3-05.222 (formerly TC 31-32) addresses three distinct audiences: 

• Commanders. It provides specific guidance on the nature, role, candidate 
selection, organization, and employment of sniper personnel. 

• Trainers. It provides a reference for developing training programs. 

• Snipers. It contains detailed information on the fundamental knowledge, 
skills, and employment methods of snipers throughout the entire 
operational continuum. 

The most common measurements that the sniper uses are expressed throughout 
the text and in many cases are U.S. standard terms rather than metric. 
Appendix A consists of conversion tables that may be used when mission 
requirements or environments change. 

The proponent of this manual is the United States Army John F. Kennedy 
Special Warfare Center and School (USAJFKSWCS). Submit comments and 
recommended changes to Commander, USAJFKSWCS, ATTN: AOJK-DT-SFA, 
Fort Bragg, NC 28310-5000. 

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not 
refer exclusively to men. 



IV 



Chapter 1 

The Special Forces Sniper 

The SF sniper is a selected volunteer specially trained in advanced 
marksmanship and fieldcraft skills. He can support special operations 
(SO) missions and is able to engage selected targets from concealed 
positions at ranges and under conditions that are not possible for the 
normal rifleman. 



MISSION 

1-1. Specially organized, trained, and equipped military and paramilitary 
forces conduct SF missions. Their goal is to achieve military, political, 
economic, or psychological objectives by unconventional means in hostile, 
denied, or politically sensitive areas. SF conduct missions in peacetime 
operations and war, independently or in coordination with operations of 
conventional forces. Politico-military considerations frequently shape SF 
operations, requiring clandestine, covert or low-visibility techniques, and 
oversight at the national level. SF operations usually differ from 
conventional operations in their degree of risk, operational techniques, mode 
of employment, independence from friendly support, and dependence upon 
operational intelligence and indigenous assets. Figure 1-1, page 1-2, lists the 
SF principal missions and collateral activities and the support that a sniper 
provides. Appendix B contains the sniper mission-essential task list. 

SELECTION OF PERSONNEL 

1-2. Commanders and assessors must carefully screen all candidates for 
sniper training. The rigorous training program and the great personal risk in 
combat require high motivation and the ability to learn a variety of skills. The 
proper mental conditioning cannot always be taught or instilled by training. 

1-3. It is important for the commander to monitor evaluation and selection 
procedures, since each unit may have a different mission. There are no 
absolutes for selecting SF snipers. However, there are diagnostic tests, 
organizational indicators, and trends that help the commander identify 
potential snipers. 

1-4. There are also several concrete prerequisites that should be met by the 
candidates before being accepted into the sniper program. Figure 1-2, page 
1-2, lists the administrative prerequisites that the sniper candidate must meet. 

1-5. The commander can determine personal qualities through background 
checks, interviews, records review, and counseling sessions. Recommended 
personal qualities should include, but are not limited to, those shown in 
Figure 1-3, page 1-3. 



1-1 



FM 3-05.222 



Principal Missions 


Collateral Activities 


Unconventional Warfare (UW) 


Coaiition Support 


Foreign Internal Defense (FID) 


Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) 


Information Operations (10) 


Counterdrug (CD) Activities 


Direct Action (DA) 


Humanitarian Demining (HD) Activities 


Special Reconnaissance (SR) 


Countermine (CM) Activities 


Combatting Terrorism (CBT) 


Foreign Humanitarian Assistance 


Counterproliferation (CP) 


Security Assistance 




Special Activities 


The SF sniper supports the above functions by — 


• Engaging long-range targets with precision fire. 


• Obtaining and reporting enemy intelligence information. 


• Providing training. 



Figure 1-1. Special Forces Functions and How the Sniper Supports Them 



Be a member of a special operations forces {SOF) unit having a validated sniper mission. 

Meet service physical fitness requirements (height and weight should be lAW AR 600-9). 

Have scored expert with the M4/M16A2 rifles in accordance with (lAW) FM 23-9. 
(Preferably, the candidate repeatedly scores expert during his biannual qualification.) 

Have no record of drug or alcohol abuse. 

Have no record of punishment under the Uniform Code of Military Justice during the current 
enlistment. 

Have a GT score of 110 or above and a CO score of 110 or above, or an SC score of 110 
or above. 

Be in the pay grade of E4 or above and have a SECRET clearance. 

Have 20/20 vision or be correctable lAW AR 40-501. {Glasses are a liability unless the 
individual is otherwise highly qualified.) 

Have a psychological evaluation conducted under the direction of, and approved by, a qualified 
medical expert. (This examination includes, as a minimum, the Minnesota Multi-Phasic 
Personality Inventory [MMPI]-2 and a psychiatric history mental status examination.) 

Have at least 12 months of service remaining on active duty after completion of the course. 

Must not have been convicted of a domestic violence crime that would preclude him being 
issued a weapon lAW the Lautenberg Amendment. 



Figure 1-2. Administrative Prerequisites 

NOTE: Most of the prerequisites listed in Figure 1-2 are required to enter 
the Special Operations Target Interdiction Course (SOTIC) conducted at the 
USAJFKSWCS, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. 



1-2 



FM 3-05.222 



Experience as a hunter or woodsman. 

Experience as a competitive marksman. 

Interest in weapons. 

Ability to make rapid, accurate assessments and mental calculations. 

Ability to maintain an emotionally stable personal life. 

Ability to function effectively under stress. 

Possession of character traits of patience, attention to detail, perseverance, 
and physical endurance. 

Ability to focus completely. 

Ability to endure solitude. 

Objectivity to the extent that one can stand outside oneself to evaluate a situation. 

Ability to work closely with another individual in confined spaces and under stress. 

Freedom from certain detrimental personal habits such as the use of tobacco products 
and alcohol. {Use of these is a liability unless the candidate is othenA/ise highly 
qualified. These traits, however, should not be the sole disqualifier.) 

• First-class APFT scores with a high degree of stamina and, preferably, solid athletic 
skills and abilities. 



Figure 1-3. Personal Qualities 

1-6. The first three personal qualities are particularly important when it 
comes to sustaining sniper skills, because the sniper with these 
characteristics will have a greater desire to practice these tasks as they are 
part of his avocation. 

1-7. Commanders may implement diagnostic and aptitude testing. Certain 
testing procedures may be lengthy and tedious and are therefore subject to 
limitations of time, equipment, and facilities. It is recommended that the 
psychological evaluation of a candidate be at least partially determined 
through the use of the MMPI-2. This test, if properly administered, gives the 
commander a personality profile of the candidate. It helps him decide 
whether the candidate can function in confined spaces, work independently, 
and has the potential to be a sniper. 

1-8. The tests are more than simple mental analyses. Psychological 
screening establishes a profile of characteristics that indicate if an individual 
would be a successful sniper. Testing eliminates candidates who would not 
perform well in combat. Psychological screening can identify individuals who 
have problems. 

1-9. To select the best candidate, the commander talks to a qualified 
psychologist and explains what characteristics he is looking for. That way, 
once a candidate is tested, the psychologist can sit down with the 
commander and give him the best recommendation based on the candidate's 
psychological profile. 



1-3 



FM 3-05.222 



1-10. After the commander selects the sniper candidate, he must assess the 
individual's potential as a sniper. He may assess the candidate by conducting 
a thorough review of the candidate's records, objective tests, and subjective 
evaluations. The length of time a commander may devote to a candidate's 
assessment will vary with his resources and the mission. Normally, 2 or 3 
days will suffice to complete an accurate assessment. 

1-11. Assessment should include both written and practical tests. Practical 
examinations will actively measure the candidate's physical ability to 
perform the necessary tasks and subtasks involved in sniping. Written 
examinations will evaluate the candidate's comprehension of specific details. 

1-12. Assessment testing must objectively and subjectively determine an 
individual's potential as a sniper. Objectivity measures the capacity to learn 
and perform in a sterile environment. Subjectivity assesses actual individual 
performance. 

1-13. Objective assessment tests are presented as a battery grouped by 
subject matter and may be presented either as practical or written 
examinations. Some examples of objective testing are — 

• Shooting battery tests that evaluate the theoretical and practical 
applications of rifle marksmanship. 

• Observation and memory battery tests that measure the candidate's 
potential for observation and recall of specific facts. 

• Intelligence battery tests that consist of standard military tests and 
previously mentioned specialized tests. 

• Critical decision battery tests that evaluate the candidate's ability to 
think quickly and use sound judgment. 

• Motor skills battery tests that assess hand-eye coordination. 

1-14. Subjective assessment tests allow the assessor to gain insight into the 
candidate's personality. Although he is constantly observed in the selection 
and assessment process, specific tests may be designed to identify desirable 
and undesirable character traits. A trained psychologist (well versed in 
sniper selection) should conduct or monitor all subjective testing. Examples 
of possible subjective tests include, but are not limited to, the following: 

• The interview — can identify the candidate's motivation for becoming a 
sniper and examine his expectations concerning the training. 

• The suitability inventory — basically compares the candidate to a 
"predetermined profile" containing the characteristics, skills, 
motivations, and experience a sniper should possess. 

1-15. A committee of assessors conducts the candidate selections at the end 
of the assessment program. While the commander should monitor all 
candidate selections, it is important for the committee to make the decision 
to preserve consistency and to rule out individual bias. The procedure for 
selection should be accomplished by a quorum during which the candidates 
are rated on a progressive scale. The committee should choose candidates 
based on their standing, in conjunction with the needs of the unit. At this 
time, the best-qualified soldiers should be selected; alternate and future 



1-4 



FM 3-05.222 



candidates may also be identified. The committee should also adhere to the 
following guidelines: 

• Do not apprise the candidates of their status during selection. 

• Do not consider nonvolunteers. 

• Select the best-qualified candidates first. 

• Do not allow soldiers who do not meet set prerequisites into the 
program. 

• Continue selection after SOTIC for "best qualified" determination and 
mission selection. 

QUALIFICATIONS OF SOTIC GRADUATES 

1-16. Upon completion of the SOTIC, the sniper has obtained a minimum 
of 700 course points and passed the "must pass" events to graduate. He must 
be able to — 

• Detect, determine distances to, and engage multiple targets at 
distances between 150 to 800 meters. 

• Stalk and reach a concealed position located no further than 220 
meters from an observer as an individual or 330 meters as a team. 

• Engage opportunity targets at 800 meters. 

• Precisely engage snap targets at 200 and 400 meters with a 3-second 
exposure, and at 300 meters with a 6-second exposure. 

• Engage moving targets at 200 and 300 meters. 

• Understand camouflage and concealment, observation techniques, 
reporting techniques, hide site selection, and hide construction. 

• Make first-round hit on man-sized targets out to 600 meters 90 percent 
of the time, and out to 800 meters 50 percent of the time. 

1-17. The only way the sniper can improve is through a comprehensive 
sniper sustainment training program (Appendix C). This program is not just 
to sustain the sniper at his present level, but it must challenge him to 
improve his skills. The program is mandatory lAW U.S. Army Special 
Operations Command (USASOC) Regulation 350-1, Training. It should be 
used as frequently as possible, at a minimum of 2 weeks every 6 months. 
Sniping skills are extremely perishable and without this program the sniper 
will rapidly lose his skills and become ineffective. Participating also aids in 
sniper selection after training. 

THE SNIPER TEAM 

1-18. Snipers conduct missions in pairs to enhance the team's effectiveness, 
provide mutual security, and maintain constant support for each other. Due 
to lowered stress, sniper pairs can engage targets more rapidly and stay in 
the field for longer periods of time than a single sniper due to lowered stress. 

1-19. The more experienced of the pair will act as the observer during the 
shot. This method is especially important on a high priority target. The more 
experienced sniper is better able to read winds and give the shooter 
a compensated aim point to ensure a first-round hit. Also, a high-priority 



1-5 



FM 3-05.222 



target may warrant that both snipers engage the target at the same time. 
The two-man concept allows this flexibility. 

1-20. Past experience has shown that deploying as a sniper/observer team 
significantly increases the success rate of the missions. With few exceptions, 
snipers who are deployed singly have shown a marked decrease in their 
effectiveness and performance almost immediately after the start of the 
mission. This decrease is due to the sniper becoming overwhelmed with 
concern for his security, the tasks to be accomplished, and his own emotions 
(fear, loneliness). 

SNIPER TEAM ORGANIZATION 

1-21. Either member of the sniper team can perform the function of the 
sniper (with the M24 or a specially selected weapon); the other member 
performs the function of the observer. The two-man team is the smallest 
organization recommended. It offers mobility, concealment, and flexibility. 
The sniper team can maintain continuous observation of an area while 
alternating security, sleeping, eating, and relieving the stress inherent in a 
single-man operation. The sniper/observer relationship of the sniper pair is 
invaluable in target acquisition, estimation of range to targets, observation of 
bullet trace and impact, and in offering corrections to targets engaged. Also, 
the mutual support of two snipers working together is a significant morale 
factor in combat environments or extended missions. 

1-22. Under certain circumstances the team may be augmented with a 
squad- to platoon-sized element. This element may be used for security, hide 
construction, or as a cover for a stay-behind operation. If the augmentation is 
for security purposes, the security element must be located far enough away 
from the team to prevent its compromise. A starting guideline is 800 to 1,000 
meters that must be modified according to the situation and the terrain. It is 
critical to mission success that the sniper team and the augmentation unit be 
thoroughly familiar with each other and have well-developed standing 
operating procedures (SOPs). 

1-23. Units may task-organize snipers for specific missions as opposed to 
sniper teams working independently. Regardless of any provisional or 
temporary sniper grouping, sniper teams should not be split. They are most 
effectively employed in the pairs in which they have been trained. 

1-24. Sniper teams may also be augmented with additional observers or 
snipers. The additional personnel spread out the interval of observation 
periods and allow for longer rest cycles, which is important during extended 
missions with 24-hour observation. The primary team will act as the 
sniper/observer pair if a shot is required. The augmentees act only as 
observers during an observation cycle. 

SNIPER TRAINING 

1-25. Sniper training is conducted through two separate environments. The 
formal schoolhouse environment (SOTIC) is conducted by the USAJFKSWCS 
at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. This course produces Level I snipers for the 
SO community. The graduates receive a W3 identifier. 



1-6 



FM 3-05.222 



1-26. The second environment is the Unit Training Special Operations 
Target Interdiction Course. This course enables the unit commander to fill 
his needs within his mission parameters. A graduate of this course becomes a 
Level II sniper and is fully capable of filling an assigned team slot as a 
sniper. He also meets the requirements established by USASFC 350-1 for two 
snipers, either Level I or II, to be assigned to each Special Forces operational 
detachment A (SFODA). Once a sniper (Level I or II) is assigned to an 
SFODA, he is then a Category (CAT) I sniper for requesting training 
ammunition, equipment, and ranges. 

1-27. Twice a year USAJFKSWCS conducts a 1-week Challenge Course. 
Level II snipers who successfully complete the Challenge Course will be 
awarded a SOTIC diploma and the Level I designator. 

1-28. The primary differences in Levels I and II snipers are that Level I 
snipers are required to fire within close proximity of non-combatants and 
friendly forces in a Close Combat Situation. Level I snipers are required to run 
the SF Group Sustainment Program, which is usually conducted in conjunction 
with a Level II train up. Level I are required to train U.S. forces in Level II 
courses. Level II snipers may not train other U.S. forces to a Level II status. 
The Level II sniper may conduct sniper training for host nation courses. 

1-29. The Level I sniper is tested to the maximum effective range of the M24 
Sniper Weapon System 800 meters, while the Level II sniper furthest required 
range is 600 yards. However, the unit commander may designate his Level II 
snipers to be trained to a higher degree of efficiency and accuracy. The unit 
commander may have his Level II course mirror the Level I course or add 
greater emphasis in areas he feels are necessary to complete his assigned 
mission parameters. While the Level I course is a program-of-instruction- 
driven, 6-week course, the unit course may be 2 weeks or longer depending on 
the requirements of the command. 

1-30. The Level I designation is to identify those snipers that have met a 
specific standard of training. These snipers have been trained by a cadre of 
instructors that have gone through the Instructor Training Course conducted 
by the SOTIC designators. The instructor's sole function is to train sniper 
students; he does not have to participate in the line unit's operations tempo. 

1-31. The unit's Level II courses may train to a higher or lower standard 
depending upon the commander's needs and assessments. The instructors for 
the unit Level II course need to be identified as soon as possible, usually 6 to 8 
weeks out, and permitted to prepare for the coming course. This lead time may 
not be possible due to the unit's operations tempo and red-cycle requirements. 
The longer the lead time, the better the course preparation and instruction. 

1-32. Once a sniper is trained, whether Level I or II, he must maintain 
proficiency. His maintenance training must include the school "learning 
environment" and the unit "training environment." The school must teach a 
skill and thus remove variables so that the student may learn. Once the 
sniper has graduated, he must "train" in these skills with the variables 
added. Only imagination and desire on the sniper's part can limit the 
training scenarios. 



1-7 



Chapter 2 

Equipment 

Snipers, by the nature of their mission, must learn to exploit the 
maximum potential from all their equipment. The organizational level of 
employment and the mission will determine the type and amount of 
equipment needed (Appendix D). Snipers will carry only the equipment 
necessary for successfully completing their mission. Appendix E describes 
the M82A1 caliber .50 sniper weapon system (SWS). Appendix F 
describes the types of SWSs in other countries. 



SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM 

2-1. The current SWS is the M24 sniper rifle with the Leopold & Stevens 
(L&S) ultra lOx MBA rifle scope. The M24 is based on the Remington Model 
700 long action with an adjustable trigger. The barrel is a heavy, 5 groove, 
11.2-inch twist, stainless steel target barrel. The stock is made of fiberglass, 
graphite, and Kevlar with an adjustable butt plate. The weapon is 
constructed to be accurate within 1/2 minute of angle (MOA) or 1/2-inch 
groups at 100 yards. The M24 is currently chambered for the 7.62-millimeter 
(mm) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cartridge. Two M24s are 
issued per operational detachment. The parts of the M24 rifle include the bolt 
assembly, trigger assembly, adjustable stock, barreled action (H 700), and 
telescopic and iron sights. Because this weapon is the sniper's best friend, he 
must be proficient in inspecting and loading it. However, during the 
inspection, the extent of the sniper's repairs is limited. Figure 2-1 lists the 
M 24 SWS components. 



Boll-action rifle 

Fixed 1 0x telescope, L&S M3A 

System case 

Scope case 

Detactiable iron sights (front and rear) 

Deploynnent case and kit 

Optional bipod 

Cleaning kit 

Soft rifle case 

Operator's manual 



Figure 2-1. Components of the M24 SWS 



2-1 



FM 3-05.222 



SAFETY 



2-2. The safety is located on the right rear side of the receiver and, when 
properly engaged, provides protection against accidental discharge under 
normal usage. The sniper should follow the rules below: 

• To engage the safety, place it in the "S" position (Figure 2-2). 

• Always place the safety in the "S" position before handling, loading, or 
unloading the weapon. 

• When the weapon is ready to be fired, place the safety in the "F" 
position (Figure 2-2). 




"S" Position 




'F" Position 



Figure 2-2. The I\/I24 Sniper Weapon System in the SAFE and FIRE IVIodes 

BOLT ASSEMBLY 

2-3. The bolt assembly locks the round into the chamber as well as extracts 
it. The sniper should follow the rules below: 

• To remove the bolt from the receiver, place the safety in the "S" 
position, raise the bolt handle, and pull it back until it stops. Push the 
bolt stop release up (Figure 2-3, page 2-3) and pull the bolt from 
the receiver. 

• To replace the bolt, ensure the safety is in the "S" position, align the 
lugs on the bolt assembly with the receiver (Figure 2-4, page 2-3), 
slide the bolt all the way into the receiver, and then push the bolt 
handle down. 

TRIGGER ASSEMBLY 

2-4. Pulling the trigger fires the rifle when the safety is in the "F" position. 
The sniper may adjust the trigger pull force from a minimum of 2.5 pounds to 
a maximum of 8 pounds. He can make this adjustment using the 1/16-inch 
Allen wrench provided in the deployment kit. Turning the trigger adjustment 
screw (Figure 2-5, page 2-3) clockwise will increase the force needed to pull 
the trigger. Turning it counterclockwise will decrease the force needed. This 
change is the only trigger adjustment the sniper will make. The trigger 
cannot be adjusted less than 2.5 pounds. The screw compresses an 
independent spring that increases the required pressure to make the sear 
disengage. 



2-2 



FM 3-05.222 



Bolt Stop Release 




Floorplate Latch 



Figure 2-3. Bolt Stop Release 




Figure 2-4. Bolt Lugs Aligned With the Receiver 




Figure 2-5. Location of the Trigger Adjustment Screw 



2-3 



FM 3-05.222 



STOCK ADJ USTMENT 

2-5. The M24 has a mechanism for making minor adjustments in the stock's 
length of pull. The thick wheel provides this adjustment. The thin wheel is for 
locking this adjustment (Figure 2-6). The sniper should turn the thick wheel 
clockwise to lengthen the stock or counterclockwise to shorten the stock. To 
lock the position of the shoulder stock, he should turn the thin wheel 
clockwise against the thick wheel. To unlock the position of the shoulder 
stock, he should turn the thin wheel counterclockwise away from the thick 
wheel. The sniper can adjust the length of pull so that the stock may be 
extended, but no more than three finger widths. Beyond this, the butt plate 
becomes unstable. 




Thick Wheel 
Thin Wheel 



IRON SIGHTS 



Figure 2-6. Stock Length Adjustment l\/lechanism 

2-6. The M24 has a backup sighting system consisting of detachable front 
and rear iron sights. To install the iron sights, the sniper must first remove 
the telescope. The sniper should— 

• Align the front sight and the front-sight base dovetail and slide the 
sight over the base to attach the front sight to the barrel. 

• Ensure the fingernail projection of the front sight fits securely into the 
fingernail groove on the front-sight base. 

• Tighten the screw slowly, ensuring that it seats into the recess in the 
sight base (F igure 2-7, page 2-5.). 

• To attach the rear sight to the receiver, remove one of the three 
setscrews, and align the rear sight with the rear-sight base located on 
the left rear of the receiver (Figure 2-8, page 2-5). Tighten the screw to 
secure the sight to the base. There are three screw holes and two 
positions for the sight screw to facilitate adjusting shooter eye relief. 



2-4 



FM 3-05.222 



Front-Sight Base 




Mounting 
Screw 



NOTE: Do not apply paint on or around the mounting screw. 



Figure 2-7. Front-Sight lUlounting Screw 




INSPECTION 



Figure 2-8. Attaching the Rear Sight Assembly 

2-7. The sniper should also make sure the other setscrews are below the level 
of the face of the rear sight base. If not, he should remove and store them. 



2-8. The M24's design enables the sniper to make some repairs. Deficiencies 
that the sniper is unable to repair will require manufacturer warranty work. 
When inspecting the M 24, the sniper should check the— 

• Appearance and completeness of all parts. 

• Bolt to ensure it has the same serial number as the receiver and that it 
locks, unlocks, and moves smoothly. 



2-5 



FM 3-05.222 



LOADING 



• Safety to ensure it can be positively placed into the "S" and "F" 
positions without being too difficult or too easy to move. 

• Trigger to ensure the weapon will not fire when the safety is in the "S" 
position and that it has a smooth, crisp trigger pull. 

• Action screws (front of the internal magazine and rear of the trigger 
guard) for proper torque (65 inch-pounds). 

• Telescope mounting ring nuts for proper torque (65 inch-pounds). 

• Stock for any cracks, splits, or any contact it may have with the barrel. 

• Telescope for obstructions such as dirt, dust, moisture, and loose or 
damaged lenses. 

2-9. The M24 has an internal, five-round capacity magazine. To load the 
rifle, the sniper should— 

• Point the weapon in a safe direction. 

• Ensure the safety is in the "S" position. 

• Raise the bolt handle and pull it back until it stops. 

• Push five rounds of 7.62-mm ammunition one at a time through the 
ejection port into the magazine. Ensure that the bullet end of the 
rounds is aligned toward the chamber. 

• Push the rounds fully rearward in the magazine. 

• Once the five rounds are in the magazine, push the rounds downward 
while slowly pushing the bolt forward over the top of the first round. 

• Push the bolt handle down. The magazine is now loaded. 

• To chamber a round, raise the bolt and pull it back to fully seat the 
round. Stopping the bolt early will cause an override situation. 

• Push the bolt forward. The bolt strips a round from the magazine and 
pushes it into the chamber. 

• Push the bolt handle down until it is fully seated. Failure will cause a 
light strike on the primer and a misfire. 

2-10. To fire the rifle, place the safety in the "F" position and squeeze 
the trigger. 

NOTE: See TM 9-1005-306-10, Operator's Manual for 7.62-mm M24 Sniper 
Weapon System (SWS), for shipping uncorrectable maintenance items. 

TELESCOPIC SIGHTS 

2-11. A telescopic sight mounted on the rifle allows the sniper to detect and 
engage targets more effectively than he could by using the iron sights. Unlike 
sighting with iron sights, the target's image in the telescope is on the same 
focal plane as the aiming point (reticle). This evenness allows for a clearer 
picture of the target and reticle because the eye can focus on both 
simultaneously. However, concentration on the reticle is required when 
engaging a target. 



2-6 



FM 3-05.222 



2-12. Another advantage of the telescope is its ability to magnify the target, 
which increases the resolution of the target's image, making it clearer and more 
defined. The average unaided human eye can distinguish detail of about 1 inch 
at 100 yards or 3 centimeters at 100 meters (1 MOA). Magnification combined 
with well-designed optics permits resolution of this 1 inch divided by the 
magnification. Thus, a 1/4 MOA of detail can be seen with a 4x scope at 100 
meters, or 3 centi meters of detai I can be seen at 600 meters with a 6x scope. 

2-13. I n addition, telescopic sights magnify the ambient light, making shots 
possible earlier and later during the day. Although a telescope helps the 
sniper to see better, it does not help him to shoot well. Appendix G provides 
further information on sniper rifle telescopes. 

LEUPOLD AND STEVENS M3A TELESCOPE 

2-14. TheM3A is a fixed lOx telescope with a ballistic drop compensator dial 
for bullet trajectory from 100 to 1,000 meters. The elevation knob is marked 
in 100-meter increments to 600 meters, in 50-meter increments 600 to 1,000 
meters, and has 1 MOA elevation adjustment. The windage 
1/2-MOA increments and a third knob provides for focus and parallax 
adjustment. The reticle is a duplex crosshair with 3/4-MOA mil dots (Figure 
2-9, page 2-8). The mil dots are 1 mil apart, center to center, with a possible 
10 mils vertical and 10 mils horizontal. The sniper uses mil dots for range 
estimation, holdover, windage holds, mover leads, and reference point holds. 

2-15. The M3A consists of the telescope, a fixed mount, a detachable 
sunshade for the objective lens, and dust covers for the objective and ocular 
(eyepiece) lens. The telescope has a fixed lOx magnification that gives the 
sniper better resolution than with the adjustable ranging telescope (ART) 
series. There are three knobs located midway on the tube— the 
focus/parallax, elevation, and windage knobs (Figure 2-10, page 2-8). 



ADJ USTMENTS 



2-16. The sniper should always focus the reticle to his eye first. He should 
turn the ocular eyepiece to adjust the reticle until it is sharp, but should not 
force-focus his eye. He can adjust the eyepiece by turning it in or out of the 
tube until the reticle appears crisp and clear. The sniper should focus the 
eyepiece after mounting the telescope on the rifle. He should grasp the 
eyepiece and back it away from the lock ring. He should not attempt to loosen 
the lock ring first; it will automatically loosen when the eyepiece is backed 
away (no tools are needed). The sniper should rotate the eyepiece several 
turns to move it at least 1/8 inch. He will need this much change to achieve 
any measurable effect on the reticle clarity. The sniper then looks through 
the scope at the sky or a blank wall and checks to see if the reticle appears 
sharp and crisp. He must do this before adjusting the focus and parallax. 



2-7 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 2-9. The M24 Optical Day Sight Reticle 



Focus/Parallax 




Windage 



Figure 2-10. Focus/Parallax, Elevation, and Windage Knobs 

2-17. The focus/parallax knob sits on the left side of the tube. The sniper uses 
it to focus the target's image onto the same focal plane as the reticle, thereby 
reducing parallax to a minimum. Parallax is the apparent movement of the 



2-8 



FM 3-05.222 



sight picture on the reticle when the eye is moved from side to side or up and 
down. The parallax adjustment knob has two extreme positions indicated by 
the infinity mark and the largest of four dots. Adjustments between these 
positions focus images from less than 50 meters to infinity. These markings are 
for reference only, after the sniper has initially adjusted his scope for parallax. 
He then slips the scale to match his requirements (for example, big ball 
references 100 or 200 meters). The sniper then writes each item and its 
distance in his log for reference whenever he engages targets at that range. Any 
change in reticle focus requires the sniper to readjust the focus/parallax setting. 

2-18. The elevation knob sits on top of the tube. This knob has calibrated 
index markings from 1 to 10. These markings represent the elevation setting 
adjustments needed at varying distances; for example, 1 = 100 meters, 
10 = 1,000 meters. There are small hash marks between the 100-meter 
increments after 600 meters; these represent 50-meter increments. Each click 
of the elevation knob equals 1 MOA. 

2-19. The windage knob sits on the right side of the tube. The sniper uses 
this knob for lateral adjustments. Turning the knob in the direction indicated 
moves the point of impact (POI ) in that direction. Each click on the windage 
knobequalsl/2MOA. 

LEUPOLDVARI-XIII,M3A-LR 

2-20. Incorporating the best features of the Mark 4 M3 and Vari-X III 
scopes, the Leupold Vari-X III 3.5-10 x 40-mm Long-Range M3 features M3- 
style adjustment dials that are specially calibrated and interchangeable for 
bullet drop compensation. Adjustment increments of 1-MOA elevation and 
1/2-MOA windage allow for easy adjustment. A parallax adjustment dial 
allows parallax elimination from a shooting position. This scope has a 30-mm 
tube diameter, a mil-dot reticle, and multicoated lens. 



SCOPE MOUNT 



2-21. The scope mount consists of a baseplate with four screws and a pair of 
scope rings (each with an upper and lower ring half) with eight ring screws 
(Figure 2-11, page 2-10). The sniper mounts the baseplate to the rifle by 
screwing the four baseplate screws through the plate and into the top of the 
receiver. He should have two short and two long baseplate screws. The long 
screws go to the rear mounting points, the short screws go to the front. The 
screws must not protrude into the receiver so they do not interrupt the 
functioning of the bolt. Medium-strength "Loctite" may be used on these four 
baseplate screws for a more permanent attachment. After mounting the 
baseplate, he then mounts the scope rings. 

2-22. When the sniper mounts the scope rings, he should select one of the 
slots on the mounting base and engage the ringbolt spline with the selected 
slot. He should push the ring forward to get spline-to-base contact as the 
mount ring nut is tightened. He checks the eye relief. If the telescope needs to 
be adjusted, the sniper loosens the ring nuts and aligns the ringbolts with the 
other set of slots on the base; he then repeats the process. He makes sure that 
the crosshairs are perfectly aligned (vertically and horizontally) with the rifle. 
Any cant will cause misses at longer ranges. To ensure that the reticle is not 



2-9 



FM 3-05.222 



canted in the rings, the sniper will need a level and plumb line. He uses the 
level to ensure the weapon is indeed level left to right. Once leveled, he hangs 
a plumb line on a wall and matches the reticle to the plumb line. When 
satisfied with the eye relief obtained (approximately 3 to 3 1/2 inches), the 
sniper then tightens the ring nuts to 65 inch-pounds using the T-handle 
torque wrench (found in the deployment case). 



r 






{Ly 







T "^ 



Long Baseplate 
T T "* Screws 

/ / 



^B 



OPERATION 



Figure 2-11. The MSA Leupold and Stevens Scope Mount 



2-23. When using the telescope, the sniper simply places the reticle on the 
target, determines the distance to the target by using the mil dots on the 
reticle, sets parallax, and then adjusts the elevation knob for the estimated 
range. He then places the crosshair on the desired POI or quarters the target. 
The sniper then gives the observer a "READY"and awaits the wind call. 



AMMUNITION 



2-24. Snipers should always attempt to use match-grade ammunition when 
available because of its greater accuracy and lower sensitivity to 
environmental effects. However, if match-grade ammunition is not available, 
or if the situation requires, he may use a different grade of ammunition. 
Standard-grade ammunition may not provide the same level of accuracy or 
POI as match-grade ammunition. I n the absence of match-grade ammunition, 
the sniper should conduct firing tests to determine the most accurate lot of 
ammunition available. Once he identifies a lot of ammunition as meeting the 
requirements, he should use this lot as long as it is available. 



2-10 



FM 3-05.222 



TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS 

2-25. The sniper should use 7.62- x 51-mm (.308 Winchester) NATO IMllS 
Special Ball (SB), M852 National Match, or M118 Long Range (LR) 
ammunition with the SWS. He must rezero the SWS every time the type or 
lot of ammunition changes. The ammunition lot number appears on the 
cardboard box, metal can, and wooden crate that it is packaged in. The sniper 
should maintain this information in the weapon's data book. 

M118 Special Ball 

2-26. The M118SB bullet consists of a metal jacket and a lead antimony 
slug. It is a boat-tailed bullet (the rear of the bullet is tapered to reduce drag) 
and has a nominal weight of 173 grains. The tip of the bullet is not colored. 
The base of the cartridge is stamped with the NATO standardization mark 
(circle and crosshairs), manufacturer's code, and year of manufacture. Its 
primary use is against personnel. Its accuracy standard requires a 10-shot 
group to have an extreme spread of not more than 12 inches at 600 yards or 
33 centimeters at 550 meters (2 MOAs) when fired from an accuracy barrel in 
a test cradle. The stated velocity of 2,550 feet per second (fps) is measured at 
78 feet from the muzzle. The actual muzzle velocity of this ammunition is 
2,600 fps. M118SB is the primary choice for the M24 SWS because the 
telescopic sights are ballistically matched to this ammunition out to 1,000 
meters. This ammunition is being replaced by M118LR. 

M852 National Match (Open Tip) 

2-27. As of October 1990, the Department of State, Army General Counsel, 
and the Office of the J udge Advocate General concluded that the use of open- 
tip ammunition does not violate the law-of-war obligation of the United 
States. The U.S. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps may use this ammunition in 
peacetime or wartime missions. 

2-28. The M852 bullet (Sierra Match King) is boat-tailed, 168 grains in 
weight, and has an open tip. The open tip is a small aperture (about the 
diameter of the wire in a standard-sized straight pin or paper clip) in the nose 
of the bullet. Describing this bullet as a hollow point is misleading in law-of- 
war terms. A hollow-point bullet is typically thought of in terms of its ability 
to expand upon impact with soft tissue. Physical examination of the M852 
open-tip bullet reveals that its opening is small in comparison to the aperture 
of hollow-point hunting bullets. Its purpose is to improve the ballistic 
coefficient of the projectile. The swaging of the bullet from the base by the 
copper gilding leaves a small opening in the nose; it does not aid in 
expansion. The lead core of the M852 bullet is entirely covered by the copper 
bullet jacket. 

2-29. Accuracy standard for the M852 ammunition is 9.5 inches average 
extreme spread (or slightly over 1.5 MOAs) at 600 yards. Other than its 
superior long-range accuracy capabilities, the M852 was examined with 
regard to its performance upon impact with the human body or in artificial 
material that approximates soft human tissue. In some cases, the bullet 
would break up or fragment after entry into soft tissue. Fragmentation 
depends on many factors, including the range to the target, velocity at the 



2-11 



FM 3-05.222 



time of impact, degree of yaw of the bullet at thePOl, or the distance traveled 
point-first within the body before yaw is induced. The M852 was not designed 
to yaw intentionally or break up upon impact. There was little discernible 
difference in bullet fragmentation between the M852 and other military 
small-arms bullets. Some military ball ammunition of foreign manufacture 
tends to fragment sooner in human tissue or to a greater degree, resulting in 
wounds that would be more severe than those caused bytheM852 bullet. 

NOTE: M852 is the best substitute for M118 taking the following limitations 
into consideration: 

• The M852's trajectory is not identical to the M118's; therefore, it is not 
matched ballistically with the M3A telescope. The difference to 600 
meters is minimal, predictable 700 becomes 725, and 800 requires 850. 
These are start-point ranges only. 

• The M852 is not suited for target engagement beyond 700 meters 
because the 168-grain bullet is not ballistically suitable. This bullet 
will drop below the sound barrier just beyond this distance. The 
turbulence that it encounters as it becomes subsonic affects its 
accuracy at distances beyond 700 meters. 

M118 Long-Range (Open Tip) 

2-30. The M118LR bullet (Sierra Match King) is boat-tailed, 175 grains in 
weight, and has an open tip. The open tip is the same as the M 852. 

2-31. Accuracy standard for the M 118LR ammunition is an average extreme 
horizontal spread of 10.3 inches and an average extreme vertical spread of 
14.0 inches at 1,000 yards or slightly over 1 MOA horizontal and 1.4 MOAs 
vertical extreme spread. This data is stated in the Detail Specifications dated 
3 March 1998. The trajectory of the M118LR will closely match theM118SB. 
Complete information is not available at this time. This is new ammunition 
being developed through the Navy and Marine Corps. It is scheduled to 
replace all lotsof theM118SB and M852. 

M82 Blank 

2-32. Snipers use the M82 blank ammunition during field training. It 
provides the muzzle blast and flash that trainers can detect during the 
exercises that evaluate the sniper's ability to conceal himself while firing his 
weapon and activates the multiple integrated laser engagement system 
(MILES) training devices. MILES devices are an excellent tool for training 
the commander on the use of a sniper. However, these devices can cause 
problems in the sniper's training, because he does not have to lead targets or 
compensate for wind or range. 

ALTERNATIVES 

2-33. If match-grade ammunition is not available, snipers can use the 
standard 7.62- x 51-mm NATO ball ammunition. However, the M3A bullet 
drop compensator (BDC) is designed for M118SB, so there would be a 
significant change in zero. Snipers should always test-fire standard 
ammunition and record the ballistic data in the data book. They should use 
standard ball ammunition in an emergency situation only. Snipers should 



2-12 



FM 3-05.222 



M80/M80E 1 Ball 



test-fire all ammunition for accuracy. Even match-grade ammunition can 
have a bad lot. 



2-34. The M80 and M80E1 ball cartridge bullet consists of a metal jacket 
with a lead antimony slug. It is boat-tailed and weighs 147 grains. The tip of 
the bullet is not colored. This bullet is primarily used against personnel. Its 
accuracy standard requires a 10-shot group to have an extreme spread of not 
more than 4 MOAs or 24 inches at 600 yards (66 centimeters at 550 meters) 
when fired from an accuracy barrel in a test cradle. The muzzle velocity of 
this ammunition is 2,800 fps. The base of the cartridge is stamped with the 
NATO standardization mark, manufacturer's initials, and the date of 
manufacture. The sniper should test-fire several lots before using them due to 
the reduced accuracy and fluctuation in lots. The most accurate lot that is 
available in the largest quantity (to minimize test repetition) should be 
selected for use. 



M62 Tracer 



2-35. The M62 tracer bullet consists of a metal-clad steel jacket, a lead 
antimony slug, a tracer subigniter, and igniter composition. It has a closure 
cap and weighs 141 grains. The bullet tip is painted orange (NATO 
identification for tracer ammunition). It is used for observation of fire, 
incendiary, and signaling purposes. Tracer ammunition is manufactured to 
have an accuracy standard that requires 10-shot groups to have an extreme 
spread of not more than 6 MOAs or 36 inches at 600 yards (99 centimeters at 
550 meters). The base of the cartridge is stamped with the NATO 
standardization mark, manufacturer's initials, and date of manufacture. The 
amount of tracer ammunition fired through the SWS should be minimized 
because of its harmful effect on the precision-made barrel. 

ROUND COUNT BOOK 

2-36. The sniper maintains a running count of the number and type of 
rounds fired through the SWS. It is imperative to accurately maintain the 
round count book. The SWS has shown to have a barrel life of about 8,000 to 
10,000 rounds. The sniper should inspect the barrel at this time, or sooner if a 
loss of accuracy has been noted. He inspects the barrel for throat erosion and 
wear, and if excessive, schedules the SWS to be rebarreled. This inspection 
should be accomplished lAW the deployment schedule of the unit and the 
required break in time needed for the new barrel. 

OBSERVATION DEVICES 

2-37. Aside from the rifle and telescopic sight, the sniper's most important 
tools are optical devices. The categories of optical equipment that snipers 
normally use are binoculars, telescopes, night vision devices (NVDs), and 
range finders. The following paragraphs discuss selected optical equipment 
for special purposes. 



2-13 



FM 3-05.222 



BINOCULARS 



2-38. Every sniper should be issued binoculars; they are the sniper's 
primary tool for observation. Binoculars provide an optical advantage not 
found with telescopes or other monocular optical devices. The binoculars' 
typically larger objective lens, lower magnification, and optical characteristics 
add depth and field of view to an observed area. Many types of binoculars are 
available. Snipers/observers should take the following into account when 
selecting binoculars: 

• Durability. The binoculars must be able to withstand rough use under 
field conditions. They must be weatherproofed and sealed against 
moisture that would render them useless due to internal fogging. 
Binoculars with individually focused eyepieces can more easily be made 
waterproof than centrally focused binoculars. Most waterproof 
binoculars offered have individually focused eyepieces. 

• Size. A sniper's binoculars should be relatively compact for ease of 
handling and concealment. 

• Moderate magnification. Binoculars of 6 to 8 power are best suited for 
sniper work. Higher magnifications tend to limit the field of view for 
any given size of objective lens. Also, higher magnifications tend to 
intensify hand movements during observation and compress depth 
perception. 

• Lens diameter. Binoculars with an objective lens diameter of 35 to 
50 mm should be considered the best choice. Larger lenses permit more 
light to enter; therefore, the 50-mm lens would be more effective in low- 
light conditions. 

• Mil scale. The binoculars should have a mil scale incorporated into the 
field of view for range estimation. 

2-39. The M22 binoculars are the newest in the inventory and are general 
issue. These binoculars have the same features as the M19, plus fold-down 
eyepiece cups for personnel who wear glasses, to reduce the distance between 
the eyes and the eyepieces. They also has protective covers for the objective and 
eyepiece lenses. The binoculars have laser-protective filters on the inside of the 
objective lenses. Direct sunlight reflects off these lenses! The reticle 
pattern (Figure 2-12, page 2-15) is different from the M19's reticle. Laser filter 
also lowers the M22's light transmittance, which lowers its ability to gather 
light at dusk and dawn. Characteristics of the M 19 and M22 areas follows: 

• M 19 Optical Characteristics: 

■ Objective lens: 50 mm. 

■ Magnification: 7x. 

■ Field of view: 130 mils— 130 meters at 1,000 meters. 

• M 19 Physical Characteristics: 

■ Width (open position): 190.5 mm/7.5 inches. 

■ Length: 152.4 mm/6 inches. 

■ Weight: 966 kg/2.125 pounds. 

■ Thickness: 63.5 mm/2.5 inches. 



2-14 



M22 Optical Characteristics: 

■ Objective lens: 50 mm. 

■ Magnification: 7x. 

■ Field of view: 130 mils— 130 meters at 1,000 meters. 

■ Depth of field: 12.5 meters to infinity. 
M22 Physical Characteristics: 

■ Width (open position): 205 mm/8.1 inches. 

■ Length: 180 mm/7.1 inches. 

■ Weight: 1.2 kg/2.7 pounds. 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 2-12. The Reticle Pattern in the M22 Binoculars 



Method of Holding Binoculars 



2-40. Binoculars should be held lightly, resting on and supported by the 
heels of the hands. The thumbs are positioned to block out light that would 
enter between the eyes and the eyepieces. The eyepieces are held lightly to 
the eyes to avoid transmitting body movement. Whenever possible, a 
stationary rest should support the elbows. An alternate method for holding 
the binoculars is to move the hands forward, cupping them around the sides 
of the objective lenses. This method keeps light from reflecting off the lenses, 
which would reveal the sniper's position. The sniper should always be aware 
of reflecting light. He should operate from within shadows or cover the lens 
with an extension or thin veil, such as a nylon stocking. 



2-15 



FM 3-05.222 



Adjustments 



2-41. Interpupillary distance is the space between the eyes. Interpupillary 
adjustment is moving the monocles tofit this distance. The monocles are hinged 
together for ease of adjustment. The hinge is adjusted until the field of vision 
ceases to be two overlapping circles and appears as a single, sharply defined 
circle. The setting on the hinge scale should be recorded for futureuse. 

2-42. Each eye of every individual requires a different focus setting. The 
sniper should adjust the focus for each eye as follows: 

• With both eyes open, look at a distant object, then through the 
binoculars at this same object. 

• Place one hand over the objective lens of the right monocle and turn 
the focusing ring of the left monocle until the object is sharply defined. 

• Uncover the right monocle and cover the left one. Rotate the focusing 
ring of the right monocle until the object is sharply defined. 

• U ncover the left monocle. The object should be clear to both eyes. 

The sniper should glance frequently at the distant object during this 
procedure to ensure that his eyes are not compensating for an out-of-focus 
condition. He then reads the diopter scale on each focusing ring and records 
the reading for future reference. Correctly focused binoculars will prevent 
eyestrain when observing for extended periods. 



Eye Fatigue 



2-43. Prolonged use of the binoculars or telescope will cause eye fatigue, 
reducing the effectiveness of observation. Periods of observation with optical 
devices should be limited to 30 minutes followed by a minimum of 15 minutes 
rest. A sniper can minimize eyestrain during observation by glancing away at 
green grass or any other subdued color. 

M48/M49 OBSERVATION TELESCOPES AND TRIPOD 

2-44. The M48/M49 observation telescopes are prismatic optical instruments 
of 20x magnification. Both scopes are essentially identical and this manual 
will refer mainly to the M49 from this point on. The lenses are coated with 
magnesium fluoride for improved light-transmitting capability. The sniper 
team carries the M49 when needed for the mission. The designated observer 
uses the telescope to assist in observation and selection of targets while the 
sniper is in the fire position. Properly used, the M49 telescope can 
significantly enhance the success of the team's mission by allowing it to 
conduct a superior target analysis, read the current environmental 
conditions, and make spot corrections by observing bullet trace and impact. 
The high magnification of the telescope makes observation, target detection, 
and target identification possible where conditions such as range would 
otherwise prevent identification. Camouflaged targets and those in deep 
shadows are more readily detected. Characteristics of the M48/M49 are as 
follows: 

• M 48 Observation Telescope: 

■ Tripod: M14. 

■ Carryi ng case (scope): M 26. 



2-16 



FM 3-05.222 



■ Carrying case (tripod): M 31. 

■ IMagnification: 19.6x. 

■ Field of view: 37.2 mils. 

■ Exit pupil: 0.100 inches. 

■ Effective focal length (EFL) of objectives: 13.004 inches. 

■ EFL of eyepiece: 0.662 inches. 

■ Length: 13.5 inches. 

• M 49 Observation Telescope: 

■ Tripod: M15. 

■ Carryi ng case (scope): M 27. 

■ Carrying case (tripod): M 42. 

■ Magnification: 20x. 

■ Field of view: 38.37 mils. 

■ Exit pupil: 0.108 inches. 

■ EFL of objectives: 14.211 inches. 

■ EFL of eyepiece: 0.716 inches. 

■ Length: 14.5 inches. 

Operating the M49 

2-45. An eyepiece cover cap and objective lens cover protect the optics when 
the telescope is not in use. Snipers must takecareto prevent cross-threading of 
the fine threads. They should turn the eyepiece focusing-sleeve clockwise or 
counterclockwise until the image is clearly seen. 

Operati ng the M 15 Tr i pod 

2-46. The sniper uses the height adjusting collar to maintain a desired 
height for the telescope. The sniper keeps the collar in position by tightening 
the clamping screw. He uses the shaft rotation locking thumbscrew to clamp 
the tripod shaft at any desired azimuth. The elevating thumbscrew enables 
the sniper to adjust the cradle of the tripod and to increase or decrease the 
angle of elevation of the telescope. He can then tighten the screw nut at the 
upper end of each leg to hold the tripod legs in an adjusted position. 

Setting Up the M49 and Tripod 

2-47. The sniper spreads the tripod legs and places it in a level position on 
the ground so the cradle is level with the target area. He places the telescope 
through the strip loop of the tripod and tightens the strap to keep the 
telescope steady and in place. If the tripod is not carried, he uses an 
expedient rest for the scope. The sniper should always make sure the scope is 
in a steady position to maximize its capabilities and minimize eyestrain. 

M144 OBSERVATION TELESCOPE 

2-48. The M144 observation telescope is the new U.S. Army observation 
telescope and has a variable power eyepiece. The sniper/observer can adjust 



2-17 



FM 3-05.222 



the eyepiece from 15x to 45x. This range permits the observer to adjust for a 
wider field of view or for magnification for clearer target identification. The 
observer should ensure that while reading winds or spotting trace, the scope 
should not be placed at a higher magnification than 20x. He can use the 
M144 in the same manner as the M49 scope that it replaces. Characteristics 
of the M 144 are as follows: 

• Objective lens: 60 mm. 

• Magnification: 15x to 45x. 

• F ield of view: 125 ft at 15x and 62 ft at 45x at 100 meters. 

• F ocus range: 30 ft to i nf i nity. 

• Exit pupil: 4 mm at 15x and 1.4 mm at 45x. 

• Eye relief: 20.5 mm at 15x and 13.5 mm at 45x. 

2-49. The Army will soon replace the M144 observation telescope with a 
newer scope that is waterproof and more durable. The next scope will be a 
variable and possess better optics. 

NIGHT VISION DEVICES 

2-50. Snipers use NVDs to accomplish their mission during limited visibility 
operations. They can use NVDs as observation aids, weapons sights, or both. 
First- and second-generation NVDs amplify the ambient light to provide an 
image of the observed area or target. These NVDs require target illumination 
(with the exception of the NADS 750); they will not function in total darkness 
because they do not project their own light source. NVDs work best on bright, 
moonlit nights. When there is no light or the ambient light level is low (as in 
heavy vegetation), the use of artificial or infrared (IR) light improves the 
NVD's performance. 

2-51. Fog, smoke, dust, hail, or rain limit the range and decrease the 
resolution of NVDs. NVDs do not allow the sniper to see through objects in 
the field of view. The sniper will experience the same range restrictions when 
viewing dense wood lines as he would when using other optical sights. 

2-52. Initially, a sniper may experience eye fatigue when viewing for 
prolonged periods. Heshould limit initial exposure to 10 minutes, followed by 
a 15-minute rest period. After several periods of viewing, he can safely extend 
the observation time limit. To help maintain continuous observation and to 
reduce eye fatigue, the sniper should often alternate his viewing eyes. 

Night Vision Sight, AN/PVS-2 

2-53. The AN/PVS-2 is a first-generation NVD (Figure 2-13, page 2-19). It can 
resolve images in low, ambient light conditions better than second-generation 
NVDs. However, first-generation NVDs are larger and heavier. Characteristics 
of an AN/PVS-2 include the following: 

• Length: 18.5 inches. 

• Width: 3.34 inches. 

• Weight: 5 pounds. 



2-18 



FM 3-05.222 



Magnification: 4x. 

Range: varies depending on ambient light conditions. 

Field of view: 171 mils. 

Focus range: 4 meters to infinity. 




Figure 2-13. Night Vision Sight, AN/PVS-2 

Night Vision Sight, AN/PVS-4 

2-54. The AN/PVS-4 is a portable, battery-operated, electro-optical 
instrument that can be used for visual observation or weapon -mounted for 
precision fire at night (Figure 2-14, page 2-20). The sniper can detect and 
determine distant targets through the unique capability of the sight to 
amplify reflected ambient light (moon, stars, or sky glow). The sight is 
passive; thus, it is free from enemy detection by visual or electronic means. 
With the correct adapter bracket, the sniper can mount this sight on the M4, 
M 16, M 21, or M 24. Characteristics of the AN/PVS-4 are as follows: 

• Length: 12 inches. 

• Width: 3.75 inches. 

• Weight: 3.5 pounds. 

• Magnification: 3.6x. 

• Range: 400 meters/starlight, 600 meters/moonlight, for a man-sized target. 

• Field of view: 258 mils. 

• Focus range: 20 feet to infinity. 



2-19 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 2-14. Night Vision Sight, AN/PVS-4 

2-55. Second-generation N VDs such as the AN/PVS-4 possess the advantage 
of smaller size and weight over first-generation NVDs. However, they do not 
possess the extreme low-light capability of the first-generation devices. The 
AN/PVS-4 also offers advantages of internal adjustments, changeable reticles, 
and protection from blooming, which is the effect of a single light source, such 
as a flare or streetlight, overwhelming the entire image. 

2-56. When mounted on the M4 or M 16 rifle, the AN/PVS-2/4 is effective in 
achieving a first-round hit out to and beyond 300 meters, depending upon the 
light and wind conditions. The AN/PVS-2/4 is mounted on the M4 or M16 
si nee the NVD's limited range does not make its use practical for the7.62-mm 
SWS. This practice prevents problems that may occur when removing and 
replacing the NVD. The NVD provides an effective observation capability 
during limited visibility operations. The NVD does not give the width, depth, 
or clarity of daytime optics. However, a well-trained sniper can see enough to 
analyze the tactical situation, detect enemy targets, and engage targets 
effectively. The sniper team uses the AN/PVS-2/4 to— 

• Enhance night observation capability. 

• Locate and suppress hostilefireat night. 

• Deny enemy movement at night. 

• Demoralize the enemy with effective first-round hits at night. 

2-57. When given a choice between AN/PVS-2 and AN/PVS-4, snipers should 
weigh their advantages and disadvantages. The proper training and 
knowledge with NVDs cannot be overemphasized. The results obtained with 
NVDs will be directly attributable to the sniper's skill and experience in their 



2-20 



FM 3-05.222 



use. Generally the PVS-2 is better for very low-light observation while the 
PVS-4 is better for built-up areas. 

KN200(PVS-9)/KN250(PVS-9A) Image Intensifier (SIMRAD) 

2-58. The KN 200/250 image intensifier (Figure 2-15) increases the use of the 
existing MBA telescope. It is mounted as an add-on unit and enables the 
sniper to aim through the eyepiece of the day sight both during day and 
night— an advantage not achieved with traditional types of NVDs. Sudden 
illumination of the scene does not affect sighting abilities. Depending on date 
of manufacture, these image intensifiers can be either second- or third- 
generation image intensifier tubes. Due to their unique design, the exact 
position of the image intensifier relative to the day sight is not critical. The 
mounting procedures take only a few seconds; however, boresighting will be 
required. The KN 200/250 technical specifications include— 

• Weight (excluding bracket): 1.4 kg/0.7 kg 

• Magnification: Ix, 4/- 1 percent. 

• Field of view: 177/212 mils. 

• Focus range: Fixed and adjustable. 

• Objective lens: 100 mm/80 mm. 

• Mounting tolerance: 4/- 1 degree. 

• Battery life: 40 hours at 25 degrees centigrade (C) with two AA 
alkaline cells. 

• Operating temperature: -30 to 450 degrees C. 




Figure 2-15. KN200(PVS-9)/KN250(PVS-9A) Image Intensifier (SIMRAD) 



2-21 



FM 3-05.222 



NADS 750, 850, 1000 Night Vision Imaging System 

2-59. This system (Figures 2-16 and 2-17) is similar to the PVS-9 SIIMRAD 
system as far as mounting and use. Its characteristics are as follows: 

• Size (approximately): 4.5 x 7.1; 4.7 x 7.76; 5.8 x 12.1 inches. 

• Weight: 2.6; 5.0; 6 lbs. 

• Magnification: Ix. 

• Fieldof view: 238, 210, and 120 mils. 

• I mmersion: 66 feet/2 hours. 

• Tube type: Generation (Gen) III. 

• Battery life: 24 hours at 73 degrees centigrade (C) with two AA alkaline cells. 

• Illuminator: 750 only. 




Figure 2-16. NADS 750, 850, and 1000 




Figure 2-17. NADS 750 With AN/PEQ 2 IR Pointer/Illuminator l\/lounted on SR-25 



2-22 



FM 3-05.222 



AN/PVS-10 I ntegrated Sniper Day/Night 

2-60. This system (Figure 2-18) requires the sniper to remove his standard 
day scope and replace it with this system. The system splits the available 
light and directs part of the light to the daytime scope and part of the light to 
the night portion of the scope. Then the scope's daytime and nighttime 
portions do not receive the full available light and thus are not as efficient as 
stand-alone systems. Characteristics include the following: 

• Weight: 4.9 pounds (lbs)/5.5 lbs. 

• Magnification: 8.5/12. 2x. 

• Field of view: 35/26 mils. 

• Tube types: Gen II, III, and III+. 

• Batteries: 2 AA alkaline cells. 




Figure 2-18. AN/PVS-10 Sniper Day/Night Scope 

Model 007 "Universal Clip-On" Augmenting Weapon Night Sight 

2-61. This clip-on sight (Figures 2-19 and 2-20, page 2-24) is similar to the 
SIM RAD and NADS. The sight clips onto the front of the day scope through a 
mounting system attached to the front scope-ring mount. The major 
difference is the size and weight of the system. Characteristics include the 
following: 

• Magnification: Ix. 

• Weight: 1.5 lbs. 

• Length (approximately): 6 inches. 

• Tube type: Gen III. 

• Batteries: 2 AA alkaline cells. 



Boresight deviation upon mounting: <1 MOA. 



2-23 



FM 3-05.222 








Figure 2-19. Universal Clip-on With AN/PEQ 2 







Figure 2-20. Universal Clip-on Mounted on SR-25 

AN/PVS-17 Mini Night Vision Sight 

2-62. This system (Figure 2-21, page 2-25) is designed for the IM4 50PIM0D 2 
Project and is easily adapted to the IM24 for close-in urban work. The sniper 
must remove the day scope to mount and use this sight. Characteristics include 
the foil owing: 

• Magnification: 2. 25x, 4.5x. 

• Reticule: internal dot (presently). 

• Tube types: Gen III and IV. 

• Battery: lAA alkaline cell. 

• Mount system: single-point, quick-release; two-point. 



2-24 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 2-21. AN/PVS-17 Mini Night Vision Sight 

AN/PAS-13 Thermal Weapons Sight 

2-63. The sniper can use this passive thermal imager (Figure 2-22) to detect 
targets in day or night conditions. It is also effective during periods of fog, rain, 
dust, or other conditions that will hinder the light amplification type of NVDs. 
The tube type is a Gen II forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and the reticle pattern 
is the same as the M3A day scope when the sniper uses the PAS-13 Heavy. 





^^^^ 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^f '^^BSnl^^^^^^^^^^r' 1 1 f^^^^l 









Figure 2-22. AN/PAS-13 Thermal Sight 



2-25 



FM 3-05.222 



Night Vision Goggles, AN/PVS-5 

2-64. The AN/PVS-5 (Figure 2-23) is a lightweight, passive night vision 
system that gives the sniper team another means of observing an area during 
limited visibility. The sniper normally carries the goggles because the 
observer has the M16 mounted with the NVD. The design of the goggles 
makes viewing easier. However, the same limitations that apply to the night 
sight also apply to the goggles. 




Figure 2-23. Night Vision Goggles, AN/PVS-5 

2-65. The sniper can use the AN/PVS-7 (Figure 2-24, page 2-27) instead of 
the AN/PVS-5 goggles. These goggles provide better resolution and viewing 
ability than the AN/PVS-5. The AN/PVS-7 series come with a head-mount 
assembly that allows them to be mounted in front of the face to free both 
hands. The sniper can also use the goggles without the mount assembly for 
handheld viewing. TM 11-5855-262-10-1, Operator's Manual for Night Vision 
Goggles, provides additional technical information. 



2-26 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 2-24. Night Vision Goggles, AN/PVS-7 Series 

AN/PVS- 14 Monocular Night Vision Device 

2-66. The AN/PVS-14 (Figure 2-25) is the replacement monocular for the 
PVS-7. The sniper can use either the Ix as a movement device or the 3x to 5x 
with an adapter as an observation device. The sniper can wear this NVD with 
a Kevlar helmet or a head harness for soft headgear. The NVD can also be 
handheld. It has a Gen III tube with a 40-degree field of view, and uses 2 AA 
batteries for power. 




Figure 2-25. AN/PVS-14 lUlounted With Helmet Clip 



2-27 



FM 3-05.222 



RANGE FINDERS 

2-67. The sniper must use special equipment to reduce the possibility of 
detection. When necessary, he uses the following equipment to better 
determine the range to the target and provide greater accuracy upon 
engagement. 

Laser Observation Set, AN/GVS-5 

2-68. Depending on the mission, snipers can usethe AN/GVS-5 to determine 
increased distances more accurately. The AN/GVS-5 is an individually 
operated, handheld, distance-measuring device designed for distances from 
200 to 9,990 meters (with an error of 4/- 10 meters). A sniper can use it to 
measure distances by firing an I R beam at a target and measuring the time 
the reflected beam takes to return to him. The AN/GVS-5 then displays the 
target distance, in meters, inside the viewer. The reticle pattern in the viewer 
is graduated in 10-mil increments and has display lights to indicate low 
battery and multiple target hits. If the beam hits more than one target, the 
display gives a reading of the closest target hit. The beam that is fired from 
the set poses a safety hazard; therefore, snipers that plan to use this 
equipment should be thoroughly trained in its safe operation. The AN/GVS-5 
has two filters (red and yellow) that shorten the range of the range finder. 
The yellow filter is considered safe when viewed through other filtered optics. 
The red is considered eye safe. The sniper should use the yellow filter when 
operating near friendly forces. 

Mini-Eyesafe Laser Infrared Observation Set, AN/PVS-6 

2-69. The AN/PVS-6 (Figure 2-26) contains a mini-eyesafe laser range 
finder, nonrechargeable BA-6516/U batteries, lithium thionyl chloride, 
carrying case, shipping case, tripod, lens cleaning compound and tissues, and 
an operator's manual. The laser range finder is the major component of the 
AN/PVS-6. It is lightweight, individually operated, and handheld or tripod- 
mounted. It can accurately determine ranges from 50 to 9,995 meters in 5- 
meter increments and display the range in the eyepiece. The ranger finder 
can also be mounted with and boresighted to the AN/TAS-6 or other 
comparable long-range night observation device. 




Figure 2-26. Mini-Eyesafe Laser Infrared Observation Set, AN/PVS-6 



2-28 



FM 3-05.222 



SNIPER TEAM EQUIPMENT 

2-70. The sniper team carries only the equipment and supplies needed to 
complete the mission within an estimated time. In some instances, it may 
have to rely on mission support sites or caches to replenish supplies and 
equipment for either its operational role or survival. The following 
paragraphs explain the standard, additional, and special equipment that a 
sniper team may require. 



STANDARD 



ADDITIONAL 



Sling 



2-71. The sniper team conducts a mission, enemy, terrain and weather, 
troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations 
(METT-TC) analysis to determine the type and quantity of equipment to 
carry. Due to unique mission requirements, each team should be equipped 
with the following: 

M 24 SWS (with 100 rounds M 118 or M 852 ammunition). 

Sniper's data book, mission logbook, range cards, wind tables, and 
range adjustments for slope. 

Service rifle (w/NVD as appropriate) (with 200 to 210 rounds 
ammunition). 

M144 or M49 20x spotting scope with M15 tripod (or equivalent 15 to 
20x fixed power scope or 15 to 45x zoomed spotting scope). 

Binoculars (preferably 7 power, 50 mm objective lens with mil scale). 

M9/service pistols (with 45 rounds 9-mm ball ammunition). 

NVDs (as needed). 

Radios. 

Camouflaged clothing (constructed by the sniper). 

Compass (the M2 is preferable). 

Watches (waterproof with sweep-second hand and luminous dial). 

Maps and sector sketch material. 

Special mission equipment. 



2-72. There is no limit to the diversity of equipment that the sniper may use 
for normal or special missions. After careful mission analysis, the sniper 
should select only what is necessary. Too much equipment can seriously 
hamper the sniper's mobility, endurance, and stealth. The next few 
paragraphs explain the recommended additional equipment for the team. 



2-73. The sniper, to aid in firing the rifle if a solid rest is not available, uses 
the standard issue web sling or leather sling. However, the leather sling 
should be the primary sling used. A modified M 14 web sling is superior to the 
leather sling in durability and easy use. The sniper must modify the sling for 
use but it is an easy modification. The M16 web sling is not suitable for sling- 
supported positions. 



2-29 



FM 3-05.222 



GhillieSuit 

2-74. The ghillie suit is a camouflage uniform that is covered with irregular 
strips of colored burlap or similar material. These strips are folded in half and 
sewn mainly to the back, legs, arms, and shoulders of the suit. The strips are 
then frayed or cut to break up the outline of the sniper and aid in blending 
him in with the surrounding vegetation or terrain. A close-net veil can be 
sewn to the back of the neck and shoulders of the suit and draped over the 
head when needed. The veil will help break the outline of the head, conceal 
the lens of the telescope, and contain the ejected brass cases. 

NOTE: When deploying with regular troops, snipers should wear the 
uniform of those personnel. Wearing the ghillie suit in these situations will 
spotlight the snipers and make them a prime target to the enemy, especially 
enemy snipers. 

Maintenance Equipment 

2-75. During long and short missions, snipers never leave maintenance 
equipment in the rear area. Maintenance equipment can include weapon and 
optical cleaning equipment for short missions, or it can include tools and 
replacement parts for missions in protracted environments such as FID or 
UW operations. The amount and type of maintenance equipment for a 
mission will also be governed by support maintenance available in any given 
operations area. 



Calculator 



Other Items 



SPECIAL 



Weapons 



2-76. The sniper team needs a pocket-sized calculator to compute distances 
when using the mil-relation formula. Solar-powered calculators usually work 
fine, but under limited visibility conditions, battery power may be preferred. 
If the sniper must use a battery-powered calculator in low-light conditions, he 
should make sure it has a lighted display. However, he should never rely 
solely on a calculator. 



2-77. Knives, bayonets, entrenching tools, wire cutters, pruning shears, 
and rucksacks will be used as the mission and common sense dictate. The 
sniper team best determines which particular items will be carried for each 
given mission. 



2-78. Snipers use special equipment to meet a specific purpose or to 
complete unique mission requirements. Because sniper missions can vary, the 
special equipment that snipers use should have three basic characteristics: 
durability, simplicity, and accuracy. Special equipment can include weapons, 
suppressors, or surveillance devices. 



2-79. The weapons must be durable enough to withstand the conditions 
encountered in combat, simple enough to minimize failure, yet accurate 
enough for sniping. The weapons should be capable of grouping consistently 



2-30 



FM 3-05.222 



Suppressors 



into 2 MOAs out to 600 meters (approximately a 33-centimeter group). 
Various modifications to the weapons themselves or selection of certain types 
of ammunition may i mprove the accuracy of the foil owing special weapons: 

• Bolt-action target rifles. 

• Foreign sniper weapons (procured out of need, compatibility, or to 
provide a foreign "signature"). 

• Large-bore, long-range sniper rifles. 

• Telescope-mounted handguns (for example, XPIOO or the Thompson 
Center Contender) for easy concealment or used as light multi mission 
SWSs. 

• Suppressed weapons. 



2-80. The suppressor is a device that snipers can use to deceive observers 
(forward of the sniper) as to the exact location of the weapon and the sniper. 
This deception disguises the signature in two ways. First, it reduces the 
muzzle blast to such an extent that it becomes inaudible a short distance 
from the weapon. This reduction makes the exact sound location extremely 
difficult, if not impossible, to locate. Secondly, it suppresses the muzzle flash 
at night, making visual location equally difficult. Using the suppressor is 
critical during night operations. 

2-81. When the sniper fires a rifle or any high-muzzle velocity weapon, the 
resulting noise is produced by two separate sources. These sounds are the 
muzzle blast and the ballistic crack (sonic boom) produced by the bullet: 

• The muzzle blast appears when the blast wave (created by the high 
velocity gases) escapes into the atmosphere behind the bullet. This 
noise is relatively easy to locate as it emanates from a single, fixed 
point. 

• Ballistic crack results from the supersonic speed of the bullet that 
compresses the air ahead of it exactly in the same fashion as a 
supersonic jet creates a sonic boom. The only difference is that the 
smaller bullet produces a sharp crack rather than a large overpressure 
wave with its resulting louder shock wave. 

Depending on distance and direction from the weapon, the two noises may 
sound as one or as two different sounds. The further from the weapon the 
observer is, the more separate the sounds; for example, 600 meters— 1 second 
elapses between the two. 

2-82. Unlike the muzzle noise that emanates from a fixed point, the ballistic 
crack radiates backwards in a conical shape, similar to a bow wave from a boat, 
from a point slightly ahead of the moving bullet. Thus, the sonic boom created 
by the supersonic bullet moves at the velocity of the bullet away from the 
muzzle noise and in the direction of the target. Location and identification of 
the initial source of the shock wave is extremely difficult because the moving 
wave strikes the ear at nearly 90 degrees to the point of origin. Attention is 
thus drawn to the direction from which the wave is coming rather than toward 
the firing position (Figure 2-27, page 2-32). 



2-31 



FM 3-05.222 



Area of 
Deception 



TARGET 



Area of 
Deception 




Figure 2-27. Deception Caused by the Sonic Waves of the Bullet 
Breaking the Speed of Sound 

Surveillance Devices 

2-83. In some circumstances, a sniper may use special surveillance devices 
that will normally involve adding weight and bulk, which can limit his 
mobility. The sniper should consider using these devices mostly for fixed 
peacekeeping or Perimeter Force Protection roles. The following paragraphs 
explain a few of these devices. 

2-84. Single-Lens-Reflector (SLR), Digital, and Video Cameras. 

Snipers spend more time observing than shooting. Collecting and reporting 
intelligence are critical tasks. SLR and digital cameras are important tools 
that significantly enhance the sniper's ability to meet intelligence collection 
requirements. Video surveillance kits are being fielded to the SF groups to 
support operations in urban and rural AGs. These kits are integrated with 
the sniper's communications package so that sniper teams can provide 
commanders with "near-real-time" video and still images of EEL This ability 
to pass images significantly enhances a sniper team's utility and lethality. 

2-85. 100-mm Team Spotting Scope. This device is a standard team scope 
for most marksmanship units and should be used for sniper training 
purposes. The scope's increased field of view will greatly enhance the team's 
observation capability in static positions. While the UnertI is considered 
standard, the newer 100-mm Optolyth is clearer and more compact, as well as 
durable. 

2-86. Crew-Served NVDs. Snipers commonly use these devices in 
conjunction with crew-served weapons (typified by the AN/TVS-5) or night 
observation (typified by the AN/TVS-4). These NVDs offer a significant 
advantage over their smaller counterparts in surveillance, target acquisition, 
and night observation (STANO). However, their weight and bulk normally 
I i mit thei r use to static operations. 



2-32 



FM 3-05.222 



2-87. Thermal Imagery. This relatively new tool is now available to the 
sniper team. Equipment such as the AN/PAS-7 offers a thermal imagery 
device in a portable package. Thermal imagery can enhance STANO 
operations when used with more conventional equipment, or it can provide 
continuous surveillance when ambient light conditions (such as starlight and 
moonlight) do not exist for light-intensification devices. Thermal devices offer 
an option when there is an abundance of light that would cause white out 
conditions with NVDs. 

2-88. Radars and Sensors. J ust as the sniper's surveillance operations 
should be integrated into the overall surveillance plan, the sniper should 
strive to make maximum use of any surveillance radars and sensors in the 
area of operation. Snipers will normally not use these items themselves, but 
through coordination with using or supporting units. The snipers may be able 
to use the target data that the radars and sensors can acquire. However, they 
must keep in mind that these devices are subject to human error, 
interpretation, and enemy countermeasures. Total reliance on the 
intelligence data obtained by using these devices could prove detrimental 
or misleading. 



CARE AND CLEANING OF THE SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM 

2-89. Maintenance is any measuretaken to keep thesystem in top operating 
condition. It includes inspection, repair, cleaning, and lubrication. Inspection 
reveals the need for the other measures. The sniper couples his cleaning with 
a program of detailed inspections for damage or defects. He uses the following 
maintenance items: 

One-piece plastic-coated caliber .30 cleaning rod with jags (36 inches). 

Field cleaning kit such as Kit and caboodle cleaning cable-with Muzzle 
Guard-Field. 

Bronze- bristled bore brushes (calibers .30 and .45). 

Muzzle guide. 

Cleaning patches (small and large sizes). 

Shooter's Choice Bore Solvent (SCBS) carbon cleaner. 

Sweets 7.62 Copper Remover (copper cleaner). (Shooter's Choice 
Copper Remover is the second choice.) 

Shooter's Choice Rust Prevent. 

Cleaner, lubricant, preservative (CLP). (Note: Do not use lubricating 
oil, weapons semifluid, Breakfree, or WD40 in the bore.) 

Rifle grease. 

Bore guide (long action). 

Q-tips or swabs. 

Pipe cleaners. 

Medicine dropper. 

Shaving brush. 

Toothbrush. 



2-33 



FM 3-05.222 



• Pistol cleaning rod. 

• Rags. 

• Camel-hair brush. 

• Lens paper. 

• Lens cleaning fluid or denatured alcohol. 

NOTE: Never place cleaning fluid directly on lens surface. Use lens paper or 
cleaning pencil and place cleaning fluids on thetissueor pen. 



WHENTOCLEAN 



Before Firing 



After Firing 



2-90. Snipers must regularly inspect any weapon sheltered in garrison and 
infrequently used to detect dirt, moisture, and signs of corrosion and must 
clean it accordingly. However, a weapon in use and subject to the elements 
requires no inspection for cleanliness. The fact that it's used and exposed is 
sufficient evidence that it requires repeated cleaning and lubrication. 



2-91. The sniper must always clean the rifle before firing. Firing a weapon 
with a dirty bore or chamber will multiply and speed up any corrosive action. 
Oil in the bore and chamber of even a clean rifle will cause pressures to vary 
and first-round accuracy will suffer. Hydrostatic pressure will also cause 
cases to blow or jam in the chamber. The sniper should clean and dry the bore 
and chamber before departing on a mission and use extreme care to keep the 
rifle clean and dry en route to the objective area. Before the sniper fires the 
weapon, he should ensure that the bore and chamber are still clean, dry, and 
no strings are left from the cleaning patches. Firing a rifle with oil or 
moisture in the bore will cause a puff of smoke that can disclose the 
firing position. It can also cause damage to the weapon system. 



2-92. The sniper must clean the rifle after it has been fired, because firing 
produces deposits of primer fouling, powder ashes, carbon, and metal fouling. 
Although modern ammunition has a noncorrosive primer that makes cleaning 
easier, the primer residue can still cause rust if not removed. Firing leaves two 
major types of fouling that requires different solvents to remove: cartran fouling 
and copper jacicet fouling. The sniper must clean the rifle within a reasonable 
interval— a matter of hours— after a cessation of firing. Common sense should 
preclude the question as to the need for cleaning between rounds. Repeated firing 
will not damage the weapon if it is properly cleaned before the first round. 

2-93. The M24 SWS will be disassembled only when absolutely necessary, 
not for daily cleaning. An example would be to remove an obstruction that is 
stuck between the stock and the barrel. When disassembly is required, the 
recommended procedure is to— 

• Place the weapon so that it is pointing in a safe direction. 

• Ensure the safety is in the "S" position. 

• Remove the bolt assembly. 



2-34 



FM 3-05.222 



• Loosen the two mounting ring nuts (Figure 2-28) on the telescope and 
remove the telescope. (Not necessary when only cleaning the weapon.) 

• Remove the two trigger action screws (F igure 2-29). 

• Lift the stock from the barrel assembly. 

NOTE: Always reassemble the weapon in the same sequence as the last time 
it was reassembled. This will keep the weapon zeroed to within .5 MOA. For 
further disassembly, refer toTM 9-1005-306-10. 




Figure 2-28. Location of the Mounting Ring Nuts on the M24 SWS 




Trigger Action Screws 
NOTE: Proper torque is 65 inch-pounds. 



Figure 2-29. Location of the Trigger Action Screws 



HOWTO CLEAN 



2-94. The sniper cleans the rifle by laying it on a cleaning table or other flat 
surface with the muzzle away from the body and the sling down. He makes 
sure not to strike the muzzle or telescopic sight on the table. The cleaning 
cradle is ideal for holding the rifle, or the sniper can use the bipod to support 
the weapon. 

2-95. The sniper should always clean the bore from the chamber toward the 
muzzle, attempting to keep the muzzle lower than the chamber to prevent 
bore cleaner from running into the receiver or firing mechanism. When in 



2-35 



FM 3-05.222 



garrison, he should always use the chamber guide to move the one-piece steel 
rod from chamber to muzzle. When in the field, he should use the muzzle 
guide and insert the one-piece cable down the bore to the chamber and pull 
the patches through to the muzzle. The sniper must be careful not to get 
solvents between the receiver and the stock. Solvents soften the bedding 
compound. When the rifle is fired, the action shifts in the soft bedding, which 
decreases accuracy and increases wear and tear on the bedding material. 
Solvents contribute to the accumulation of debris between the action and the 
stock interfering with barrel harmonics. 

NOTE: The sniper should always use a bore guide to keep the cleaning rod 
centered in the bore during the cleaning process. 

2-96. The sniper first pushes several patches saturated with SCBS through 
the barrel to loosen the powder fouling and begin the solvent action on the 
copper jacket fouling. He then saturates the bronze- bristled brush (Never 
use stainless steel bore brushes— they will scratch the barrel!) with 
SCBS (shake bottle regularly to keep the ingredients mixed) using the 
medicine dropper to prevent contamination of the SCBS. He runs the bore 
brush through the barrel approximately 20 times. He makes sure that the 
bore brush passes completely through the barrel before reversing its 
direction; otherwise the bristles can break off. 

NOTE: The sniper should never stick the bore brush into the bottle of SCBS. 
This will contaminate the fluid. 

2-97. Using a pistol cleaning rod and a caliber .45 bore brush, the sniper 
cleans the chamber by rotating the patch-wrapped brush 8 to 10 times. He 
should NOT scrub the brush in and out of the chamber. He then pushes 
several patches saturated with SCBS through the bore to push out the 
loosened powder fouling. 

2-98. The sniper continues using the bore brush and patches with SCBS 
until the patches come out without traces of the black/gray powder 
fouling and become increasingly green/blue. This process indicates that 
the powder fouling has been removed and that only the copper fouling 
remains. He then removes the SCBS from the barrel with several clean 
patches. This is important because the different solvents should never be 
mixed in the barrel. 

2-99. The sniper pushes several patches saturated with Sweets through the 
bore, using a scrubbing motion to work the solvent into the copper. He lets 
the solvent work for 10 to 15 minutes. (Never leave Sweets in the barrel 
for more than 30 minutes!) 

2-100. While waiting, thesniper scrubs the bolt with thetoothbrush moistened 
with SCBS and wipes down the remainder of the weapon with a cloth. He 
pushes several patches saturated with Sweets through the barrel. The patches 
will appear dark blue at first, indicating the amount of copper fouling removed. 
He continues this process until the saturated patches come out without a trace 
of bluQ'green. If the patches continue to come out dark blue after several 
treatments with Sweets, he should run patches with SCBS through the bore 
deactivating the sweets and start the cleaning process over again. 



2-36 



FM 3-05.222 



2-101. When the barrel is completely clean, the sniper then dries it with 
several tight fitting patches. He should also dry out the chamber using the 
caliber .45 bore brush with a patch wrapped around it. The sniper then runs a 
patch saturated with Shooter's Choice Rust Prevent (not CLP) down the 
barrel and chamber if the weapon is to be stored for any length of time. He 
should also be sure to remove the preservative by running dry patches 
through the bore and chamber before firing. 

NOTE: Stainless steel barrels are not immune from corrosion. 

2-102. The sniper places a small amount of rifle grease on the rear surfaces of 
the bolt lugs. This grease will prevent galling of the metal surfaces. He should 
also place grease on all wear points (the shiny areas) of the bolt. The sniper 
then wipes down the complete weapon exterior (if it is not covered with 
camouflage paint) with a CLP-saturated cloth to protect it during storage. 



Barrel Break-in Procedure 



2-103. To maximize barrel life and accuracy and to minimize the cleaning 
requirement, the sniper must use the following barrel break-in procedure. 
This procedure is best done when the SWS is new or newly rebarreled. The 
break-in period "laps-in" the barrel by polishing the barrel surface under heat 
and pressure. The sniper must first completely clean the barrel of all fouling, 
both powder and copper. He dries the barrel and fires one round. He then 
completely cleans the barrel using Shooter's Choice Solvent, followed by 
Sweets 7.62 copper remover. Again, the barrel must be completely cleaned 
and another round fired. This procedure of firing one shot, then cleaning, 
must be done for a total of 10 rounds. After the 10th round, the sniper tests 
the SWS for groups by firing three-round shot groups, with a complete barrel 
cleaning between shot groups for a total of five shot groups (15 rounds total). 
The barrel comes from the factory with 60 test-fire rounds already through it. 
The barrel is now broken-in and will provide superior accuracy and a longer 
usable barrel life. It also will be easier to clean because the surface is 
smoother. Although the full accuracy potential may not be noticed until after 
100 rounds or more have been fired, again, the sniper should clean the barrel 
at least every 100 rounds to maximize barrel life. 



Storage 



2-104. The M24 SWS should be properly stored to ensure it is protected and 
maintained at a specific level. The sniper should— 

• Clear the SWS, close the bolt, and squeeze the trigger. 

• Place all other items in the system case (M24). 

• Transport the weapon in the system case during nontactical situations. 

• Protect the weapon at all times during tactical movement. 

OPTICAL EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE 

2-105. Dirt, rough handling, or abuse of optical equipment will result in 
inaccuracy and malfunction. When not in use during field conditions, the 
sniper should case the rifle and scope and cap the lenses. 



2-37 



FM 3-05.222 



Cleaning the Lenses 

2-106. The sniper should coat the lenses with a special magnesium fluoride 
reflection-reducing material. The coat should be very thin and the sniper 
must take great care to prevent damaging the lenses. To remove dust, lint, or 
other foreign matter from the lens, he brushes it lightly with a clean camel- 
hair brush. 

2-107. The sniper must also remove oil or grease from all the optical 
surfaces. He applies a drop of lens cleaning fluid or denatured alcohol to a 
lens tissue and carefully wipes off the lens surface in circular motions, from 
the center to the outside edge. He dries off the lens with a clean lens tissue. 
In the field, if the proper supplies are not available, the sniper can breathe 
heavily on the glass and wipe with a soft, clean cloth. 

Handling Telescopes 

2-108. Telescopes are delicate instruments and the sniper must handle 
them with great care. The following precautions will prevent damage. The 
sniper should— 

• Check the torque on all mounting screws periodically and always 
before any operation. He should also be careful not to change coarse 
windage adjustment. 

• Keep lenses free from oil and grease and never touch them with 
the fingers. Body grease and perspiration can also injure them. Keep 
lenses capped. 

• Not force elevation and windage screws or knobs. 

• Not allow the telescope to remain in direct sunlight and avoid letting 
the sun's rays shine through the lens. Lenses magnify and concentrate 
sunlight into a pinpoint of intense heat, which is focused on the 
mil-scale reticle. This exposure may damage the telescope internally. 
Keep the lenses covered and the entire telescope covered when not 
firing or preparing to fire. Never use the rifle scope for observation 
purposes only. 

• Avoid dropping the telescope or striking it with another object. This 
blow could damage it severely and permanently, as well as change the 
zero. When placing the weapon in the carrying case, he should place 
the scope away from the hinges. This will help protect the scope from 
vibration and dropping. 

• Not allow just anyone to handle the equipment. The sniper or armorer 
should really be the only personnel that handle the telescope or any 
other sniper equipment. 

• Once the scope is zeroed, note the reticle position on a bore scope grid 
for future reference. 

WEAPON MAINTENANCE AND CARE 

2-109. Maintenance is any measure that the sniper takes to keep the SWS in 
top operating condition. A sniper may have to operate in many different 
environments and every type requires him to care for his weapon in a specific 
manner. The following paragraphs explain each of these environments. 



2-38 



FM 3-05.222 



Cold Climates 

2-110. In temperatures below freezing, the sniper must maintain and treat 
the rifle a specific way. He should— 

• Always keep the rifle free of moisture and heavy oil (both will freeze) to 
prevent working parts from freezing or operating sluggishly. 

• Store the rifle in a room with the temperature equal to the outside 
temperature. 

• If the rifle is taken into a warm area, be sure to remove the 
condensation and thoroughly clean and dry the rifle before taking it 
into the cold. Otherwise, the condensation will cause icing on exposed 
metal parts and optics. 

• Disassemble the firing pin, clean it thoroughly with a degreasing 
agent, and then lubricate it with CLP. Rifle grease will harden and 
cause the firing pin to fall sluggishly. 

2-111. In extreme cold, the sniper must take the following care to avoid 
condensation and the congealing of oil on the weapon. He should— 

• If not excessive, remove condensation by placing the instrument in a 
warm place. Not apply concentrated heat because it will cause 
expansion and damage. 

• Blot moisture from the optics with a lens tissue or a soft, dry cloth. 

• In cold temperatures, ensure the oil does not thicken and cause 
sluggish operation or failure. Remember that focusing parts are 
particularly sensitive to freezing oils. 

• Remember that breathing will form frost, so he must clean the optical 
surfaces with lens tissue, preferably dampened lightly with lens cleaning 
fluid or denatured alcohol. Never apply the fluid directly to the glass. 

Saltwater Exposure 

2-112. Salt water and a saltwater atmosphere have extreme and very rapid 
corrosive effects on metal. During this type of exposure, the sniper must 
ensure the rifle is— 

• Checked frequently and cleaned as often as possible, even if it means 
only lubricating the weapon. 

• Always well lubricated, including the bore, except when actually firing. 

• Thoroughly cleaned by running a dry patch through the bore before 
firing, if possible. To keep the patches dry, store them in a 
waterproof container. 

J ungle Operations (High Humidity) 

2-113. There is no standard jungle. The tropical area may be rain forests, 
secondary jungles, savannas, or saltwater swamps. When operating in any 
jungle environment, high temperatures, heavy rainfall, and oppressive 
humidity become a sniper's concern in maintaining his weapon. He should— 

• Use more lubricant. 

• Keep the rifle cased when not in use. 



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FM 3-05.222 



• Protect his rifle from rain and moisture whenever possible. 

• Keep ammunition clean and dry. 

• Clean the rifle, bore, and chamber daily. 

• Keep the telescope caps on when not in use. If moisture or fungus 
develops inside the telescope, he should get a replacement. 

• Keep cotton balls between lens caps and lens. 

• Clean and dry the stock daily. 

• Dry the carrying case and rifle in the sun whenever possible. 

• Take an 8- or 9-inch strip of cloth and tie a knot in each end to 
protect the free-floating barrel of the weapon. Before going on a 
mission, he should slide the cloth between the barrel and stock all 
the way to the receiver and leave it there. When in position, he 
slides the cloth out, taking all restrictive debris and sand with it. 
(This procedure should be done in all environments.) 

Desert Operations 

2-114. Hot, dry climates are usually dusty and sandy areas. They are hot 
during daytime hours and cool during the nighttime. Dust and sand will get 
into the rifle and will cause malfunctions and excessive wear on component 
working surfaces through abrasive action during the firing operations. When 
operating in this type of environment, the sniper should— 

• Keep the weapon completely dry and free of CLP and grease except on 
the rear of the bolt lugs. 

• Keep the riflefree of sand byusingacarryingslea/eorcasewhen not in use. 

• Protect the weapon by using a wrap. He should slide the wrap between 
the stock and barrel then cross over on top of the scope, cross under the 
weapon (over magazine), and secure. He can still place the weapon into 
immediate operation but all critical parts are covered. The sealed hard 
case is preferred in the desert if the situation permits. 

• Keep the telescope protected from the direct rays of the sun. 

• Keep ammunition clean and protected from the direct rays of the sun. 

• U se a toothbrush to remove sand from the bolt and receiver. 

• Clean the bore and chamber daily. 

• Protect the muzzle and receiver from blowing sand by covering 
them with a clean cloth. 

• Take an 8- or 9-inch strip of cloth and tie a knot in each end to 
protect the free-floating barrel of the weapon. Before going on a 
mission, he should slide the cloth between the barrel and stock all 
the way to the receiver and leave it there. When in position, he 
can slide the cloth out, taking all restrictive debris and sand with 
it. (This procedure should be done in all environments.) 

Hot Climates and Saltwater Exposure 

2-115. A hot climate and saltwater atmosphere may cause waves and wind. 
To keep these environmental hazards from affecting the optical equipment, a 
sniper must take precautionary measures. Heshould— 

• Protect optics from hot, humid climates and saltwater atmosphere. 



2-40 



FM 3-05.222 



• NOT expose optical equipment to direct sunligint in a Inot climate. 

• In humidity and salt air, inspect and clean the optical instruments 
frequently to avoid rust and corrosion. A light film of oil is beneficial. 

• Thoroughly dry and lightly oil optical instruments because perspiration 
from the hands is a contributing factor to rusting. 

TROUBLESHOOTING THE SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM 

2-116. Table 2-1 lists some possible SWS malfunctions, causes, and 
corrective actions. If a malfunction is not correctable, the complete system 
must be sent to the proper maintenance/supply channel for return to the 
contractor. (TM 9-1005-306-10 provides further shipment information.) 

Table 2-1. M24 SWS Malfunctions and Corrective Actions 



MALFUNCTIONS CAUSES CORRECTIONS 


Fail to Fire 


Safety in "S" position. 


Move safety to "F" position. 


Defective ammunition. 


Eject round. 


Firing pin damaged. 


Change firing pin assembly. 


Firing pin binds. 


Change firing pin assembly. 


Firing pin protrudes. 


Change firing pin assembly. 


Firing control out of adjustment. 


Turn complete system in to the maintenance/ 
supply channel for return to contractor. 


Trigger out of adjustment. 


Turn in as above. 


Trigger binds on trigger guard. 


Turn in as above. 


Trigger does not retract. 


Turn in as above. 


Firing pin does not remain in cocked 
position with bolt closed. 


Turn in as above. 


Bolt Binds 


Action screw protrudes into bolt track. 


Turn in as above. 


Scope base screw protrudes into bolt 
track. 


Turn in as above. 


Fail to Feed 


Bolt override of cartridge. 


Ensure bolt is pulled fully toward the rear. 


Cartridge stems chamber. 


Pull bolt fully rearward; remove stemmed 
cartridge from ejection port area; reposition 
cartridge fully in the magazine. 


Magazine follower in backward. 


Remove magazine spring and reinstall with 
long-leg follower. 


Weak or broken magazine spring. 


Replace spring. 


Fail to Eject 


Broken ejector. 


Turn complete weapon system in to the 
maintenance/supply channel for return to 
contractor. 


Fouled ejector plunger. 


Inspect and clean bolt face; if malfunction 
continues, turn in as above. 


Fail to Extract 


Broken extractor. 


Turn in as above. 


Bolt Release 
Fails 


Bolt release mechanism fouled. 


Disassemble rifle. Remove and clean bolt 
release mechanism. Lubricate with graphite 
lube. 



2-41 



Chapter 3 

Marksmanship Training 

The role of the SF sniper is to engage targets with precision rifle fire. A 
sniper's skill with a rifle is the most vital skill in the art of sniping. This 
skill is extremely perishable. Sniper marksmanship differs from basic 
rifle marksmanship only in the degree of expertise. The sniper, using 
basic and advanced marksmanship as building blocks, must adapt the 
conventional methods of firing to meet his unique requirements. The 
sniper must make first-round hits in a field environment under less than 
ideal conditions and become an expert in marksmanship. The 
fundamentals are developed into fixed and correct firing habits that 
become instinctive. This reaction is known as the "conditioning of the 
nervous system." 

Snipers should maintain their proficiency at the following minimum 
standards: 

• 90 percent first-round hits on stationary targets at ranges of 600 
meters. 

• 50 percent first-round hits on stationary targets at ranges 
from 600 to 900 meters. 

• 70 percent first-round hits on moving targets at ranges to 300 
meters. 

• 70 percent first-round hits on snap targets at ranges to 400 meters. 



FIRING POSITIONS 

3-1. A sniper's firing position must be solid, stable, and durable. Solid— not 
influenced by outside factors; stable— for minimized movement of the 
weapon; and durable— able to hold the weapon and position for an extended 
period of time to accomplish the mission. Unlike the target shooter who must 
fire from different positions of varying stability to satisfy marksmanship 
rules, the sniper searches for the most stable position possible. He is not 
trying to see if he can hit the target; he must know he can hit the target. A 
miss could mean a failed mission or his life. A good position enables the 
sniper to relax and concentrate when preparing to fire. 

3-2. Whether prone, kneeling, or standing, the sniper's position should be 
supported by firing rests or other means. Properly employed, the sling, in all 
but the standing position, provides a stable, supported position. Firing from a 
rest helps to minimize human factors such as heartbeat, muscular tension, 
and fatigue. A rest can support both the front and the rear of the rifle, as in 
the case of bench rest firing. 



3-1 



FM 3-05.222 



3-3. Regardless of the rest selected (tree, dirt, sandbag), the sniper will 
prevent any objects from contacting the barrel. During the firing process, the 
barrel vibrates like a tuning fork and any disturbance to this harmonic 
motion will result in an erratic shot. Also, a hard support will normally cause 
the rifle to change its POL The sniper can help eliminate this problem by 
firing from objects of similar hardness. The sniper's hat, glove, or sock filled 
with sand or dirt can be placed between the rifle forestock and firing support 
to add consistency from range to combat. A support or rest greatly helps the 
sniper and he must use one whenever possible. Accuracy with a rifle is a 
product of consistency, and a rest aids consistency to firing positions. 

3-4. On the battlefield, the sniper must assume a steady firing position with 
maximum use of cover and concealment. Considering the variables of terrain, 
vegetation, and the tactical situation, the sniper can use many variations of 
the basic positions. When assuming a firing position, he should adhere to the 
following basic rules: 

• Use the prone position or its variations whenever possible because it is 
the most stable. 

• Use any solid support available, when the bipod is not available or too 
short. 

• Do not touch the support with the weapon's barrel since it interferes 
with the barrel harmonics and creates shot displacement. 

• Use a cushion between the weapon and the support when not using the 
bipod. 

• Do not allow the side of the weapon to rest against the support. This 
position will have an effect on the weapon during recoil and may affect 
the POL 

• Never cant the weapon while firing or aiming. The sniper should tilt 
his head to the weapon, not the weapon to his head. 

ELEMENTS OF A GOOD POSITION 

3-5. Three elements of a good position are bone support, muscular 
relaxation, and a natural point of aim (POA) on the aiming point. The 
following paragraphs explain each element. 



Bone Support 



3-6. Proper bone support is a learned process; only through practice (dry fire, 
live fire) will the sniper gain proficiency in this skill. Positions provide 
foundations for the rifle, and good foundations for the rifle are important to 
the sniper. When a sniper establishes a weak foundation (position) for the 
rifle, the position will not withstand the repeated recoil of the rifle in a string 
of rapid-fire shots or deliver the support necessary for precise firing. 
Therefore, the sniper will not be able to apply the marksmanship 
fundamentals properly. 



Muscular Relaxation 



3-7. The sniper must learn to relax as much as possible in the various firing 
positions. Undue muscle strain or tension causes trembling, which is 
transmitted to the rifle. However, in all positions, a certain amount of 



3-2 



FM 3-05.222 



controlled muscular tension is needed. For example, in a rapid-fire position 
there should be pressure on the stock weld. Only through practice and 
achieving a natural POA will the sniper learn muscular relaxation. 

Natural Point of Aim on tlie Aiming Point 

3-8. In aiming, the rifle becomes an extension of the body. Therefore, the 
sniper must adjust the body position until the rifle points naturally at the 
target. To avoid using muscles to aim at a target, the sniper must shift his 
entire firing position to move his natural POA to the desired POL The sniper 
reaches this point by— 

• Assuming a good steady position. 

• Closing both eyes and relaxing as if preparing to fire. 

• Opening both eyes to see where the weapon is pointing. 

• Leaving the nonfiring elbow in place and shifting the legs, torso, and 
firing elbow left or right. 

• Repeating the process until the weapon points naturally at the desired 
POL 

If the sniper must push or pull the weapon onto target, he is not on his 
natural POA regardless of how small a movement is involved. Thus, muscle 
relaxation is not achieved, either. 

3-9. The sniper can change the elevation of a natural POA by leaving the 
elbows in place and sliding the body forward or rearward. This movement 
causes the muzzle of the weapon to drop or rise, respectively. Minor 
adjustments to the natural POA can be made by the right leg (right-handed 
sniper). The sniper moves the lower leg in the opposite direction that he 
wants the sight to go. Another consideration is to maintain a natural POA 
after the weapon has been fired; therefore, proper bolt operation becomes 
critical. The sniper must practice reloading while in the prone position 
without removing the butt of the weapon from the firing shoulder. 

COMMON FACTORS TO ALL POSITIONS 

3-10. Establishing a mental checklist of steady position elements greatly 
enhances the sniper's ability to achieve a first-round hit. This checklist 
includes the factors discussed below that are inherent to a good firing 
position. 



Nonfiring Hand 



3-11. The sniper should use the nonfiring hand as a support. The nonfiring 
hand should either support the forestock or the butt of the weapon. The 
sniper should never grasp the forestock with the nonfiring hand. He should 
let the weapon rest in the nonfiring hand. If he grasps the weapon, the recoil 
and muscle tremor will cause erratic shots. If the sniper uses the nonfiring 
hand to support the butt, he should place the hand next to the chest and rest 
the tip of the butt on it. He then balls his hand into a fist to raise the butt or 
loosen the fist to lower the weapon's butt. The sniper can also use a firing 
sock in place of the fist. He must take care not to squeeze his fist as the 
trigger is squeezed. The muzzle will drop due to the rising of the stock 



3-3 



FM 3-05.222 



causing a low shot. The sniper must not rest the nonfiring hand or fingers on 
the shooting side shoulder. Doing so will increase the transmission of the 
heartbeat to the weapon and destabilize the position. 



Placement of the Rifle Butt 



Firing Hand 



Elbows 



Stock Weld 



3-12. The sniper should place the rifle butt firmly in the pocket of the 
shoulder. Proper placement of the butt helps to steady the rifle and lessen 
recoil. The key to the correct rifle-butt method is consistent rearward pressure 
by the firing hand and correct placement in the shoulder. A hard hold versus a 
very light hold may change bullet impact. Again, consistency is important. A 
firm hold is necessary and using a shooting sock may cause a light hold and 
erratic groups. 



3-13. The sniper should grasp the small of the stock firmly but not rigidly 
with the firing hand. He then exerts pressure rearward, mainly with the 
middle and ring fingers of the firing hand. Heshould not "choke" the small of 
the stock. A choking-type grip can cause a twisting action during recoil. 
The sniper must not steer the rifle with the hand or shoulder. He should 
make large windage adjustments by altering the natural POA, not by leaning 
or steering the rifle, which will cause the rifle to steer in that direction during 
recoil. He can wrap his thumb over the top of the small of the stock and use it 
to grasp, or he can lay it alongside or on top of the stock in a relaxed manner. 
He places the index finger on the bottom or the trigger, ensuring that it 
does not touch the stock of the weapon and does not disturb the lay of 
the rifle when the trigger is pulled. The sniper must maintain steady 
rearward pressure on the weapon when firing. This tension will help steady 
the weapon. 



3-14. Each sniper must find a comfortable position that provides the 
greatest support. How a sniper uses his elbows will vary with each individual. 



3-15. The stock weld is the point of firm contact between the sniper's cheek 
and the stock. The sniper places his cheek on the stock in a position that gives 
proper eye relief. The stock weld will differ from position to position. 
However, due to the position of the telescope on the sniper rifle and the 
necessity to have eye relief, the sniper may not get a normal stock weld. An 
important factor is to get firm contact so that the head and weapon recoil as 
one unit, thereby facilitating rapid recovery. The point on the weapon should 
be a natural point where the sniper can maintain eye relief. The sniper 
should put his cheek in the same place on the stock with each shot. A change 
in stock weld tends to cause misalignment with the sights, thus creating 
misplaced shots. This change is more of a problem when using iron sights 
than with the telescopic sight that is properly adjusted. 

3-16. Once the sniper obtains a spot or stock weld, he should use this same 
positioning for each shot. He must stay with the weapon, not lift his head 
from the stock during recoil, and maintain the spot or cheek weld. During the 
initial period of firing, the cheek may become tender and sore. To prevent this 
discomfort and to prevent flinching, the sniper should press the face firmly 



3-4 



FM 3-05.222 



against the stock. Moving the head will only give the weapon a chance to 
build up speed before it impacts with the sniper's cheek. 

TYPES OF POSITIONS 

3-17. Due to the importance of delivering precision fire, the sniper makes 
maximum use of artificial support and eliminates any variable that may 
prevent adhering to the basic rules. He uses the following types of positions 
when engaging the target. 

Prone Supported Position 

3-18. The sniper first selects his firing position. He picks a position that gives 
the best observation, fields of fire, and concealment. He then assumes a 
comfortable prone position and prepares a firing platform for his rifle (Figure 3-1). 
The sniper should use the bipod whenever possible. The rifle platform should be 
as low to the ground as possible. The rifle should rest on the platform in a 
balanced position to the rear of the upper sling swivel and forward of the floor 
plate. The sn i per must take care to ensu re that the operati ng parts, the magazi ne, 
and the barrel do not touch the support, as contact will cause erratic shots. He 
then forms a wide, low bipod with his elbows. He grips the small of the stock with 
his firing hand, thumb over or alongside the small of the stock and the forefinger 
(just in front of the first joint) on the trigger, and pullsthebutt of the rifle into his 
firing shoulder. He then places the nonfiring hand under the toe of the stock, 
palm down, and places the lower sling swivel into the web of the thumb and 
forefinger. The sniper can then adjust his fingers and thumb of the nonfiring 
hand by curling the fingers and thumb into a fist or relaxing the fingers and 
thumb and laying them flat. In this manner the sniper can raise or lower the 
barrel onto the target. He then relaxes into a comfortable supported position, 
removing his nonfiring hand from the stock when necessary to manipulate the 
scope. He can reload single rounds into the M24 with the firing hand while 
supporting the rifle at the toe of the stock with the nonfiring hand. When firing 
from this position, the sniper must have a clear field of fire because the shot may 
become erratic if the bullet strikes a leaf, grass, or a twig. For extended periods in 
the prone position, the sniper should cock the firing side leg up to relieve pressure 
off of the abdomen and reduce heartbeat pulse. 




Figure 3-1. Prone Supported Position 



3-5 



FM 3-05.222 



Hawkins Position 



3-19. The sniper uses this position when he needs a low silhouette. It is very 
useful when firing from a small depression, a slight rise in the ground, or 
from a roof (Figure 3-2). However, the sniper should make sure there are no 
obstructions above the boreline but below line of sight by removing the bolt 
and observing the target through the bore. This position is the steadiest of all 
firing positions. Concealment is also greatly aided by using the Hawkins 
position because the sniper is lying flat on the ground. The sniper will not use 
this position on level ground because he cannot raise the muzzle high enough 
to aim at the target. 

3-20. The Hawkins position is similar to the prone supported position, 
except that the support of the weapon is provided by the nonfiring hand. The 
sniper grasps the front sling swivel with the nonfiring hand, forming a fist to 
support the front of the weapon. He makes sure the wrist and elbow are 
locked straight, and the recoil is taken up entirely by the nonfiring arm. 
Otherwise, his face will absorb the weapon's recoil. The sniper lies flat on the 
ground, either directly behind the rifle (Canadian version) or angled off to one 
side (British version). It will appear as though he is lying on the rifle. He can 
make minor adjustments in muzzle elevation by tightening or relaxing the 
fist of the nonfiring hand. If more elevation is required, he can place a 
support under the nonfiring fist. 

3-21. If using the Canadian version, the sniper places the butt of the rifle in 
the shoulder. If using the British version, he tucks the butt under the armpit. 
The sniper should always use what is most comfortable. 




•u^ 












Figure 3-2. Hawkins Position 
Sling-Supported Prone Position 

3-22. The sniper faces the target squarely with the sling attached to the 
nonfiring arm above the bleep and lies down facing the target, legs straight to 
the rear (Figure 3-3, page 3-7). He extends the nonfiring elbow so it is in line 
with the body and the target and as far under the rifle as comfortable. With 



3-6 



FM 3-05.222 



the firing hand, he pushes forward on the butt of the stock and fits it into the 
pocket of the shoulder. The sniper then places the firing side elbow down 
wherever it feels natural and grasps the grip of the stock, pulling it firmly 
into the shoulder. He lets his cheek rest naturally on the stock where he can 
see through the sights and acquire the target. He draws his firing side knee 
up to a comfortable position so as to take the weight off of the diaphragm. He 
can obtain a natural POA by adjusting the elevation. This can be done by 
sliding his body forward or rearward and adjusting his breathing. 




Figure 3-3. Sling-Supported Prone Position 

Prone Backward Firing Position (Creedmore Firing Position) 

3-23. The terrain or situation dictates when to use this firing position. It 
provides a higher angle of fire as required when firing uphill and other 
positions are inadequate. Also, the sniper can use this position when he must 
engage a target to his rear but cannot turn around because of the enemy 
situation or hide constrictions. The sniper assumes a comfortable position on 
his side with both legs bent for support and stability. He places the butt of the 
SWS into the pocket of his shoulder where it meets the armpit. He attempts 
to support his head for better stability and comfort. The small exit pupil of 
the telescope requires the sniper to maintain a solid hold and center the exit 
pupil in the field of the telescope to minimize the errors in sight alignment. 
This is an extreme firing position and not recommended under most 
circumstances. 



3-7 



FM 3-05.222 



Sitting Supported Position 

3-24. To assume this position, the sniper prepares a firing platform for the 
rifle or rests the rifle on the raised portion of the position. If a platform is not 
available, then the sniper can use the observer to improvise this position 
(Figure 3-4). The sniper must ensure the barrel or operating parts do not touch 
the support. The sniper assumes a comfortable sitting position to the rear of the 
rifle, grasps the small of the stock with the firing hand, and places the butt of 
the rifle into the shoulder pocket. He places the nonfiring hand on the small of 
the stock to assist in getting a stock weld and the proper eye relief. 




n ■(•, 





Figure 3-4. Sitting Supported Position 

3-25. The sniper rests the elbows on the inside of the knees in a manner 
similar to the standard crossed-leg position. He changes position by varying 
the position of the elbows on the inside of the knees or by varying the body 
position. This position may be tiring; therefore, the firing mission should be 
alternated frequently between the sniper team members. 

Sling-Supported Sitting Position 

3-26. The sniper faces his body 30 degrees away from the target in the 
direction of the firing hand. He sits down and crosses his ankles so that the 
nonfiring side ankle is across the firing side ankle (Figure 3-5, page 3-9). He 
then adjusts the sling for the sitting position. The sniper uses his firing hand 
palm to place the butt of the stock into the shoulder whileallowing the weapon 
to rest on the nonfiring hand. He uses his firing hand to pull the stock firmly 
into his shoulder. He rests his elbows inside the knees and leans his body 
forward. The sniper must not have direct contact between the points of the 
elbows and the knees. Avoiding direct contact ensures that the sniper uses bone 
support. He holds the stock high enough in the shoulder to require only a slight 
tilt of the head to acquire the sights, without canting the weapon. He lowers 



3-8 



FM 3-05.222 



and raises the muzzle by moving the nonfiring hand forward and backward on 
the forestock. The sniper holds his breath when the sights are on the target. 

3-27. The sniper assumes the crossed-leg position in the same way as the 
sitting position, but he faces 45 to 60 degrees away from the target and 
crosses his legs instead of his ankles. 




Figure 3-5. Sling-Supported Sitting Position 

Supported Kneeling Position 

3-28. The sniper uses the supported kneeling position when it is necessary to 
quickly assume a position and there is insufficient time to assume the prone position 
(Figure 3-6). This position can also be used on level ground or on ground that 
si opes upward where fields of fire or observation preclude using the prone position. 




Figure 3-6. Supported Kneeling Position 



3-9 



FM 3-05.222 



3-29. The sniper assumes this position in much the same way as the 
standard kneeling position, except he uses a tree or some other immovable 
object for support, cover, or concealment. He gains support by contact with 
the calf and knee of the leading leg, the upper forearm, or the shoulder. He 
might also rest the rifle on the hand lightly against the support. As with 
other supported positions, the sniper ensures that the operating parts and 
the barrel do not touch the support. Since the sniper's area of support is 
greatly reduced, he must maximize bone support. 

3-30. This position differs between right- and left-handed snipers. Right- 
handed snipers use the following techniques and left-handed snipers do the 
opposite. The sniper faces 45 degrees to the right of the direction of the 
target. He kneels down and places the right knee on the ground, keeping the 
left leg as vertical as possible. He sits back on the right heel, placing it as 
directly under the spinal column as possible. A variation is to turn the toe 
inward and sit squarely on the right foot. The sniper grasps the small of the 
stock with the firing hand, and cradles the fore-end of the weapon in a crook 
formed with the left arm. He places the butt of the weapon in the pocket of 
the shoulder, then places the meaty underside of the left elbow on top of the 
left knee. Reaching under the weapon with the left hand, the sniper lightly 
grasps the firing arm. He relaxes forward and into the support, using the left 
shoulder as a contact point. This movement reduces transmission of the pulse 
beat into the sight picture. The sniper can use a tree, building, or vehicle for 
support. 

Sling-Supported Kneeling Position 

3-31. If vegetation height presents a problem, the sniper can raise his 
kneeling position by using the rifle sling (Figure 3-7, page 3-11). He takes this 
position by performing the first three steps for a kneeling supported position. 
With the leather sling mounted to the weapon, the sniper turns the sling one- 
quarter turn to the left. The lower part of the sling then forms a loop. He 
places his left arm through the loop, pulls the sling up the arm, and places it 
on the upper arm above the bleep. He can tighten the sling on the arm by 
manipulating the upper and lower parts of the sling, if time permits. The 
sniper then rotates his arm in a clockwise motion around the sling and under 
the rifle with the sling secured to the upper arm. He places the fore-end of the 
stock in the "V" formed by the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. He can 
relax the left arm and let the sling support the weight of the weapon. Then he 
places the flat part of the rifle behind the point of the left elbow on top of the 
left knee. To add stability, the sniper can use his left hand to pull back along 
the fore-end of the rifle toward the trigger guard. 



3-10 



FM 3-05.222 



Tm^^^^W 




^-^''.' 









Figure 3-7. Sling-Supported Kneeling Position 



Squatting Position 



3-32. The sniper uses the squatting position during hasty engagements or 
when other stable positions would be unacceptable due to inadequate height 
or concealment. He assumes this position by facing 45 degrees away from his 
direction of fire, putting his feet shoulder-width apart, and simply squatting. 
He can either rest his elbows on his knees or wrap them over his body. The 
sniper prefers this position when making engagements from rotary-winged 
aircraft as it reduces the amount of body contact with the inherent vibrations 
of the aircraft. Body configuration will determine the most comfortable and 
stable technique to use. The sniper can also use solid supports to lean up 
against or to lean back into. 

Supported Standing Position 

3-33. The sniper uses this position under the same circumstances as the 
supported kneeling position, where time, field of fire, or observation preclude 
the use of more stable positions. It is the least steady of the supported 
positions; the sniper should use it only as a last resort. 

3-34. The sniper assumes this position in much the same manner as the 
standard standing position, except he uses a tree or some other immovable 
object for support. He gains support by contact with the leg, body, or arm. He 
might also rest the rifle lightly against the support. The sniper ensures the 
support makes no contact with operating parts or the barrel of the rifle. 



3-11 



FM 3-05.222 



3-35. This position also allows the sniper to use horizontal support, such as a 
wall or ledge. The sniper locates a solid object for support. He avoids branches 
becausethey tend to sway when the wind is present. He places the fore-end of 
the weapon on top of the support and the butt of the weapon into the pocket 
of the shoulder. The sniper forms a "V" with the thumb and forefinger of the 
nonfiring hand. He places the nonfiring hand, palm facing away, against the 
support with the fore-end of the weapon resting in the "V" of the hand. This 
hold steadies the weapon and allows quick recovery from recoil. 

3-36. The sniper can also use a vertical support such as a tree, telephone 
pole, corner of building, or vehicle (Figure 3-8). He locates the stable support, 
faces 45 degrees to the right of target, and places the palm of the nonfiring 
hand at arm's length against the support. He then locks the arm straight, lets 
the lead leg buckle, and places body weight against the nonfiring hand. He 
should keep the trail leg straight. The sniper places the fore-end of the 
weapon in the "V" formed by extending the thumb of the nonfiring hand. He 
should exert more pressure to the rear with the firing hand. 




Figure 3-8. Vertically Supported Standing Position 

Standing Unsupported or Off-Hand Position 

3-37. This position is the least desirable because it is least stable and most 
exposed of all the positions (Figure 3-9, page 3-13). The situation could 
dictate that the sniper use this position. The sniper faces perpendicular to the 
target, facing in the direction of his firing hand, with his legs spread about 
shoulder-width apart. He grasps the pistol grip of the stock with his firing 
hand and supports the fore-end with the nonfiring hand. He raises the stock 
of the weapon so the toe of the stock fits into the pocket of the shoulder and 
the weapon is lying on its side away from the body. The sniper rotates the 
weapon until it is vertical and the firing elbow is parallel with the ground. He 
pulls the nonfiring elbow into the side to support the weapon with the arm 
and rib cage. He then tilts his head slightly toward the weapon to obtain a 
natural spot or cheek weld and to align his eye with the sights. If his eye is 
not aligned with the sights, he adjusts his head position until the front sight 



3-12 



FM 3-05.222 



and the target can be seen through the rear sight. Once in position, the sniper 
looks through his sights and moves his entire lx)dy toget the sights on target. 
He does not muscle the weapon onto the target. The sniper rests the rifle on a 
support to relax his arm muscles after firing the shot and following through. 




Figure 3-9. Standing Unsupported or Off-Hand Position 

Other Supported Positions 

3-38. During fundamental training, positions are taught in a step-by-step 
process. The sniper follows a series of precise movements until he obtains the 
correct position. Repetitive training ensures that he knows and correctly 
applies all the factors that can assist him in holding the rifle steady. As the 
sniper perfects the standard and supported positions, he can then use his 
ingenuity to devise other supported positions. Through practice he will 
gradually become accustomed to the feel of these positions and will know 
instinctively when his position is correct. This response is particularly 



3-13 



FM 3-05.222 



important in combat because the sniper must be able to assume positions 
rapidly and stabilize the position by adapting it to any available artificial 
support. Figure 3-10 lists some significant nonstandard supported positions. 
The sniper must remember to adapt the position to his body so the position is 
solid, stable, and durable. 



Foxhole-Supported Position 


Used primarily in prepared defense areas where there is time for 
preparation. In this position, the sling, sandbags, or other 
material may be used to provide a stable firing platform. 


Tree-Supported Position 


Used when observation and firing into an area cannot be 
accomplished from the ground. When using this position, it is 
important to select a tree that is inconspicuous, is strong enough 
to support the sniper's weight, and affords concealment. 

Remember: Avenues of escape are limited when in a tree. 


Bench Rest Position 


Used when firing from a building, a cave, or a deeply shaded 
area. Sniper can use a built-up platform or table with a sitting aid 
and a rifle platform for stability. This position is very stable and 
will not tire the sniper. In this position, the sniper should stay 
deep in the shadows to prevent detection by the enemy. 



Figure 3-10. Nonstandard Supported Positions 

FIELD-EXPEDIENT WEAPON SUPPORT 

3-39. Support of the weapon is critical to the sniper's success in engaging 
targets. Unlike a well-equipped firing range with sandbags for weapon 
support, the sniper will encounter situations where weapon support relies on 
common sense and imagination. The sniper should practice using the foil owing 
supports at every opportunity and select the one that best suits his needs. He 
must train as if in combat to avoid confusion and self-doubt. While he should 
use the Harris Bipod when possible, the following items are commonly used 
as field-expedient weapon supports: 



Sand Sock 



3-40. The sniper may use the sand sock when delivering precision fire at 
long ranges. He uses a standard-issue, wool sock filled one-half to three- 
quarters full of sand or rice and knotted off. He places it under the rear-sling 
swivel when in the prone supported position for added stability. By limiting 
minor movements and reducing pulse beat, the sniper can concentrate on 
trigger control and aiming. He uses the nonfiring hand to grip the sand sock, 
rather than the rear sling swivel. The sniper makes minor changes in muzzle 
elevation by squeezing or relaxing his grip on the sock. He also uses the sand 
sock as padding between the weapon and a rigid support. The sniper must 
remember not to use a loose hold while firing the weapon. 

NOTE: When using the sand sock, the sniper must be sure to grip the 
weapon firmly and hold it against his shoulder. 



3-14 



FM 3-05.222 



Rucksack 



Buttpack 



Sandbag 



Tripod 



Cross Sticks 



Forked Stake 



SLINGS 



3-41. If the sniper is in terrain bare of any natural support, he may use his 
rucksack. He must consider the height and presence of rigid objects within 
the rucksack. The rucksack must conform to weapon contours to add stability. 



3-42. The sniper can use a buttpack if the rucksack would give too high of a 
profile. He must also remember to consider the contents of the buttpack if he 
decides to change. 



3-43. A sandbag is the simplest field-expedient support. The sniper can fill 
and empty a sandbag on site. 



3-44. The sniper can build a field-expedient tripod by tying together three 
12-inch-long sticks with 550 cord or the equivalent (Figure 3-11, page 3-15). 
When tying the sticks, he wraps the cord at the center point and leaves 
enough slack to fold the legs out into a triangular base. Then he places the 
fore-end of the weapon between the three uprights. The juncture should be 
padded with a sand sock. A small camera table tripod padded with a sock full 
of sand or dirt can also be used. 



3-45. The sniper can build a field-expedient bipod by tying together two 
12-inch-long sticks, thick enough to support the weight of the weapon (Figure 
3-11, page 3-16). Using 550 cord or the equivalent, he ties the sticks at the 
center point, leaving enough slack to fold them out in a scissorlike manner. 
He then places the weapon between the two uprights. The bipod is not as 
stable as other field-expedient items, and it should be used only in the 
absence of other techniques. The sniper should use a sling and grip the 
crossed stick juncture for stability. 



3-46. The tactical situation determines the use of the forked stake (Figure 
3-11, page 3-16). Unless the sniper can drive a forked stake into the ground, 
this is the least desirable of the techniques; that is, he must use his nonfiring 
hand to hold the stake in an upright position. Delivering long-range precision 
fi re is a near-i mpossi bi I ity due to the unsteadi ness of the position. 



3-47. The M1907 National Match leather sling is superior to the standard 
M16 web sling when used as a firing aid. Snipers who use a sling when firing 
should be aware of the possibility of a zero change. If the weapon is zeroed 
using a sling support, the POI may change when or if the sling is removed. 
This change is most noticeable in rifles with stocks that contact the barrel, 
such as the M21. The sling must be adjusted for each position. Each position 
will have a different point in which the sling is at the correct tightness. The 
sniper counts the number of holes in the sling and writes these down so that 



3-15 



FM 3-05.222 



he can properly adjust the sling from position to position. An acceptable 
alternative is the cotton web M14 sling with a metal slide adjuster. The 
sniper must modify the sling for use. 




Figure 3-11. Tripod, Cross Sticks, and Forked Field-Expedient Weapon Support 



3-16 



FM 3-05.222 



TEAM FIRING TECHNIQUES 

3-48. A successful sniper team consists of two intelligent and highly 
versatile members— the sniper and the observer. Each must be able to move 
and survive in a combat environment. The sniper's special mission is to 
deliver precision fire on targets that may not easily be engaged by 
conventional-fighting forces. The team must also— 

• Calculate the range to the target. 

• Determine the effects of the environment on ballistics. 

• M ake necessary sight changes. 

• Observe bullet impact. 

• Quickly critique performance before any subsequent shots. 

3-49. These tasks call for a coordinated, efficient team effort. Mission 
success occurs only if the sniper and observer thoroughly understand and 
react in a timely manner to one another. 

SNIPER AND OBSERVER RESPONSIBILITIES 

3-50. Each member of the sniper team has specific responsibilities when 
engaged in eliminating a target. Only through repeated practice can the team 
begin to function properly. Although responsibilities of team members differ, 
they are equally important. 

3-51. The sniper- 
Builds a steady, comfortable position. 
Locates and identifies the target designated by the observer. 
Reads the mi I height of the target and gives this to the observer. 

Makes the elevation adjustments given by the observer to engage the 
target. 

N otifies observer of readi ness to fi re. 

Takes aim at the designated target as directed by the observer. 

Controls breathing at natural respiratory pause. 

Executes proper trigger control. 

Follows through each action. 

Makes an accurate shot call immediately after the shot. 

Prepares to fire subsequent shots, if necessary. 

3-52. The observer— 

Properly positions himself so as not to disturb the sniper's position. 

Selects an appropriate target. The target closest to the team presents 
the greatest threat. If multipletargets are visible at various ranges, the 
engagement of closer targets allows the sniper to confirm his zero and 
ensure his equipment is functioning properly. The observer must 
consider existing weather conditions before trying a shot at a distant 
target (effects of weather increase with range). 



3-17 



FM 3-05.222 



• U ses the mi I readi ng from the sni per to compute the range to the target 
and confirms by eye or other means. The observer communicates the 
elevation adjustment required to the sniper. 

• Calculates the effect of existing weather conditions on ballistics. 
Weather conditions include detecting elements of weather (wind, light, 
temperature, and humidity) that will affect bullet impact and 
calculating the mil hold-off to ensure a first-round hit. 

• Reports elevation and parallax adjustment to the sniper and when the 
sniper is ready, gives the windage in a mil hold-off. 

• Uses the spotting telescope for shot observation. He aims and adjusts 
the telescope so that both the downrange indicators and the target 
are visible. 

• Critiques performance. He receives the sniper's shot call and compares 
sight adjustment data with bullet impact if the target is hit. He gives 
the sniper an adjustment and selects a new target if changes are 
needed. If the target is missed, he follows the above procedure after 
receiving the sniper's shot call so that an immediate mil hold and 
follow-up shot will ensure a target hit. 

SNIPER AND OBSERVER POSITIONING 

3-53. The sniper should find a place on the ground that allows him to build a 
steady, comfortable position with the best cover, concealment, and visibility of 
the target area. Once established, the observer should position himself out of 
the sniper's field of view on his firing side. 

3-54. The closer the observer gets his spotting telescope to the sniper's gun 
target line, the easier it is to follow the trace (path) of the bullet and observe 
impact. A 4 to 5 o'clock position (7 to 8 o'clock for left-handed snipers) off the 
firing shoulder and close to (but not touching) the sniper is best (Figure 3-12). 



■'■■ ■■«»- r-i 



1B^ 



bi^' 









.•* 



, K'- 



■■-ttt^ 






Figure 3-12. Positioning of the Observer's Spotting Telescope to the Sniper 



3-18 



FM 3-05.222 



SIGHTING AND AIMING 

3-55. The sniper's use of iron sights serves mainly as a back-up system to his 
optical sight. However, iron sights are an excellent means of training for the 
sniper. The sniper is expected to be proficient in the use of iron sights before 
he obtains formal sniper training and he must remain proficient. By using 
iron sights during training, the sniper is forced to maintain his concentration 
on the fundamentals of firing. For a review of basic rifle marksmanship, see 
FM 23-9, M16A1 and M16A2 Rifle Marksmanship. While this manual is good 
for a basic review, some modifications in firing techniques must be made. 

3-56. The sniper begins the aiming process by assuming a firing position and 
aligning the rifle with the target. He should point the rifle naturally at the 
desired POA. If his muscles are used to adjust the weapon onto the POA, they 
will automatically relax as the rifle fires, and the rifle will begin to move 
toward its natural POA. Because this movement begins just before the 
weapon discharges, the rifle is moving as the bullet leaves the muzzle. This 
movement causes displaced shots with no apparent cause (recoil disguises the 
movement). By adjusting the weapon and body as a single unit, rechecking, 
and readjusting as needed, the sniper achieves a true natural POA. Once the 
position is established, the sniper then aims the weapon at the exact point on 
the target. Aiming involves three factors: eye relief, sight alignment, and 
sight picture. 



EYE RELIEF 



3-57. Eye relief is the distance from the sniper's firing eye to the rear sight 
or the rear of the telescope tube (Figure 3-13, page 3-20). When using iron 
sights, the sniper ensures that this distance remains constant from shot to 
shot to preclude changing what he views through the rear sight. However, 
relief will vary from firing position to firing position and from sniper to sniper 
according to— 

• The sniper's neck length. 

• His angle of head approach to the stock. 

• The depth of his shoulder pocket. 

• The position of the butt of the stock in the shoulder. 

• His firing position. 

3-58. This distance is more rigidly controlled with telescopic sights than 
with iron sights. The sniper must take care to prevent eye injury caused by 
the rear sight or the telescope tube striking his eyebrow during recoil. 
Regardless of the sighting system he uses, he must place his head as upright 
as possible with his firing eye located directly behind the rear portion of the 
sighting system. This head placement also allows the muscles surrounding 
his eye to relax. I ncorrect head placement causes the sniper to look out of the 
top or corner of his eye, which can result in blurred vision or eyestrain. The 
sniper can avoid eyestrain by not staring through the iron or telescopic sights 
for extended periods. The best aid to consistent eye relief is maintaining the 
same stock weld from shot to shot; because as the eye relief changes, a change 
in sight alignment will occur. Maintaining eye relief is a function of the 
position and stock weld use. Normal eye relief from the rear sight or scope on 



3-19 



FM 3-05.222 



the M 24 is 2 to 3 inches. Once the sniper is ready to fire, it is imperative that 
he concentrates on the front sight or reticle and not the target. 




Figure 3-13. Eye Relief 



SIGHT ALIGNMENT 



3-59. Sight alignment is the most critical factor in aiming. An error in sight 
alignment increases proportionately with range and will result in increased 
misses. The M24 has a hooded front sight that simplifies sight alignment. The 
front sight hood is centered in the rear sight aperture. 

3-60. With iron sights, sight alignment is the relationship between the front 
and rear sights as seen by the sniper (Figure 3-14, page 3-21). The sniper 
centers the front sight post horizontally and vertically within the rear 
aperture. (Centering the two circles is the easiest way for the eye to align the 
front and rear sights. This method allows the sniper to be consistent in blade 
location within the rear sight.) With telescopic sights, sight alignment is the 
relationship between the crosshairs and a full field of view as seen by the 
sniper. The sniper must place his head so that a full field of view fills the 
tube, with no dark shadows or crescents to cause misplaced shots. He centers 
the reticle in a full field of view, ensuring the vertical crosshair is straight up 
and down so that the rifle is not canted. Again, the center is easiest for the 
sniper to locate and allows for consistent reticle placement. 



3-20 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 3-14. Proper Sight Alignment With the M24 Sniper Weapon Iron Sight System 



SIGHT PICTURE 



3-61. With iron sights, the sight picture is the correlation between the front 
sight blade, the rear aperture, and the target as seen by the sniper 
(Figure 3-15). The sniper aligns his sights and pi aces the top edge of the blade 
in the center (center hold) of the largest visible mass of the target (disregard 
the head and use the center of the torso). With telescopic sights, sight picture 
is the correlation between the reticle, full field of view, and the target as seen 
by the sniper (Figure 3-16, page 3-22). The sniper centers the reticle in a full 
field of view. He then places the reticle center on the largest visible mass of 
the target (as in iron sights). The center of mass of the target is easiest for the 
sniper to locate, and it surrounds the intended POI with a maximum amount 
of target area. When aiming, the sniper concentrates on the front sight, or 
reticle, not the target. A clear front sight or focusing on the crosshairs is 
critical to detecting errors in sight alignment and is more important than the 
sight picture. 




Figure 3-15. Correlation of Sight Picture Using Iron Sights 



3-21 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 3-16. Correlation of Sight Picture Using Telescopic Sights 

3-62. When aiming, the sniper has the following choices of whereto hold the 
front sight: 

• Center hdd. This hold places the front sight on the desired POL The 
problem with this hold is that the front sight blocks part of the target. 
This hold is probably the best sight picture for combat use 

because it is the most "natural" for U.S. Army-trained soldiers. 
Variation is the pimple hold. 

• 6 o'clock hold. This hold places the target on top of the front sight. The 
main problem is that it is easy for the front sight to "push up" into the 
target, causing the round to go high. Variation is the flat tire hold. 

• Line-of-whitehold. This hold allows a strip of contrasting color to show 
between the target and the front sight. The advantage of using 
this hold is that it permits the sniper to see the entire target and 
prevents the front sight from going high or low without him noticing it. 
The disadvantage is when the target and surrounding area blend into 
each other. 

• Rel'erence point hold. This hold is used when the sniper cannot see the 
target but can see a reference point given by the observer. This is the 
least accurate technique for aiming and should be used with care when 
using the iron sights. This hold can be used with greater accuracy when 
using the telescopic sights. 

SIGHT ALIGNMENT ERROR 

3-63. When sight alignment and sight picture are perfect (regardless of 
sighting system) and all else is done correctly, the shot will hit center of mass 
on the target. However, with an error in sight alignment, the bullet is displaced 
in the opposite direction of the error. Such an error creates an angular 
displacement between the line of sight (LOS) and the line of bore and is 
measured in minutes of angle. This displacement increases as range increases; 



3-22 



FM 3-05.222 



the amount of bullet displacement depends on the size of alignment error. Close 
targets show little or no visible error. Distant targets can show great 
displacement or can be missed altogether due to severe sight misalignment. An 
inexperienced marksman is prone to this kind of error, since he is unsure of 
how a correctly aligned sight should look (especially telescopic sights). When a 
sniper varies his head position (and eye relief) from shot to shot, he is apt to 
make sight alignment errors while firing (Figure 3-17). When parallax is 
properly adjusted out of the weapon, then shadowing is not a problem. 



METALLIC SIGHT 



Strike of Bullet ' 



• <- 



•O 0\® 




strike of Bullet 



Full Field of View 



SCOPE 



Strike of Bullet 




eQ\^ 




Strike of Bullet 



Full Field of View 



-*•• 



Figure 3-17. Possible Sight Alignment Error 



SIGHT PICTURE ERROR 



3-64. A sight picture error is an error in the placement of the aiming point. 
This mistake causes no displacement between the LOS and the line of bore. 
The weapon is simply pointed at the wrong spot on the target. Because no 
displacement exists as range increases, close and far targets are hit or missed 
depending on where the front sight or the reticle is when the rifle fires 
(Figure 3-18, page 3-24). All snipers face this kind of error every time they 
fire. Regardless of firing position stability, the weapon will always be moving. 
A supported rifle moves much less than an unsupported one, but both still 
move in what is known as a wobble area. The sniper must adjust his firing 
position so that his wobble area is as small as possible and centered on the 
target. With proper adjustments, the sniper should be able to fire the shot 
while the front sight blade or reticle is on the target at, or very near, the 
desired aiming point. How far the blade or reticle is from this point when the 



3-23 



FM 3-05.222 



weapon fires is the amount of sight picture error all snipers face. Also, the 
sniper should not attempt to aim for more than 5 or 6 seconds without 
blinking. Doing so places an additional strain on the eye and "burns" the 
sight alignment and sight picture into the retina. The result could cause 
minor changes in sight alignment and sight picture to go unnoticed. 



SCOPE 



®®®®® 



• 




• 




JX 




• 




• 



METALLIC SIGHT 



©CD®®® 

J\ J\ JX J\ JX 



Figure 3-18. Possible Sight Picture Error 



DOMINANT EYE 



3-65. Some individuals may have difficulty aiming because of interferences 
from their dominant eye if it is not the eye used in the aiming process. This 
feature may require the sniper to fire from the other side of the weapon 
(right-handed sniper will fire left-handed). To determine which eye is 
dominant, hold an index finger 6 to 8 inches in front of your eyes. Close one 
eye at a time while looking past the finger at an object; one eye will make the 
finger appear to move and the other will not. The eye that does not make the 
finger appear to move is the dominant eye. If the sniper does not have a 
cross-dominant problem, it is best to aim with both eyes open. Aiming with 
both eyes allows him to see naturally and helps him relax. Also, with both 
eyes open the sniper can find targets more quickly in his telescopic sight. 
Closing one eye puts an unnatural strain on the aiming eye and limits the 
sniper's protective peripheral vision. 

ADVANTAGES OF TELESCOPIC SIGHTS 

3-66. Telescopic sights offer many advantages. They provide— 

• Extremely accurate aiming, which allows the sniper to fire at distant, 
barely perceptible, and camouflaged targets not visibletothe naked eye. 



3-24 



FM 3-05.222 



• Rapid aiming, because the sniper's eye sees the crosshairs and the 
target with equal clarity in the same focal plane. 

• Accurate fire under conditions of unfavorable illumination (such as 
at dawn and dusk) and during periods of limited visibility (moonlight 
and fog). 

3-67. Despite these advantages, telescopic sights have limitations. The 
telescopic sight will never make a poor sniper any better. The magnification 
is also a disadvantage, as it also magnifies aiming and holding errors. 
Although technically there is no sight alignment with the telescopic sight, 
shadowing will occur if the eye is not centered on the scope. This error will 
have the same effect as improper sight alignment when the scope has not 
been adjusted parallax-free. The bullet will strike at a point opposite the 
shadow and will increase in error as the distance increases. 

3-68. I mproper head placement on the stock is the main cause of shadowing. 
Due to the scope being higher than the iron sights, it is difficult to obtain a 
good solid stock weld. If this is a problem, temporary cheek rests can be 
constructed using T-shirts or any material that can be removed and replaced. 
The rest will assist the sniper in obtaining a good stock weld and will help 
keep his head held straight for sighting. It is recommended that the sniper 
learn to establish a solid position without these aids. 



AIMING WITH TELESCOPIC SIGHTS 



3-69. A telescopic sight allows aiming without using the organic rifle sights. 
The LOS is the optical axis that runs through the center of the lens and the 
intersection of the crosshairs. The crosshairs and the image of the target are 
in the focal plane of the lens (that plane which passes through the lens focus, 
perpendicular to the optical axis). The sniper's eye sees the crosshairs and the 
image of the target with identical sharpness and clarity. To aim with a 
telescope, the sniper must position his head at the exit pupil of the telescope 
eyepiece so that the LOS of his eye coincides with the optical axis of the 
telescope. He then centers the crosshairs on the target. 

SHADOWEFFECTS 

3-70. During aiming, the sniper must ensure that there are no shadows in 
the field of vision of the telescope. If the sniper's eye does not have proper eye 
relief, a circular shadow will occur in the field of vision. This straining will 
reduce the field-of-vision size, hinder observation, and in general, make 
aiming difficult. If the eye is positioned incorrectly in relation to the main 
optical axis of the telescope (shifted to the side), crescent-shaped shadows will 
occur on the edges of the eyepiece. They can occur on either side, depending 
upon the position of the axis of the eye with respect to the optical axis of the 
telescope. If these crescent-shaped shadows are present, the bullets will 
strike to the side away from them when parallax is not adjusted out of the 
scope. This error is the same as a sight alignment error with iron sights. 

HEAD ADJ USTMENTS 

3-71. If the sniper notices shadow on the edges of the field of vision during 
aiming, he must find a head position in which the eye will clearly see the 



3-25 



FM 3-05.222 



CANTING 



entire field of vision of the telescope. Consequently, to ensure accurate aiming 
with a telescope, the sniper must direct his attention to keeping his eye on 
the optical axis of the telescope. He must also have the intersection of the 
crosshairs coincide exactly with the aiming point. However, his concentration 
must be on the crosshairs and not the target. It is important not to stare at 
the crosshai rs whi le ai mi ng. 



3-72. Canting is the act of tipping the rifle to either side of the vertical 
crosshair, causing misplaced and erratic shot grouping. 



POINT OF AIM 



3-73. The POA is mission- and range-dependent and should not be the 
center of mass unless required by the situation. The best POA between 300 
and 600 meters is anywhere within the triangle formed by the base of the 
neck and the two nipples (Figure 3-19, page 3-27). This point will maximize 
the probability of hitting major organs and vessels and rendering a clean one- 
shot kill. The optional POA, at this range if the upper chest hold is not 
available, is the centerline below the belt. The pelvic girdle is rich in major 
blood vessels and nerves. A hit here will cause a mechanical collapse or 
mechanical dysfunction. A strike here is also an advantage if the target is 
wearing body armor, which usually covers only the upper chest. An alternate 
POA for closer than 300 meters is the head hold (Figure 3-20, page 3-27). This 
point is very difficult to achieve because of its size and constant motion. The 
advantage of the head hold is incapacitation well under 1 second if the correct 
placement is achieved. This hold is well suited for hostage situations where 
closer ranges are the norm and instant incapacitation is required. One hold is 
along the plane formed by the nose and the two ear canals. The target is the 
brain stem, thus severing the spinal cord from the medulla oblongata. Note 
that the POA is neither the forehead nor between the eyes, which would 
result in hits that would be too high. The sniper is best served by imagining a 
golf ball-sized shape inside the middle of the head. He is to hit that inner ball 
by aiming through the middle of the head regardless of position horizontally 
or vertically. 

3-74. What the sniper is trying to sever or pulverize is the target's brain 
stem, the location where the spinal cord connects to the brain. Nerves that 
control motor function are channeled through here, and the lower third of the 
stem (the medulla) controls breathing and heartbeat. Hit here, the target will 
not experience even reflexive motor action. His entire body will instantly 
experience what is called "flaccid paralysis." The target's muscles will 
suddenly relax and he will become incapable of any motion of any kind 
thereafter. The sniper can tell how successful his headshot is by watching 
how his target falls. If the target goes straight down, limp, there is a high 
assurance of fatality. If the target falls to the side or is "knocked" down, the 
target has only been partially incapacitated. 



3-26 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 3-19. Triangular Point of Aim Formed by the Nipples and the Base of the Chin 




Figure 3-20. View of the Final Point of Aim — Head Hold 

3-75. For a chest shot that is ideally placed (mid-sternum), the bullet will 
strike the largest and hardest of the bones overlying the vital organs. When 
the bullet strikes and severs the target's spine, his legs will buckle under 
flaccid paralysis. However, his arms may not be incapacitated instantly. With 
a chest shot, even though the suspect may technically be "dead" from the 
devastation of the round, there may be a brief and dangerous delay before he 
acts dead. His brain may not die for one to two minutes after his heart has 
ceased to function. During this time, his brain may command his arms to 



3-27 



FM 3-05.222 



commit a simple, final act. The sniper anticipates these possibilities and 
delivers an immediate second round if the suspect is not fully down and out 
or anyone is within his sphere of danger. An alternative and final aim point is 
any major joint mass. A hit here will cause grave injury, shock, and possible 
incapacitation. However, if the target is on any type of stimulant, this hit 
may not have much effect. 

BREATH CONTROL 

3-76. Breath control is important to the aiming process. If the sniper 
breathes while trying to aim, the rise and fall of his chest will cause the rifle 
to move vertically. The sniper breathes while he does sight alignment, but he 
must be able to hold his breath to complete the process of aiming. To properly 
hold his breath, the sniper inhales, exhales normally, and stops at the 
moment of natural respiratory pause. If the sniper does not have the correct 
sight picture, he must change his position. 

3-77. A respiratory cycle lasts 4 to 5 seconds. Inhalation and exhalation 
require only about 2 seconds. Thus, between each respiratory cycle, there is a 
pause of 2 to 3 seconds. This pause can be expanded to 12 to 15 seconds 
without any special effort or unpleasant sensation; however, the maximum 
safe pause is 8 to 10 seconds. The sniper must fire the shot during an 
extended pause between breaths or start the process over again. During the 
respiratory pause, the breathing muscles are relaxed and the sniper thus 
avoids straining the diaphragm (Figure 3-21). 

3-78. A sniper should assume his position and breathe naturally until his 
hold begins to settle. Many snipers then take a slightly deeper breath, exhale 
and pause, expecting to fire the shot during the pause. If the hold does not 
settle sufficiently to allow the shot to be fired, the sniper resumes normal 
breathing and repeats the process. 



Deeper Inhale and Exhale 



Ordinary Respiratory Cycle 




Holding of Breath 

in Order to 
Produce a Shot 




I I I I I I f I I M I I I 



9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 
Time in Seconds 



Figure 3-21. A Sniper's Respiratory Pause Before Firing at the Target 

3-79. The respiratory pause should never feel unnatural. If the pause is 
extended for too long, the body suffers from oxygen deficiency and sends out 
signals to resume breathing. These signals produce slight involuntary 
movements in the diaphragm and interfere with the sniper's ability to 
concentrate. The heart rate also increases and there is a decrease of oxygen to 
the eyes. This lack of oxygen causes the eyes to have difficulty focusing and 



3-28 



FM 3-05.222 



results in eyestrain. During multiple, rapid-fire engagements, the breathing 
cycle should be forced through a rapid, shallow cycle between shots instead of 
trying to hold the breath or breathing. Firing should be accomplished at the 
forced respiratory pause. 

3-80. The natural tendency of the weapon to rise and fall during 
breathing allows the sniper to fine-tune his aim by holding his breath at 
the point in which the sights rest on the aiming point. 

TRIGGER CONTROL 

3-81. Trigger control is an important component of sniper marksmanship 
fundamentals. It is defined as causing the rifle to fire when the sight picture 
is at its best, without causing the rifle to move. Trigger squeeze, on the other 
hand, is defined as the independent action of the forefinger on the trigger, 
with a uniformly increasing pressure straight to the rear until the rifle fires. 
Trigger control is the last task to be accomplished before the weapon fires. 
This task is more difficult to apply when using a telescope or when a firing 
position becomes less stable. Misses are usually caused by the aim being 
disturbed as the bullet leaves the barrel or just before it leaves the barrel. 
This kind of miss results when a sniper jerks the trigger or flinches. The 
trigger need not be jerked violently to spoil the aim; even a slight, sudden 
pressure of the trigger finger is enough to cause the barrel to waver and spoil 
the sight alignment. Flinching is an involuntary movement of the body- 
tensing of the muscles of the arm, the neck, or the shoulder in anticipation of 
the shock of recoil or the sound of the rifle firing. A sniper can correct these 
errors by understanding and applying proper trigger control. 

3-82. Proper trigger control occurs when the sniper places his firing finger 
as low on the trigger as possible and still clears the trigger guard, thereby 
achieving maximum mechanical advantage. The sniper engages the trigger 
with that part of his firing finger that allows him to pull the trigger straight 
to the rear. A firm grip on the rifle stock is essential for trigger control. If the 
sniper begins his trigger pull from a loose grip, he tends to squeeze the stock 
as well as the trigger and thus loses trigger control. To avoid transferring 
movement of the finger to the entire rifle, the sniper should see daylight 
between the trigger finger and the stock as he squeezes the trigger, straight 
to the rear. To ensure a well-placed shot, he fires the weapon when the front 
blade or reticle is on the desired POA. 

3-83. The sniper best maintains trigger control by assuming a stable 
position, adjusting on the target, and beginning a breathing cycle. As the 
sniper exhales the final breath toward a natural respiratory pause, he 
secures his finger on the trigger. As the front blade or reticle settles on the 
desired POA and the natural respiratory pause is entered, the sniper applies 
initial pressure. He increases the tension on the trigger during the 
respiratory pause as long as the front blade or reticle remains in the area of 
the target that ensures a well-placed shot. If the front blade or reticle moves 
away from the desired POA on the target and the pause is free of strain or 
tension, the sniper stops increasing the tension on the trigger, waits for the 
front blade or reticle to return to the desired point, and then continues to 
squeeze the trigger. The sniper perfects his aim while continuing the steadily 



3-29 



FM 3-05.222 



increasing pressure until the hammer falls. This is trigger control. If 
movement is too large for recovery or if the pause has become uncomfortable 
(extended too long), the sniper should carefully release the pressure on the 
trigger and begin the respiratory cycle again. 

3-84. Most successful snipers agree that the trigger slack should betaken up 
with a heavy initial pressure. Concentration should be focused on the 
perfection of the sight picture as trigger control is automatically applied. 
Concentration, especially on the front sight or reticle, is the greatest aid to 
prevent flinching and jerking. 

3-85. The methods of trigger control involve a mental process, while pulling 
the trigger is a mechanical process. The sniper uses two methods of trigger 
control to pull the trigger. They are as follows: 

• Smooth motion/ constant pressure trigger pull. The sniper takes up the 
slack with a heavy initial pressure and, when the sight picture settles, 
pulls the trigger with a single, smooth action. This method is used 
when there is a stationary target and the position is steady. This type 
of trigger control will help prevent flinching, jerking, and bucking 
the weapon. 

• Interrupted trigger pull. The sniper applies pressure to the trigger 
when the sight picture begins to settle and as long as the sight picture 
looks good or continues to improve. If the sight picture deteriorates 
briefly, the sniper maintains the pressure at a constant level and 
increases it when the picture again begins to improve. He then 
continues the pressure or repeats this technique until he fires the rifle. 
The sniper does not jerk the trigger when the sights are aligned and 
the "perfect" sight picture occurs. This technique is used in the 
standing position to correct the wavering of the sights around, through, 
or in the target or aiming point duetotheinstability of the position. 

3-86. Trigger control is not only the most important fundamental of 
marksmanship but also the most difficult to master. The majority of firing 
errors stems directly or indirectly from the improper application of trigger 
control. Failure to hit the target frequently results from the sniper jerking 
the trigger or applying pressure on both the trigger and the side of the rifle. 
Either of these actions can produce a miss. Therefore, instructors should 
always check for indications of improper trigger control, si nee an error in this 
technique can start a chain reaction of other errors. 

3-87. Trigger control can be developed into a reflex action. The sniper can 
develop his trigger control to the point that pulling the trigger requires no 
conscious effort. The sniper will be aware of the pull, but he will not be 
consciously directing it. Everyone exhibits this type of reflex action in daily 
living. The individual who walks or drives a car while carrying on a 
conversation is an example. He is aware of his muscular activity but is not 
planning it. He is thinking about the conversation. 



3-30 



FM 3-05.222 



3-88. Trigger control is taught in conjunction with positions. When positions 
and trigger control are being taught, an effective training aid for 
demonstrating the technique of trigger control with reference to the 
interrupted or controlled pressure is the wobble sight and target simulator. 
The wobble sight may be used with a fixed target simulator to demonstrate 
wobble area, adjustment of natural POA, breathing, and trigger control. 

3-89. In all positions, dry firing is one of the best methods of developing 
proper trigger control. In dry firing, not only is the coach able to detect errors, 
but the individual sniper is able to detect his own errors, since there is no 
recoil to conceal the rifle's undesirable movements. Where possible, trigger 
control practice should be integrated into all phases of marksmanship 
training. The mastery of trigger control takes patience, hard work, 
concentration, and a great deal of self-discipline. 

THE INTEGRATED ACT OF FIRING ONE ROUND 

3-90. Once the sniper has been taught the fundamentals of marksmanship, 
his primary concern is to apply this knowledge in the performance of his 
mission. An effective method of applying fundamentals is through the use of 
the integrated act of firing one round. The integrated act is a logical, step-by- 
step development of the fundamentals whereby the sniper develops habits to 
fire each shot exactly the same. Thus he achieves the marksmanship goal 
that a sniper must strive for: one shot— one kill. The integrated act of firing 
can be divided into the following four phases. 

PREPARATION PHASE 

3-91. Beforedeparting the preparation area, the sniper ensures that— 

• The team is mentally conditioned and knows what mission to accomplish. 

• A systematic check is made of equipment for completeness and 
serviceability including, but not limited to— 

■ Properly cleaned and lubricated rifles. 

■ Properly mounted and torqued scopes. 

■ Zero-sighted systems and recorded data in the sniper data book. 

■ The study of weather conditions to determine the effects on the 

team's performance of the mission. 

BEFORE-FIRING PHASE 

3-92. On arrival at the mission site, the team exercises care in selecting 
positions. The sniper ensures that the selected positions complement the 
mission's goal. During this phase, the sniper— 

• Maintains strict adherence to the fundamentals of position. He ensures 
that the firing position is as relaxed as possible, making the most of 
available external support. He also makes sure the support is stable, 
conforms to the position, and allows a correct, natural POA for each 
designated area or target. 



3-31 



FM 3-05.222 



Once in position, removes the scope covers and checks the field 
of fire, making any needed corrections to ensure clear, unobstructed 
firing lanes. 

Checks the borelinefor any obstructions. 

Makes dry-firing and natural POA checks. 

Double-checks ammunition for serviceability and completes final 
magazine loading. 

Notifies the observer he is ready to engage targets. The observer must 
constantly be aware of weather conditions that may affect the accuracy 
of the shots. He must also stay ahead of the tactical situation. 



FIRING PHASE 



3-93. Upon detection, or if directed to a suitable target, the sniper makes 
appropriate sight changes and aims, and tells the observer he is ready to fire. 
The observer then gives the needed windage and observes the target. To fire 
the rifle, the sniper should remember the key word, BRASS. Each letter is 
explained as follows: 

• Breathe. The sniper inhales and exhales to the natural respiratory 
pause. He checks for consistent head placement and stock weld. He 
ensures eye relief is correct (full field of view through the scope, no 
shadows present). At the same time, he begins aligning the crosshairs 
or front blade with the target at the desired POA. 

• Relax. As the sniper exhales, he relaxes as many muscles as possible 
while maintaining control of the weapon and position. 

• Aim. If the sniper has a good, natural POA, the rifle points at the 
desired target during the respiratory pause. If the aim is off, the sniper 
should make a slight adjustment to acquire the desired POA. He avoids 
"muscling" the weapon toward the aiming point. 

• Slack. (Does not apply to the M 24 as issued.) The first stage of the two- 
stage trigger must be taken up with heavy initial pressure. Most 
experienced snipers actually take up the slack and get initial pressure 
as they reach the respiratory pause. I n this way, the limited duration of 
the pause is not used up by manipulating the slack in the trigger. 

• Sqfueaze As long as the sight alignment and sight picture is 
satisfactory, the sniper should squeeze the trigger. The pressure 
applied to the trigger must be straight to the rear without disturbing 
the lay of the rifle or the desired POA. 

3-94. After the shot, the sniper must remember to follow through with the 
recoil and recover back on target. He should make sure to call his shot so the 
observer can record any adjustment made. 



AFTER-FIRING PHASE 



3-95. The sniper's after-firing actions include observing the target area to 
certify the hit, observing the enemy reaction, acquiring another target, and 
avoiding compromise of his position. The sniper must analyze his 
performance. If the shot impacted at the desired spot (a target hit), it may be 
assumed that the integrated act of firing one round was correctly followed. 



3-32 



FM 3-05.222 



However, if the shot was off call, the sniper and observer must check for the 
following possible errors: 

• Failure to follow the key word BRASS (partial field of view, breath held 
incorrectly, trigger jerked, rifle muscled into position). 

• Target improperly ranged with scope (causing high or low shots). 

• I ncorrectly compensated-for wind (causing right or left shots). 

• Possible weapon or ammunition malfunction (used only as a last resort 
when no other errors are detected). 

3-96. Once the probable reasons for an off-call shot are determined, the 
sniper must make note of the errors. He should pay close attention to the 
problem areas to increase the accuracy of future shots. 



FOLLOW-THROUGH 



3-97. Applying the fundamentals increases the odds of a well-aimed shot 
being fired. When mastered, the first-round kill becomes a certainty. 

3-98. Follow-through is a continued mental and physical application of the 
fundamentals after each round is fired. It is the act of continuing to apply all 
of the sniper marksmanship fundamentals as the weapon fires and 
immediately after it fires. Follow-through consists of— 

• Keeping the head in firm contact with the stock (stock weld). 

• Keeping the finger on the trigger all the way to the rear. 

• Continuing to look through the rear aperture or scope tube. 

• Concentrating on the front sight or crosshairs. 

• Keeping muscles relaxed. 

• Avoiding reaction to recoil and noise. 

• Releasing the trigger only after the recoil has stopped. 

3-99. Good follow-through ensures that the weapon is allowed to fire and 
recoil naturally. The sniper and rifle combination reacts as a single unit to 
such actions. From a training viewpoint, follow-through may allow the 
observer to observe the strike of the bullet in relation to the sniper's point of 
aim and to help him rapidly correct and adjust his sights for a second shot. 
Also, a good follow-through will indicate to the sniper the quality of his 
natural POA. The weapon should settle back on target. If it does not, then 
muscles were used to get the weapon on target. 



CALLING THE SHOT 



3-100. Calling the shot is being able to tell where the round should impact 
on the target. Because live targets invariably move when hit, the sniper will 
find it almost impossible to use his telescope to locate the target after the 
round is fired. Using iron sights, the sniper will find that searching for a 
downrange hit is beyond his capabilities. He must be able to accurately call 
his shots. Proper follow-through will aid in calling the shot. However, the 
dominant factor in shot calling is where the reticle or post is located when the 
weapon discharges. The sniper refers to this location as his final focus 
point. 



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FM 3-05.222 



3-101. With iron sights, the final focus point should be on the top edge of the 
front sight blade. The blade is the only part of the sight picture that is moving 
(in the wobble area). Focusing on the blade aids in calling the shot and 
detecting any errors in sight alignment or sight picture. Of course, lining up 
the sights and the target initially requires the sniper to shift his focus from 
the target to the blade and back until he is satisfied that he is properly 
aligned with the target. This shifting exposes two more facts about eye focus. 
The eye can instantly shift focus from near objects (the blade) to far objects 
(the target). The eye cannot, however, be focused so that two objects at 
greatly different ranges (again the blade and target) are both in sharp focus. 
After years of experience, many snipers find that they no longer hold final 
focus on the front sight blade. Their focus is somewhere between the blade 
and the target. This act has been related to many things, from personal 
preference to failing eyesight. Regardless, inexperienced snipers are still 
advised to use the blade as a final focus point. With iron sights the final check 
before shooting will be sight alignment, as misalignment will cause a miss. 

3-102. The sniper can easily place the final focus point with telescopic sights 
because of the sight's optical qualities. Properly focused, a scope should 
present both the field of view and the reticle in sharp detail. Final focus 
should then be on the reticle. While focusing on the reticle, the sniper moves 
his head slightly from side to side. The reticle may seem to move across the 
target face, even though the rifle and scope are motionless. Parallax is 
present when the target image is not correctly focused onto the reticule's focal 
plane. Therefore, the target image and the reticle appear to be in two 
separate positions inside the scope, causing the effect of reticle movement 
across the target. A certain amount of parallax is unavoidable throughout the 
range of the ART series of scopes. The M3A on the M24 has a focus/parallax 
adjustment that eliminates parallax. The sniper should adjust this knob until 
the target's image is on the same focal plane as the reticle. To determine if 
the target's image appears at the ideal location, the sniper should move his 
head slightly left and right to see if the reticle appears to move. If it does not 
move, the focus is properly adjusted and no parallax is present. The sniper 
will focus and concentrate on the reticle for the final shot, not the target. 

3-103. In calling the shot, the sniper predicts where the shot will hit the 
target. The sniper calls the shot while dry firing and actual firing by noting 
the position of the sights in relation to the aiming point the instant the round 
is fired. If his shot is not on call, the sniper must review the fundamentals to 
isolate his problem or make a sight change as indicated to move his shot to 
his POA. Unless he can accurately call his shots, the sniper will not be able to 
effectively zero his rifle. 

DETECTION AND CORRECTION OF ERRORS 

3-104. During the process of teaching or using the fundamentals of 
marksmanship, it will become evident that errors may plague any sniper. 
When an error is detected, it must be corrected. Sometimes errors are not 
obvious to the sniper. Therefore, a coach or instructor will be invaluable. The 
procedure for correcting errors is to pinpoint or isolate the error, prove to the 
sniper that he is making this error, and convince him that through his own 
efforts and concentration he can correct his error. Knowing what to look for 



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FM 3-05.222 



through analyzing the shot groups, observing the sniper, questioning the 
sniper, and reviewing the fundamentals of training exercises will assist the 
coach in this process. Even during sustainment a trained sniper will use 
detection and correction to ensure bad habits have not been developed. 



TARGET ANALYSIS 



OBSERVATION 



QUESTIONING 



3-105. Target or shot-group analysis is an important step in processing the 
detection and correction of errors. When analyzing a target, the coach should 
correlate errors in performance to loose groups, the shape of groups, and the 
size of groups. With some snipers, especially the experienced, this analysis 
cannot be done readily. However, the coach must be able to discuss the 
probable error. A bad shot group is seldom caused by only one error. 
Remember, in the initial analysis of groups, the coach must take into 
consideration the capabilities of the sniper, the weapon, and the ammunition. 



3-106. When the coach or instructor has an indication that the sniper is 
committing one or more errors, it will usually be necessary for him to observe 
the sniper while he is in the act of firing to pinpoint his errors. If the 
instructor has no indication of the sniper's probable errors, the initial 
emphasis should be on his firing position and breath control. Next, the 
instructor should look for the most common errors— anticipation of the shot 
and improper trigger control. If observing the sniper fails to pinpoint his 
errors, the instructor must then question him. 



3-107. The coach or instructor should ask the sniper if he could detect his 
errors. He should have the sniper explain the firing procedure, to include 
position, aiming, breath control, trigger control, and follow-through. If 
questioning does not reveal all of the errors, the instructor should talk the 
sniper through the procedures listed in Figure 3-22. 



1. Set the sights. 


7. Obtain a sight picture. 


2. Build the position. 


8. Focus on the front sight. 


3. Align the sight. 


9. Control the trigger. 


4. Check the natural POA. 


10. Follow through. 


5. Adjust the natural POA. 


1 1 . Call the shot. 


6. Control the breath. 





Figure 3-22. Fundamental Procedures for Firing One Round 

NOTE: If errors still occur, there are several training exercises that can help 
to pinpoint them. 



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FM 3-05.222 



TRAINING EXERCISES 

3-108. The instructor can use the following training exercises or devices at 
any time to supplement the detection procedure: 

• Trigger exercise. 

• Metal disk exercise. 

• Ball and dummy exercise. 

• Blank target-firing exercise. 

• M 2 aiming device. 

• Air rifles. 

3-109. When the sniper leaves the firing line, he compares weather 
conditions to the information needed to hit the POA or POL Since he fires in 
all types of weather conditions, he must be aware of temperature, light, 
mirage, and wind. Other major tasks that the sniper must complete are as 
follows: 

• Compare sight settings with previous firing sessions. If the sniper 
always has to fine-tune for windage or elevation, there is a chance he 
needs a sight change (slip a scale). 

• Compare ammunition by lot number for the best rifle and ammunition 
combination. 

• Compare all groups fired under each condition. Check the low and high 
shots and those to the left and right of the main group— the less 
dispersion, the better. If groups are tight, they are easily moved to the 
center of the target; if loose, there is a problem. Check the telescope 
focus and make sure the rifle is cleaned correctly. Remarks in the data 
book will also help. 

• Make corrections. Record corrections in the data book, such as position 
and sight adjustment information, to ensure retention. 

• Analyze a group on a target. These results are important for 
marksmanship training. Thesniper may not notice errors during firing, 
but errors become apparent when analyzing a group. This study can 
only be done if the data book has been used correctly. 

3-110. As the stability of a firing position decreases, the wobble area 
increases. The larger the wobble area, the harder it is to fire the shot without 
reacting to it. This reaction occurs when thesniper— 

• Anticipates recoil. 

• J erks the trigger. 

• Flinches. 

• Avoids recoil. 



3-36 



FM 3-05.222 



APPLICATION OF FIRE 

3-111. Following the Austrian-Prussian War of 1866, the Prussian Army 
began a systematic study of the effectiveness and control of small-arms fire. 
The result of this study, conducted over a 6-year period, was the introduction 
of the science of musketry, a misnomer as all major armies were by then 
equipped with rifles. Musketry is the science of small-arms fire under field 
conditions, as opposed to range conditions, and is concerned entirely with 
firing at unknown distances; thus the importance of musketry to the sniper. 
The material presented is merely an overview of the fundamentals of 
musketry. At the peak of the study of musketry as a martial science, 
musketry schools often extended their courses to six weeks. Only the 
introduction of machine guns and automatic small arms precipitated the 
doctrine of its study, although various aspects of musketry were retained as 
separate subjects, such as judging distances and issuing fire control orders. 
This study ties together the scattered remnants of the study of musketry as it 
pertains to sniping. 

MINUTE OF ANGLE 

3-112. Most weapon sights are constructed with a means of adjustment. 
Although the technicalities of adjustment may vary with weapon type or 
means of sighting, generally the weapon sight will be correctable for windage 
and elevation. The specific method by which adjustment is accomplished is 
angular displacement of the sight in relation to the bore of the rifle. This 
angular displacement is measured in MOAs, and establishes the angle of 
departure in relationship to LOS. 

3-113. An MOA is the unit of angular measure that equals 1/60 of 1 degree of 
arc. With few exceptions the universal method of weapon sight adjustment is 
in fractions or multiples of MOAs. An MOA equals a distance of 1.0472 inches 
at 100 yards and 2.9 centimeters at 100 meters. Since an MOA is an angular 
unit of measure, the arc established by an MOA increases proportionately 
with distance (F igure 3-23, page 3-38). 

3-114. Fractions are difficult to work with when making mental calculations. 
For this reason, snipers should assume that 1 MOA is the equivalent of 1 inch 
at 100 yards or 3 centimeters at 100 meters. By rounding off the angular 
displacement of the MOA in this manner, only 1/2 inch of accuracy at 1,000 
yards and 1 centimeter at 1,000 meters are lost. This manual presents data in 
both the English and the metric system (Table 3-1, pages 3-38 and 3-39), 
allowing the sniper to use whichever one he is most comfortable with. 



3-37 



FM 3-05.222 



1 Degree 



1 MOA = 1/60th of 1 Degree 





250 m 
7.5 cm 



500 m 

15 cm 



750 m 
22.5 cm. 



1,000 m 
30 cm 



o— 



3 



1 MOA 



Sniper Position 



Figure 3-23. An l\/IOA l\/leasurement 
Table 3-1. IVIetric and English Equivalents Used to l\/leasure l\/IOAs 



lUletric 
1 lUlOA (cm) 


Yards 


lUleters 

< — 


Yards 

— ► 


lUleters 


English 
1 lUlOA (inches) 


3 


109 


100 


91 


1 


4.5 


164 


150 


137 


1.5 


6 


219 


200 


183 


2 


7.5 


273 


250 


228 


2.5 


9 


328 


300 


274 


3 


10.5 


383 


350 


320 


3.5 


12 


437 


400 


365 


4 


13.5 


492 


450 


411 


4.5 


15 


546 


500 


457 


5 


16.5 


602 


550 


503 


5.5 


18 


656 


600 


548 


6 


19.5 


711 


650 


594 


6.5 


21 


766 


700 


640 


7 


22.5 


820 


750 


686 


7.5 


24 


875 


800 


731 


8 



3-38 



FM 3-05.222 



Table 3-1. Metric and English Equivalents Used to Measure MOAs (Continued) 



Metric 
1 MOA (cm) 


Yards 


Meters 

< — 


Yards 

— ► 


Meters 


English 
1 MOA (inches) 


25.5 


929 


850 


777 


8.5 


27 


984 


900 


823 


9 


28.5 


1,039 


950 


869 


9.5 


30 


1,094 


1,000 


914 


10 


31.5 


1,148 


1,050 


960 


10.5 


33 


1,203 


1,100 


1,005 


11 



SIGHT CORRECTIONS 

3-115. With the knowledge of how much the displacement of 1 MOA at a 
given distance is, snipers can calculate sight corrections. All that the sniper 
needs to know is how many MOAs, or fractions of an MOA, each sight 
graduation (known as a "click") equals. This amount depends on the type of 
sight used. 

3-116. To determine the amount of correction required in MOAs for the 
English system, the error in inches is divided by the range expressed in whole 
numbers. The correction formula follows: 



Minutes 



Error (inches) 



Range (expressed in whole numbers) 



3-117. To determine the amount of correction required in MOAs using the 
metric system, the error in centimeters is divided by the range expressed in 
whole numbers, then the result is divided by 3. The correction formula 
follows: 



Minutes 



Error (centimeters) 



Range (expressed in whole numbers) -^ 3 



3-118. There will betimes when the impact of a shot is observed, but there is 
no accurate indication of how much the error is in inches or centimeters. Such 
occasions may occur when there is a great distance between the aiming point 
and the impact point or when there is a lack of an accurate reference. It is 
possible to determine the distance of the impact point from the POA in mils, 
then toconvert the mils to MOAs. The conversion factor follows: 

Imil =3.439 MOA (This is rounded to 3.5 for field use.) 

EXAMPLE: When a round is fired, the observer sees the impact of the round 
to be several feet to the right of the target. He notes the impact point and 
determines it to be 2 mils to the right of the aiming point: 3.5 x 2 =7 Minutes. 

3-119. Table 3-2, page 3-40, gives the inch equivalents of mils at the given 
ranges of 91 meters to 1,000 meters and 100 yards to 1,000 yards. This data 
will aid the sniper in computing his sight change in mils for a given distance 



3-39 



FM 3-05.222 



to the target with a given miss in estimated inches. For example, a miss of 28 
inches left at 400 yards would be a 2-mil hold to the right. 



Table 3-2. Inch Equivalents of Mils 



Range 
(Meters/Yards) 


Inches 


Range 
(Meters/Yards) 


Inches 


91/100 


3.6 


549/600 


22.0 


100 m 


4.0 


600 m 


24.0 


1 83/200 


7.0 


640/740 


25.0 


200 m 


8.0 


700 m 


27.5 


274/300 


11.0 


731/800 


29.0 


300 m 


12.0 


800 m 


31.5 


365/400 


14.0 


823/900 


32.5 


400 m 


15.75 


900 m 


35.5 


457/500 


18.0 


914/1,000 


36.0 


500 m 


20.0 


1,000 m 


39.0 



BALLISTICS 



3-120. As applied to sniper marksmanship, ballistics may be defined as the 
study of the firing, flight, and effect of ammunition. To fully understand 
ballistics, the sniper should be familiar with the terms listed in Table 3-3, 
page 3-41. Proper execution of marksmanship fundamentals and a thorough 
knowledge of ballistics ensure the successful completion of the mission. 
Tables and formulas in this section should be used only as guidelines since 
every rifle performs differently. Maintaining extensive ballistics data 
eventually results in a well-kept data book and provides the sniper with 
actual knowledge gained through experience. Appendix H provides additional 
ballistics data. 



APPLIED BALLISTICS 



3-121. Ballistics can be broken down into three major areas. Interior or 
internal ballistics deals with the bullet in the rifle from primer detonation 
until it leaves the muzzle of the weapon. Exterior and external ballistics picks 
up after the bullet leaves the muzzle of the weapon and extends through the 
trajectory until the bullet impacts on the target or POA. Terminal ballistics is 
the study of what the bullet does upon impact with the target. The 
effectiveness of the terminal ballistics depends upon— 

• Terminal velocity. 

• Location of the hit. 

• Bullet design and construction. 



3-40 



FM 3-05.222 



Table 3-3. Ballistics Terminology 



Muzzle Velocity 


The speed of a bullet as it leaves the rifle barrel, measured in fps. It varies according to 
various factors, such as ammunition type and lot number, temperature, and humidity. 


Line of Sight 


A straight line from the eye through the aiming devices to the POA. 


Line of Departure 


The line defined by the bore of the rifle or the path the bullet would take without gravity. 


Trajectory 


The path of the bullet as it flies to the target. 


Midrange 
Trajectory 


The high point the bullet reaches half way to the target. This point must be known to 
engage a target that requires firing underneath an overhead obstacle, such as a bridge 
or a tree. Inattention to midrange trajectory may cause the sniper to hit the obstacle 
instead of the target. 


Maximum 
Ordinate 


The highest point of elevation that a bullet reaches during its time of flight for a given 
distance. 


Bullet Drop 


How far the bullet drops from the line of departure to the POI. 


Time of Flight 


The amount of time it takes for the bullet to exit the rifle and reach the target. 


Retained 
Velocity 


The speed of the bullet when it reaches the target. Due to drag, the velocity will be 
reduced. 



TARGET MATERIAL OR CONSTRUCTION 



3-122. When it is fired, a bullet travels a straight path in the bore of the rifle 
as long as the bullet is confined in the barrel. As soon as the bullet is free of 
this constraint (exits the barrel), it immediately begins to fall due to the 
effects of gravity, and its motion is retarded due to air resistance. The path of 
the bullet through the air is called the bullet's trajectory. 

3-123. If the barrel is horizontal, the forward motion imparted to the bullet 
by the detonation of the cartridge will cause it to travel in the direction of 
point A, but air resistance and the pull of gravity will cause it to strike 
point B (Figure 3-24). As soon as the bullet is free from the constraint of the 
barrel, it begins to pull from the horizontal. 




Figure 3-24. Bullet's Trajectory When the Sniper Fires the Rifle Horizontally 

3-124. For point A to be struck, the barrel of the rifle must be elevated to 
some predetermined angle (Figure 3-25, page 3-42). The bullet's initial 



3-41 



FM 3-05.222 



impulse will be in the direction of point C. However, because of the initial 
angle, the bullet will fall to point A, due again to air resistance and gravity. 
This initial angle is known as the angle of departure. 




Figure 3-25. Bullet's Trajectory When the Sniper Fires the Rifle at an Elevated Angle 

3-125. The angle of departure is set by the sights and establishes the shape 
of the trajectory. The trajectory varies with the range to the target. For any 
given range, theangleof departure varies with the determining factors of the 
trajectory. The form of the trajectory is influenced by— 

• The initial velocity (muzzle velocity). 

• Theangleof departure. 

• Gravity. 

• Air resistance. 

• The rotation of the projectile (bullet) about its axis. 

3-126. The relationship between initial velocity and air resistance is that the 
greater the amount of air resistance the bullet must overcome, the faster the 
bullet slows down as it travels through the air. A bullet with a lower initial 
velocity will be retarded less by air resistance and will retain a greater 
proportion of its initial velocity over a given distance. This relationship is 
important in that a light projectile with a higher initial (or short range) 
velocity will have a "flatter" initial trajectory but will have less initial and 
retained energy with which to incorporate the target, will be deflected more 
by wind, and will have a steeper trajectory at longer ranges. A comparatively 
heavy projectile will have a lower initial velocity and a steeper initial 
trajectory, will retain its energy over a great distance (retained energy is 
proportional to the mass of the projectile), will be deflected less by wind, and 
will have a "flatter" long-range trajectory. 

3-127. Angle of departure is the angle to which the muzzle of the rifle must 
be elevated above the horizontal line in order for the bullet to strike a distant 
point. When the bullet departs the muzzle of the rifle, it immediately begins 
to fall to earth in relation to the angle of departure, due to the constant pull 
of gravity. The angle of departure increases the height the bullet must fall 
before it reaches the ground. If a rifle barrel were set horizontally in a 
vacuum, a bullet fired from the barrel would reach the ground at a distant 
point at the same moment that a bullet merely dropped from the same height 
as the barrel would reach the ground. Despite the horizontal motion of the 



3-42 



FM 3-05.222 



bullet, its velocity in the vertical plane is constant (due to the constant effect 
of gravity). However, angle of departure in the air is directly related to the 
time of flight of the projectile in that medium. The greater the angle at which 
the projectile departs the muzzle, the longer it will remain in the air and the 
further it will travel before it strikes the ground. However, the effect of 
gravity causes the bullet to begin to lose distance at the 33-degree point. 

3-128. The angle of departure is not constant. Although the angle of 
departure may remain fixed, a number of variables will influence the 
angle of departure in a series of shots fixed at the same given distance. 
The differences in the internal ballistics of a given lot of ammunition will 
have an effect. A muzzle velocity, within a proven lot, will often vary as 
much as 60 feet per second between shots. Imperfections in the human 
eye will cause the angles of departure of successive shots to be 
inconsistent. Imperfections in the weapon, such as faulty bedding, worn 
bore, or worn sights, are variables. Errors in the way the rifle is held or 
canted will affect the angle of departure. These are just a few factors that 
cause differences in the angle of departure and are the main reasons why 
successive shots under seemingly identical conditions do not hit at the 
same poi nt on the target. 

3-129. Gravity's influence on the shape of a bullet's trajectory is a constant 
force. It neither increases nor decreases over time or distance. It is present, 
but given the variable dynamics influencing the flight of a bullet, it is 
unimportant. Given that both air resistance and gravity influence the motion 
of a projectile, the initial velocity of the projectile and the air resistance are 
interdependent and directly influence the shape of the trajectory. 

3-130. The single most important variable affecting the flight of a bullet is 
air resistance. It is not gravity that determines the shape of a bullet's 
trajectory. If gravity alone were the determining factor, the trajectory would 
have the shape of a parabola, where the angle of fall would be the same (or 
very nearly so) as the angle of departure. However, the result of air 
resistance is that the shape of the trajectory is an ellipse, where the angle of 
fall is steeper than the angle of departure. 

3-131. The lands and grooves in the bore of the rifle impart a rotational 
motion to the bullet about its own axis. This rotational motion causes the 
projectile (as it travels through the air) to shift in the direction of rotation (in 
almost all cases to the right). This motion causes a drift that is caused by air 
resistance. A spinning projectile behaves precisely like a gyroscope. Pressure 
applied to the front of the projectile (air resistance) retards its forward 
motion but does not significantly upset its stability. However, upward 
pressure applied to the underside of the projectile (due to its downward travel 
caused by gravity) causes it to drift in the direction of spin. This drift is 
relatively insignificant at all but the greatest ranges (more than 1,000 yards). 

3-132. Due to the combined influences just discussed, the trajectory of the 
bullet first crosses the LOS with a scarcely perceptible curve. The trajectory 
continues to rise to a point a little more than halfway to the target, called the 
maximum ordinate, beyond which it curves downward with a constantly 
increasing curve (possibly recrossing the LOS) until it hits the target (or 
ground). The point where the LOS meets the target is the POA. The point 



3-43 



FM 3-05.222 



where the bullet (trajectory) strikes the target is the POI . Theoretically, the 
POA and the POI should coincide. I n practical terms, because of one or more 
of the influences discussed, they rarely do. The greater the skill of the sniper 
and the more perfect the rifle and ammunition, the more often these two 
points will coincide (Figure 3-26). 




Line of Sight 

(Meters) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 

Illustrating: 

• Bullet drop for succeeding 100 meters after crossing line of sight, 

* Fall angle. 

Note: Due to length of the line of f fight in proportion to the trajectory's height, 
scale is not represented. 



Figure 3-26. Sniper's Line of Sight With Fall Angles at Various Distances 

3-133. The part of the trajectory between the muzzle and the maximum 
ordinate is called the rising branch of the trajectory; the part beyond the 
maximum ordinate is called the falling branch of the trajectory. Snipers are 
most concerned with the falling branch because this part of the trajectory 
contains the target and the ground in its vicinity. I n computing the height of 
the trajectory, assuming the LOS is horizontal and at regular intervals 
(usually 100 yards), the sniper measures and records the height of the 
trajectory as the ordinate. The distance from the muzzle to the ordinate is 
known as the abscissa. The distance in front of the muzzle, within which the 
bullet does not rise higher than the target, is called the danger space of the 
rising branch of the trajectory. The falling branch of the trajectory also has a 
danger space. The danger space of the falling branch is the point where the 
bullet falls into the height of the target and continues to the ground. 

3-134. Assuming that the POA is taken at the center of the target, the extent 
of the danger space depends on the following: 

• Height of the sniper— whether he is standing, kneeling, or prone. 

• Height of the target— whether he is standing, kneeling, or prone. 

• "Flatness" of the trajectory— the ballistic properties of the cartridge 
used. 

• Angleof the LOS— above or below the horizontal. 

• Slope of the ground— where the target resides. 

3-135. The POA also has a significant influence on the extent of the danger 
space. If the sniper takes the POA at the top of the target, the total danger 



3-44 



FM 3-05.222 



space will lie entirely behind the target. If he takes the POA at the foot of the 
target, the total danger space will lie entirely in front of the target. Thus, the 
extent of the total danger space, including the target, will be determined by 
where the POA is taken on the target. Only when the POA is at the center of 
the target will the total danger space (in relative terms) extend an equal 
distance in front of and behind the target. 

EFFECTS ON TRAJ ECTORY 

3-136. Mastery of marksmanship fundamentals and field skills are not the 
only requirements for being a sniper. Some of the factors that have an 
influence on the trajectory include the following: 

• Gravity. The sniper would not have a maximum range without gravity; 
a fired bullet would continue to move much the same as items floating 
in space. As soon as the bullet exits the muzzle of the weapon, gravity 
begins to pull it down, requiring the sniper to use his elevation 
adjustment. At extended ranges, the sniper actually aims the muzzle of 
his rifle above his LOS and lets gravity pull the bullet down into the 
target. Gravity is always present, so the sniper must compensate for it 
through elevation adjustments or holdover techniques. 

• Drag. It is the slowing effect the atmosphere has on the bullet. This 
effect either increases or decreases according to the air— that is, the 
less dense the air, the less drag and vice versa. Factors affecting drag 
and air density are— 

■ Temperature. The higher the temperature, the less dense the air. 
If the sniper zeroes at 60 degrees F and he fires at 80 degrees F, 
the air is less dense, thereby causing an increase in muzzle 
velocity and a higher impact. A 20-degree change equals a 
1-minute elevation change on the rifle. This generally applies for 
a 7.62-mm weapon. 

■ Altitude^ baromdiric pressure. Since the air pressure is less at 
higher altitudes, the air is less dense and there is less drag. 
Therefore, the bullet is more efficient and impacts higher. Table 
3-4, page 3-46, shows the appropriate effect of change of impact 
from sea level to 10,000 feet if the rifle is zeroed at sea level. 
Impact will be the POA at sea level. For example, a rifle zeroed at 
sea level and fired at 700 meters at 5,000 feet will hit 1.6 minutes 
high. 

■ Humidity. Humidity varies along with the altitude and 
temperature. Problems can occur if extreme humidity changes 
exist in the area of operations. When humidity goes up, impact 
goes down and vice versa. Keeping a good data book during 
training and acquiring experience are the best teachers. 

■ Bullet efficiency. This term refers to a bullet's ballistic coefficient. 
The imaginary perfect bullet is rated as being 1.00. Match bullets 
range from .500 to about .600. The M118 173-grain match bullet 
is rated at .515. Table 3-5, page 3-46, lists other ammunition, 
bullet types, ballistics, and the velocity for each. 

■ Wind. The effects of wind are discussed later in this chapter. 



3-45 



FM 3-05.222 



Table 3-4. Point of Impact Rise at New Elevation (Minutes) 


Range (Meters) 


2,500 Feet * 


5,000 Feet * 


10,000 Feet* 


100 


0.05 


0.08 


0.13 


200 


0.1 


0.2 


0.34 


300 


0.2 


0.4 


0.6 


400 


0.4 


0.5 


0.9 


500 


0.5 


0.9 


1.4 


600 


0.6 


1.0 


1.8 


700 


1.0 


1.6 


2.4 


800 


1.3 


1.9 


3.3 


900 


1.6 


2.8 


4.8 


1,000 


1.8 


3.7 


6.0 


* Above Sea Level 



Table 3-5. Selected Ballistics Information 



Ammunition 


Bullet Type 


Ballistic Coefficient 


Muzzle Velocity 


Ml 93 


55 FMJBT 


.260 


3,200 fps 


M180 


147FMJBT 


.400 


2,808 fps 


M118 


173 FMJBT 


.515 


2,610 fps 


M852 


168HPBT 


.475 


2,675 fps 


M72 


173 FMJBT 


.515 


2,640 fps 



SHOT GROUPS 



3-137. If a rifle is fired many times under uniform conditions, the bullets 
striking the target will group themselves about a central point called the 
center of impact and will form a circular or elliptical group. The dimensions 
and shape of this shot group will vary depending on the distance of the target 
from the sniper. The circle or ellipse formed by these shots constantly 
increases in size with the range. The line connecting the centers of impact of 
all shots at all ranges measured is called the mean trajectory, and the core 
containing the circumferences of all the circles would mark the limits of the 
sheaf. The mean trajectory is the average trajectory. All ordi nates are 
compared to it, and angles of departure and fall refer only to it. 

3-138. The pattern on the target made by all of the bullets is called the shot 
group. If the shot group is received on a vertical target, it is called a vertical 
shot group and is circular. If the group is received on a horizontal target, it is 
called a horizontal shot group and is elliptical A large number of shots will 
form a shot group having the general shape of an ellipse, with its major axis 
vertical. The shots will be symmetrically grouped about the center of impact, 
not necessarily about the POA. They will be grouped more densely near the 
center of impact than at the edges, and half of all the shots will be found in a 



3-46 



FM 3-05.222 



Strip approximately 1/4 the size of the whole group. The width of this strip is 
called the mean vertical (or the 50 percent dispersion) if measured vertically 
or the mean lateral if measured laterally. 

3-139. When considering the horizontal shot group, the mean lateral 
dispersion retains its same significance, but what is called the mean vertical 
dispersion on a vertical target is known as the mean longitudinal dispersion 
on a horizontal target. There is a significant relationship between the size or 
dimensions of a shot group and the size or dimensions of the target fired at. 
With a shot group of fixed dimensions, when the target is made sufficiently 
large, all shots fired will strike the target. Conversely, with a very small 
target, only a portion of the shots fired will strike the target. The rest of the 
shots will pass over, under, or to the sides of the target. 

3-140. It is evident that the practical application of exterior ballistics— hitting 
a target of variable dimensions at unknown distances— is one probability of a 
shot group of fixed dimensions (the sniper's grouping ability) conforming to 
the dimensions of a given target. Added to this probability is the ability of 
the sniper to compensate for environmental conditions and maintain an 
accurate zero. 

3-141. One of the greatest paradoxes of sniping is that an average 
marksman has a slightly higher chance of hitting targets at unknown 
distances than a good marksman, if their respective abilities to judge 
distances, determine effects of environmental conditions, and maintain an 
accurate zero are equal. (The classification of good marksman and average 
marksman refers only to the sniper's grouping ability.) A good marksman 
who has miscalculated wind or who is not accurately zeroed would expect to 
miss the target entirely. An average marksman, under identical conditions, 
would expect to obtain at least a few hits on the target; or if only one shot was 
fired, would have a slight chance of obtaining a first-round hit. The above 
statement does not mean that average marksmen make better snipers. It 
does mean that the better the individual shoots, the more precise his ability 
to judge distance, calculate wind, and maintain his zero must be. 

3-142. Practical exterior ballistics is the state of applying a shot group or a 
sheaf of shots over an estimated distance against a target of unknown or 
estimated dimensions. It also includes estimating the probability of obtaining 
a hit with a single shot contained within the sheaf of shots previously 
determined through shot-group practices. 

INFLUENCE OF GROUND ON THE SHOT GROUP (SHEAF OF SHOTS) 

3-143. When firing at targets of unknown distances under field conditions, 
the sniper must take into consideration the lay of the ground and how it will 
affect his probable chances of hitting the target. Generally, the ground a 
sniper fires over will— 

• Be level. 

• Slope upward. 

• Slope downward. 



3-47 



FM 3-05.222 



3-144. The extent of the danger space depends on the— 

• Relationship between the trajectory and the LOS, angle of fall, and the 
range curvature of the trajectory. 

• Height of the target. 

• Point of aim. 

• Point of impact. 

NOTE: The longer the range, the shorter the danger space, due to the 
increasing curvature of the trajectory. 

3-145. The displacing of the center of impact from the center of the target is 
a factor that the sniper must also consider. It will often be the controlling 
factor. The danger space at ranges under 700 yards is affected by the position 
of the sniper (height of the muzzle above the ground). The danger space 
increases as the height of the muzzle decreases. At longer ranges, no material 
effect is felt from different positions of the sniper. 

3-146. The influence of the ground on computing hit probability on a target 
at unknown distances results in the necessity of distinguishing between 
danger space and swept space (which are functions of the mean trajectory), 
and between these (danger space and swept space) and the dangerous zone 
(which is a function of the whole or a part of the cone of fire). For a given 
height of target and POA, the danger space is of fixed dimensions. The swept 
space varies in relation with the slope of the ground. Swept space is shorter 
on rising ground and longer on falling ground than the danger space. All the 
functions of the danger zone, such as the density of the group at a given 
distance from the center of impact, are correspondingly modified. 

SNIPER DATA BOOK 

3-147. The sniper data book contains a collection of data cards. The sniper 
uses these cards to record firing results and all elements that have an effect 
on firing the weapon. This information could include weather conditions or 
even the sniper's attitude on a particular day. The sniper can refer to this 
information later to understand his weapon, the weather effects, and his 
firing ability on a given day. One of the most important items of information 
he will record is the cold barrel zero of his weapon. A cold barrel zero refers to 
the first round fired from the weapon. It is critical that the sniper know this 
by firing the first round at 200 meters. When the barrel warms up, later shots 
may begin to group 1 or 2 minutes higher or lower, depending on rifle 
specifics. Figure 3-27, page 3-49, shows a sample sniper data card. 

3-148. When used properly, the data card will provide the necessary 
information for initial sight settings at each distance or range. It also 
provides a basis for analyzing the performance of the sniper and his rifle and 
is a valuable aid in making bold and accurate sight changes. The most 
competent sniper would not be able to consistently hit the center of the target 
if he were unable to analyze his performance or if he had no record of his 
performance or conditions affecting his firing. 



3-48 



FM 3-05.222 



GnuLoa»^ 



SNIPER'S DATA CARD 



RANGE 



AMMO 



i.C'/j3<f- CLSfiA 



RIFLE AND SCJOPE NO. 



/^3f-S-^7g 



LIGHT 



LIGHT 




SHOT 



ELEV 



WIND 



P 



fl 



A>k -iS 



/A3¥ 



MIRAGE 



A/«/<e 



TEMP 



SS-' 



DISTANCE TO TARGET. 



MEIERS 



DATE 



0<rjhf* 9p 



HOUR 



^f^^ 



WIND 



VELOCITY 







a 



-ht 



a 






^/ 



^^ 



fl 






fl 



+ / 



^^ 



a 



+ / 



fl 



10 



>/ 



HOLD 



REMARKS 



PttLLWC) 



m& Colo 



ELEVATION 



USED CORRECT 

6 &-tl 



WINDAGE 



USED COHHECT 



<^ ^/M 




2 7 



NOTE: Th0 required targets wttf be drawn In by hand to meat the needs of the unit. 



Figure 3-27. Sample of a Sniper's Data Card 



ENTRIES 



3-149. The three phases in writing information on the data card are bd'ore 
firing, during firing, and after firing. Each phase requires specific data and 
provides an excellent learning tool for future training. Each sniper should 
complete the following information for each phase and analyze his 
performance to stay proficient at all times. 

Phase l-Before Firing 

3-150. Before the sniper fires, heshould record the foil owing data: 

• Range The distance to the target. 

• /R/ffeandtafesccpenumber. The serial numbersof the rifle and telescope. 

• Date. Date of firing. 

• Ammunition. Type and lot number of ammunition. 

• Light. Amount of light (overcast, clear). 

• l^irage. Whether a mirage can be seen or not (bad, fair, good). 

• Temperature. Temperature on the range. 

• Hour. Time of firing. 



3-49 



FM 3-05.222 



• Light (diagram). He draws an arrow in the direction the light is shining. 

• Wind. He draws an arrow in the direction that the wind is blowing and 
records its average velocity and cardinal direction (N, NE, S, SW). 

Phase ll-During Firing 

3-151. The sniper should also record specific data during firing. This 
information includes the following: 

• Ei&/ation. Elevation setting used and any correction needed. (For 
example: The target distance is 600 meters; the sniper sets the 
elevation dial to 6. The sniper fires and the round hits the target 6 
inches low of center. He then adds 1 minute [one click] of elevation.) 

• Windage. Windage setting used and any correction needed. (For 
example: The sniper fires at a 600 meter target with a windage setting 
on 0; the round impacts 15 inches right of center. He will then add 2 1/2 
minutes left tothe windagedial [L/2 1/2].) 

• Sliot The column of information about a particular shot. (For example: 
Column 1 is for the first round; column 10 is for the tenth round.) 

• Wind. Windage used. (For example: L/2, 1/2, O, R/1/2.) This is for iron 
sights or compensation for spin drift. Mil holds are used for the scope. 

• Call. Where the ai mi ng poi nt was when the weapon f i red. 

• L arge sillioud^e or targd: representation. U sed to record the exact i mpact 
of the round on the target. This is recorded by writing the shot's number 
on the I arge silhouette that is in the same place it hit the target. 

Phase Ill-After Firing 

3-152. The sniper also records data after firing that will enable him to better 
understand his results and to improve his performance. This data includes: 

• Comments about the weapon, firing conditions (time allowed for fire), 
or his condition (nervous, felt bad, felt good). 

• Corrected no-wind zero. Show the elevation and windage in minutes 
and clicks that was correct for this position and distance under 
no-wind conditions. 

• Remarks. Note any equipment, performance, weather conditions, or 
range conditions that had a good or bad effect on the firing results. 



ANALYSIS 



3-153. When the sniper leaves the firing line, he compares weather 
conditions tothe information needed to hit the POA or POI. Since he fires in 
all types of weather conditions, he must be aware of temperature, light, 
mirage, and wind. He must also consider the following possibilities: 

• Compare sight settings with previous firing sessions. If the sniper 
always has to fine-tune for windage or elevation, there is a chance he 
needs a sight change (slip a scale). 

• Compare the ammunition by lot number for the best rifle and 
ammunition combination. 



3-50 



FM 3-05.222 



• Compare all groups fired under each condition. Check the low and 
high shots as well as those to the left and the right of the main 
group. Of course, less dispersion is desired. If groups are tight, they 
are easily moved to the center of the target; if scattered, there is a 
problem. Check the telescope focus and ensure that the rifle is 
cleaned correctly. Remarks in the data book will also help. 

• Make corrections. Record corrections in the data book, such as position 
and sight adjustment information, to ensure retention. The sniper 
should compare hits to calls. If they agree, the result is an indication 
that the zero is correct and that any compensation for the effects of the 
weather is correct. If the calls and hits are consistently out of the 
target, sight adjustment or more position and trigger control work 
is necessary. 

3-154. The sniper should compare the weather conditions and location of the 
groups on the latest data sheet to previous data sheets to determine how much 
and in which direction the sights should be moved to compensate for the 
weather conditions. If better results are obtained with a different sight picture 
under an unusual light condition, he should use this sight picture whenever 
firing under that particular light condition. A different sight picture may 
necessitate adjusting the sights. After establishing how much to compensate for 
the effects of weather or which sight picture works best under various light 
conditions, the sniper should commit this information to memory. 

3-155. The sniper should keep the training and zeroing data sheets for 
future reference. Rather than carry the firing data sheets during sniper 
training exercises or combat, he can carry or tape on his weapon stock a list of 
the elevation and windage zeros at various ranges. 

ZEROING THE RIFLE 

3-156. A zero is the alignment of the sights with the bore of the rifle so that 
the bullet will impact on the target at the desired POA. However, the aiming 
point, the sight, and the bore will coincide at two points. These points are 
called the zero. 

3-157. Depending upon the situation, a sniper may have to deliver an 
effective shot at ranges up to 1,000 meters or more. This need requires the 
sniper to zero his rifle (with telescopic and iron sights) at most of the ranges 
that he may be expected to fire. When using telescopic sights, he needs only 
zero for elevation at 300 meters (100 meters for windage) and confirms at the 
more distant ranges. His success depends on a "one round, one hit" 
philosophy. He may not get a second shot. Therefore, he must accurately zero 
his rifle so that when applying the fundamentals he can be assured of an 
accurate hit. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SNIPER RIFLE IRON SIGHTS 

3-158. The iron sights of the M24 are adjustable for both windage and 
elevation. While these sights are a backup to the telescope and used only 
under extraordinary circumstances, it is in the sniper's best interest to be 
fully capable with them. Iron sights are excellent for developing 



3-51 



FM 3-05.222 



marksmanship skills. They force the sniper to concentrate on sight 
alignment, sight picture, and follow-through. 

3-159. The M24 has a hooded front sight that has interchangeable inserts. 
These various-sized inserts range from circular discs to posts. The sniper 
should use the post front sight to develop the sight picture that is consistent 
with the majority of U.S. systems. The rear sight is the Palma match sight 
and has elevation and windage adjustments in 1/4 MOA. The elevation knob 
is on the top of the sight and the windage knob is on the right side of the 
sight. Turning the elevation knob in the direction marked "UP" raises the 
POI, and turning the windage knob in the direction marked "R" moves the 
POI to the right. 

ADJ USTMENT OF THE REAR SIGHT 

3-160. The sniper determines mechanical windage zero by aligning the sight 
base index line with the centerline of the windage gauge. The location of the 
movable index line indicates the windage used or the windage zero of the 
rifle. For example, if the index line is to the left of the centerline of the gauge, 
this point is a left reading. The sniper determines windage zero by simply 
counting the number of clicks back to the mechanical zero. He determines the 
elevation of any range by counting the number of clicks down to mechanical 
elevation zero. 

3-161. Sight adjustment or manipulation is a very important aspect of 
training that must be thoroughly learned by the sniper. He can accomplish 
this goal best through explanation and practical work in manipulating 
the sights. 

3-162. The sniper must move the rear sight in the direction that the shot or 
shot group is to be moved. To move the rear sight or a shot group to the right, 
he turns the windage knob clockwise. The rule to remember is pus/i Idt—pull 
right. To raise the elevation or a shot group, he turns the elevation knob 
clockwise. To lower it, he turns counterclockwise. 

ZEROING THE SNIPER RIFLE USING THE IRON SIGHTS 

3-163. The most precise method of zeroing a sniper rifle with the iron sights 
is to fire the rifle and adjust the sights to hit a given point at a specific range. 
The rifle is zeroed in 100-meter increments from 100 to 900 meters. The 
targets are placed at each range, then the sniper fires one or more five-round 
shot groups at each aiming point. He must adjust the rear sight until the 
center of the shot group and the aiming point coincide at each range. The 
initial zeroing for each range should be accomplished from the prone 
supported position. The sniper can then zero from those positions and ranges 
that are most practical. There is no need to zero from the least steady 
positions at longer ranges. 

3-164. The sniper should use the following zeroing procedure for M24 
iron sights: 

• Ela/ation knob adjustments. Turning the elevation knob located on the 
top of the rear sight in the UP direction raises the POI; turning the knob 
downward lowers the POI . Each click of adjustment equals 0.25 MOA. 



3-52 



FM 3-05.222 



• Windage knob adjustments. Turning the windage knob located on the 
right side of the rear sight in the R direction moves the impact of the 
round to the right; turning the knob in the opposite direction moves the 
POI to the left. Each click of adjustment equals 0.25 MOA. Windage 
should be zeroed at 100 meters to negate the effects of wind. 

• Calibrating rear siglit After zeroing the sights to the rifle, the sniper 
loosens the elevation and windage indicator plate screws with the 
wrench provided. He should align the "0" on the plate with the "0" on 
the sight body, then retightens the plate screws. Next, he loosens the 
setscrews in each knob and aligns the "0" of the knob with the 
reference line on the sight. He presses the sight and tightens the 
setscrews. The sniper then sharpens or softens the click to preference 
by loosening or tightening the spring screws equally on the knob. He 
must now count down the number of clicks to the bottom of the sight. 
He then records this number and uses it as a reference whenever he 
believes there has been a problem with his rear sight. He only needs to 
bottom out the sight and count up the number of clicks required to the 
desired zero. Windage and elevation corrections can now be made, and 
the sniper can return quickly to the zero standard. Elevation should be 
zeroed at 200 meters to increase the accuracy of the zero. 

• Graduations. There are 12 divisions or 3 MOA adjustments in each 
knob revolution. Total elevation adjustment is 60 MOAs and total 
windage adjustment is 36 MOAs. Adjustment scales are of the "vernier" 
type. Each graduation on the scale plate equals 3 MOAs. Each 
graduation on the sight base scale equals 1 MOA. 

3-165. To use the scales, the sniper— 

• Notes the point at which graduations on both scales are aligned (Figure 
3-28, page 3-54). 

• Counts the number of full 3 MOA graduations from "0" on the scale 
plate to "0" on the sight base scale. 

• Adds this figure to the number of MOAs from "0"on the bottom scale to 
the point where the two graduations are aligned. 

NOTE: The Redfield Raima sight is the issued sight of theSWS and no longer 
aval I able commercially. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SNIPER RIFLE TELESCOPIC SIGHT 

3-166. Sniper telescopic sights have turret assemblies for the adjustment of 
elevation and windage. The upper assembly is the elevation and the assembly 
on the right is for windage. These assemblies have knobs that are marked for 
corrections of a given value in the direction indicated by the arrow. The M3A 
and the ART series use a similar system for zeroing. The sniper moves the 
knobs in thedirection that he wants the shot groupto move on the target. 

3-167. The M3A is graduated to provide 1 MOA of adjustment for each click 
of its elevation knob and 1/2 MOA of adjustment for each click of its windage 
knob. This sight is designed to provide audible and tactile clicks. The 
elevation turret knob is marked in 100-meter increments from 100 to 500, 
and 50-meter increments from 500 to 1,000. 



3-53 



FM 3-05.222 



Elevation Knob 



Spring Tension Screw-^^ 



Windage Indicator Plate 



Elevation Indicator Plate - 



3MOA-J 





1 MOA 



{■ 



3 MOA + 1 MOA = 4 MOA - 

3- 
Base Plate 



UJ 



Windage Knob 
Set Screw/ 

Eyepiece 



15 MOA 



{ 



Aligned 



2 MOA 



{ 



0-_ 



— 15 
Scale Plate 



15 MOA +2 MOA =17 MOA 



Base Plate 



15 



Aligned 



— 30 
Scale Plate 



Figure 3-28. Adjusting the Elevation and Windage on the Rear Sight Assembly 

ZEROING THE SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM WITH THE TELESCOPIC SIGHT 

3-168. The most precise method of zeroing the sniper rifle for elevation using 
the scope sight is to fire and adjust the sight to hit a given point at 200 
meters. For windage, the scope should be zeroed at 100 meters. This point 
rules out as much wind effect as possible. After zeroing at 100 meters, the 
sniper should confirm his zero out to 900 meters in 100-meter increments. 
The bull's-eye-type target (200-yard targets, NSN SRl-6920-00-900-8204) can 
be used for zeroing. Another choice is a blank paper with black pastees 
forming a 1-MOA aim point. 

3-169. The sniper should use the following zeroing procedures for a 
telescopic sight. H e should— 

• Properly mount the scope to the rifle. 

• Select or prepare a distinct target (aiming cross) at 200 meters for 
elevation or 100 meters for windage. If 200 meters is used for windage, 
then impact must be compensated for a no-wind effect. 

• Assume the prone supported position. 

• Focus the reticle to his eye. 

• Set parallax for target range. 



3-54 



FM 3-05.222 



• Boresight scope to ensure round on paper, considering tinat tine IM3A is 
a fixed lOx scope. 

• Fire a single shot and determine its location and distance from the 
aiming cross. 

• Using the elevation and windage rule, determine the number of clicks 
necessary to move the center of the group to the center of the 
aiming cross. 

• Remove the elevation and windage turret caps and make the necessary 
sight adjustments. Then replace the turret caps. In making sight 
adjustments, the sniper must turn the adjusting screws in the direction 
that he wants to move the strike of the bullet or group. 

• Fire 5-round groups as necessary to ensure that the center of the shot 
group coincides with the POA at 200 meters for elevation and 
compensated for wind. 

• Zero the elevation and windage scales and replace the turret caps. 
3-170. The rifle is now zeroed for 200 meters with a no-wind zero. 

3-171. To engage targets at other ranges, set the range on the elevation 
turret. To engage targets at undetermined ranges, use the mil dots in the 
scope, determine the range to the target, and then manually set the elevation 
turret. 

NOTE: Elevation and windage turrets should not be forced past the natural 
stops as damage may occur. 

AN/PVS-2 Night Vision Device 

3-172. The AN/PVS-2 may be zeroed during daylight hours or during hours 
of darkness. However, the operator may experience some difficulty in 
attempting to zero just before darkness (dusk). The light level is too low at 
dusk to permit the operator to resolve his zero target with the lens cap cover 
in place, but the light level at dusk is still intense enough to cause the sight 
to automatically cut off unless the lens cap cover is in position over the 
objective lens. The sniper will normally zero the sight for the maximum 
practical range that he can be expected to observe and fire, depending on the 
level of illumination. 

3-173. The sniper should zero the sight in the following manner. Heshould— 

• Place or select a distinct target at the desired zeroing range. A steel 
target provides the easiest target to spot because bullet splash is 
indicated by a spark as the bullet strikes the steel. He should assume 
the prone supported position, supporting the weapon and night vision 
sight combination with sandbags or other available equipment that will 
afford maximum stability. 

• Boresight the sight to the rifle. The sniper places the iron sight 
windage and elevation zero on the rifle for the zeroing range and 
adjusts the weapon position until the correct sight picture is obtained 
on the aiming point at the zeroing range. He moves the eye to the night 
vision sight and observes the location of the reticle pattern in relation 
to the reference aiming point. If the reference aiming point on the 



3-55 



FM 3-05.222 



target and the reference POA of the reticle pattern do not coincide, 
move the elevation and azimuth adjustment knobs until these aiming 
points coincide. 

• Place the reference POA of the reticle pattern (Figure 3-29) on the 
center of mass of the target or on a distinct aiming point on the target. 
Then fire enough rounds to obtain a good shot group. Check the target 
to determine the center of the shot group in relation to the reticle POA. 

• Adjust the night vision sight to move the reticle aiming reference point 
to the center of the shot group. When making adjustments for errors in 
elevation or azimuth, move the sight in the direction of the error. For 
example, if the shot group is high and to the left of the reticle POA, 
compensate for the error by moving the sight to the left and up. 

NOTE: Each click of the azimuth or elevation knob will move the strike of the 
round 2 inches for each 100 meters of range. 




Through experience and test firing (zeroing), it has been 
determined that the placement of the reticle index marks 
produces the range zeroing reference points shown. 

Using these aiming points in the center of mass of a target 
will enable the sniper to obtain a first -round hit. 



Figure 3-29. The Range References and POAs for the AN/PVS-2 Black Line Reticle Pattern 

3-174. To engage targets at ranges other than the zero range, apply hold-off 
to compensate for the rise and fall in thetrajectory of the round. 

AN/PVS-4 Night Vision Device 

3-175. Zeroing the AN/PVS-4 is similar to zeroing with standard optical 
sights because (unlike the AN/PVS-2) the AN/PVS-4 mounts over the bore of 
the weapons system and has internal windage and elevation adjustments 
(Figure 3-30, page 3-57). 

Periodic Checlcing 

3-176. A sniper cannot expect his zero to remain absolutely constant. 
Periodic checking of the zero is required after disassembly of the sniper rifle 
for maintenance and cleaning, for changes in ammunition lots, as a result of 
severe weather changes, and to ensure first-shot hits. The rifle must be 
zeroed by the individual who will use it. Individual differences in stock weld, 
eye relief, position, and trigger control usually result in each sniper having a 
different zero with the same rifle or a change in zero after moving from one 
position to another. 



3-56 



FM 3-05.222 



Horizontal line from left point of origin represents 20 feet at 
ranges shown. Ranges are in hundreds of meters. 



EXAMPLES 

(Side View) 





8 
(Front View) 

.10 6 




f 



Vertical lines above or below the horizontal 
line represent 6 feet at the ranges shown. 
Ranges are in hundreds of meters. 

Center of two horizontal iines represents 
0-250 meters. 

M14 and M60 aiming points. Ranges are in 
hundreds of meters. 



Distance to the tank is 1000 meters. 
Distance to the 6-foot man is 400 meters. 



Distance to the tank is 500 meters. 
Distance to the 6-foot man is 200 meters. 



Figure 3-30. Using the I\/I14 and M60 Reticle of the AN/PVS-4 for Range Estimation and POA 



Confirming Zero 



3-177. After a rifle has been zeroed and it becomes necessary to confirm this 
zero for any reason, the rifle can be zeroed again by firing at a known 
distance with the sight set on the old zero. If a sight adjustment is necessary 
to hit the aiming point, this zero change will remain constant at all ranges. 
For example, if a sniper is firing at a distance of 500 meters with the old zero 
and it becomes necessary to raise the elevation three clicks to hit the aiming 
point, he should raise the elevation zerothreeclicksat all ranges. 



Changing Zero 



3-178. Before changing the zero, windage, or elevation, the sniper must 
consider the effects of weather. Extreme changes of humidity or temperature 
can warp the stock or affect the ammunition. Wear, abuse, or repairs can also 
cause a sni per rifle's zero set to change. 

Field-Expedient Zeroing 

3-179. The sniper should use the boresight to confirm zero retention in a 
denied area. The sniper may need to confirm his zero in a field environment. 
Dropping a weapon or taking it through excessive climatic changes (by 
deploying worldwide) are good reasons for confirming the SWS's zero. The 
sniper may also use this method when the time or situation does not permit 
the use of a known distance range. This technique works best when 
confirming old zeros. 



3-57 



FM 3-05.222 



3-180. The sniper will need an observer equipped with binoculars or a 
spotting telescope to assist him. The sniper and observer pick out an aiming 
point in the center of an area; for example, a hillside, brick house, or any 
surface where the strike of the bullet can be observed. The team can 
determine the range to this point by using the ranging device on the 
telescope, by laser range finder, by map survey, by the range card of another 
weapon, or by ground measurement. 

3-181. Once the sniper has assumed a stable position, the observer must 
position himself close and to the rear of the sniper. The observer's binoculars 
or telescope should be positioned approximately 18 to 24 inches above the 
weapon and as close in line with the axis of the bore as possible. With his 
optics in this position, the observer can see the trace of the bullet as it moves 
downrange. The trace or shock wave of the bullet sets up an air turbulence 
sufficient enough to be observed in the form of a vapor trail. The trace of the 
bullet enables the observer to follow the path of the bullet in its trajectory 
toward its impact area. The trace will disappear prior to impact and make it 
appear to the inexperienced observer that the bullet struck above or beyond 
its actual impact point. For example, at 300 meters the trace will disappear 
approximately 5 inches above the impact point. At 500 meters the trace will 
disappear approximately 25 inches above the impact point. 

3-182. Wind causes lateral movement of the bullet. This lateral movement will 
appear as a drifting of the trace in the direction that the wind is blowing. This 
movement must be considered when determining windage zero. The observer 
must be careful to observe the trace at its head and not be misled by the 
bending tail of the trace in a stout crosswind. Before firing the first round, the 
sniper must set his sights so that he will hit on or near his aiming point. This 
setting is based on the old zero or an estimate. The sniper fires a shot and gives 
a call to the observer. If the strike of the bullet could not be observed, the 
observer gives a sight adjustment based on the trace of the bullet. 

3-183. If the first shots do not hit the target, and the observer did not detect 
trace, the sniper may fire at the four corners of the target. One of the rounds 
will hit the target and the sniper can use this hit to make an adjustment to 
start the zeroing process. Once the strike of the bullet can be observed in the 
desired impact area, the observer compares the strike with the call and gives 
sight adjustments until the bullet impact coincides with the aiming point. 

Firing at Targets With No Definite Zero Establislied 

3-184. The sniper should use the 100-meter zero when firing on targets at a 
range of 100 meters or less. The difference between the impact of the bullet and 
the aiming point increases as the range increases if the sights are not moved. If 
the sniper's zero is 9+2 at 900 meters and 8+1 at 800 meters, and he establishes 
the range of the target at 850 meters, he should use a sight setting of 850+1 
rather than using his 800- or 900-meter zero or the hold-off method. At any 
range, moving the sights is preferred over the hold-off method. 

Firing the 25-Meter Range 

3-185. The sniper should dial the telescope to 300 meters for elevation and to 
zero for windage. He then aims and fires at a target that is 25 yards away. He 
adjusts the telescope until rounds are impacting 1 inch above the POA. For 



3-58 



FM 3-05.222 



the sniper to confirm, he fires the SWS on a known distance range out to its 
maximum effective range. 

3-186. For iron sights, the sniper may fire on a 25-meter range to obtain a 
battle-sight zero. He then subtracts 1 minute (four clicks) of elevation from 
the battle-sight zero to get a 200-meter zero. The sniper may then use the 
following measures to determine the necessary increases in elevation to 
engage targets out to 600 meters: 

• 200 to 300 meters— 2 minutes. 

• 300 to 400 meters— 3 mi nutes. 

• 400 to 500 meters— 4 mi nutes. 

• 500 to 600 meters— 5 minutes. 

NOTE: These measures are based on the average change of several sniper 
rifles. While the changes may not result in an "exact" POA or POI zero, the 
sniper should not miss his target. 

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 

3-187. For the highly trained sniper, the effects of weather are the main 
cause of error in the strike of the bullet. Wind, mirage, light, temperature, 
and humidity all have some effect on the bullet and the sniper. Some effects 
are insignificant, depending on average conditions of sniper employment. 

3-188. It must be noted that all of the "rules of thumb" given here are for the 
7.62-mm bullet (168 to 175 grains) at 2600 feet per second (fps). If the sniper 
is using a caliber 5.56, 300 Win Mag, .338 Lapua Mag, or any other round 
then these rules do not apply. It is incumbent on the sniper to find the 
specific wind constants and other "effects" for the round he will be using. 



WIND 



Classification 



3-189. The condition that constantly presents the greatest problem to the 
sniper is the wind. The wind has a considerable effect on the bullet, and the 
effect increases with the range. This result is due mainly to the slowing of the 
bullet's velocity combined with a longer flight time. This slowing allows the 
wind to have a greater effect on the bullet as distances increase. The result is 
a loss of stability. Wind also has a considerable effect on the sniper. The 
stronger the wind, the more difficult it is for the sniper to hold the rifle 
steady. The effect on the sniper can be partially offset with good training, 
conditioning, and the use of supported positions. 



3-190. Since the sniper must know how much effect the wind will have 
on the bullet, he must be able to classify the wind. The best method to use is 
the clock system (Figure 3-31, page 3-60). With the sniper at the center of 
the clock and the target at 12 o'clock, the wind is assigned the following 
three values: 

• Full va/uemeans that the force of the wind will have a full effect on the 
flight of the bullet. These winds come from 3 and 9 o'clock. 

• Half value means that a wind at the same speed, but from 1, 2, 4, 5, 
7, 8, 10, and 11 o'clock will move the bullet only half as much as a 
full-value wind. While this half-value definition is generally accepted. 



3-59 



FM 3-05.222 



it is not accurate. Applying basic math will illustrate that the actual 
half-value winds are from 1, 5, 7, and 11 on the clock. Winds from 2, 
4, 8, and 10 have values of 86 percent. 

NOTE: To determine the exact effect of the wind on the bullet when the 
wind is between full and no-value positions, multiply the wind speed by 
the following constants: 90-degree, full; 75 degree, 0.96; 60 degree, 0.86; 
45 degree, 0.70; 30 degree, 0.50; 15 degree, 0.25. 

• No value means that a wind from 6 or 12 o'clock will have little or no 
effect on the flight of the bullet at close ranges. The no-value wind has 
a definite effect on the bullet at long ranges (beyond 600 meters) if it is 
not blowing directly from 6 or 12 o'clock. This wind is the most difficult 
to fire in due to its switching or fishtail effect, which requires frequent 
sight changes. Depending on the velocity of this type of wind, it will 
have an effect on the vertical displacement of the bullet. 



Winds from the teft blow the bullet 
to the right. 




Winds from the right blow the bullet 
to the left. 


i^/' 


No Value 


■\N^ 


1 Half-Value /"^ 
/ Wind X 11 


\ ^'^1 


^\ Half-Value \ 
1 \ Wind 




^^^^^10 




2\^^^^ 


^ 




Full-Value Q 

Wind 1^^^^ 




3 Full-Value 

^^^1 Wind 






--''^^8 




Aj~~~-~~^ 


^ 


! 


Half-Value \ 7 
Wind \^ 

\ 1 


/^eV 


5/ Half-Value 
^ Wind 


1 
1 



Velocity 



Figure 3-31. Using the Clock System Method to Classify the Wind 



3-191. Before adjusting the sight to compensate for wind, the sniper must 
determine wind direction and velocity. He may use certain indicators to make 
this determination. These indicators include range flags, smoke, trees, grass, 
rain, and the sense of feel. I n most cases, wind direction can be determined 
simply by observing the indicators. However, the preferred method of 
determining wind direction and velocity is reading mirage. 



3-60 



FM 3-05.222 



3-192. A method of estimating the velocity of the wind during training is to 
watch the range flag (Figure 3-32). The sniper determines the angle in 
degrees between the flag and pole, then divides by the constant number 4. 
The result gives the approximate velocity in miles per hour (mph). This 
amount is based on the use of the heavier cotton range flags, not nylon flags, 
which are now used on most ranges. 

NOTE: Nylon flags are not a reliable indicator for determining wind speed 
because of their susceptibility to minor wind speed variations. 




60° 
60/4= 15 MPH 



Wind Speed = 15 MPH 



NOTE: To determine the wind speed, estimate the angle of the object from the pote and 
divide by the constant 4. 



Figure 3-32. Estimating Wind Velocity Using the Range Flag 

3-193. If no flag is visible, the sniper holds a piece of paper, grass, cotton, or 
some other light material at shoulder level, then drops it. He then points 
directly at the spot where it lands and divides the angle between his body and 
arm by the constant number 4. This number gives him the approximate wind 
velocity in mph (Figure 3-33). 



Jl 


^ 


Wind X 


mm 


^^^W^\ Wind speed = 10 MPH 


': 


m 


m^'\ 


^W9 


wM 


NOTE: To determine the wind speed, drop the object, estimate the angle from 
the object to your teg, and divide by the constant 4. 



Figure 3-33. Estimating Wind Velocity by Dropping a Piece of Paper 



3-61 



FM 3-05.222 



3-194. If the sniper is unable to use these methods, he can apply the 
information in Table 3-6 to determine velocity. 



Table 3-6. Determining Velocity 



Wind Velocity (mph) 


Effect 


0-3 


The wind can barely be felt but may be seen by mirage or smoke drifts. 


3-5 


The wind can be felt on the face. Grass begins to move. 


5-8 


The leaves in the trees and long grass are in constant motion. 


8-12 


The wind raises dust and loose paper and moves small branches in trees. 


12-15 


The wind causes trees to sway. 



MIRAGE 



3-195. A mirage is a reflection of the heat through layers of air at different 
temperatures and densities as seen on a warm, bright day. With the 
telescope, the sniper can see a mirage as long as there is a difference in 
ground and air temperatures. Proper reading of the mirage enables the 
sniper to estimate wind direction with a high degree of accuracy. The sniper 
uses the spotting scope to read the mirage. Since the wind nearest to 
midrange has the greatest effect on the bullet, he should try to determine 
velocity at that point. He can determine the amount in one of two ways: 

• Focus on an object at midrange, then place the telescope back on to the 
target without readjusting the focus. 

• Focus on the target, then back off the focus one-quarter turn 
counterclockwise. This movement makes the target appear fuzzy, but 
the mi rage will be clear. 

3-196. As observed through the telescope, the mirage appears to move with 
the same velocity as the wind, except when blowing straight into or away 
from the telescope. Then the mirage gives the appearance of moving straight 
upward with no lateral movement. It is then called a boiling mirage. A boiling 
mirage may also be seen when the wind is constantly changing direction; for 
example, a full-value wind blowing from 9 to 3 o'clock suddenly changes 
direction. The mirage will appear to stop moving from left to right and will 
present a boiling appearance. When this image occurs, the inexperienced 
observer may direct the sniper to fire with the "0" wind. As the sniper fires, 
the wind begins blowing from 3 to 9 o'clock and causes the bullet to miss the 
target. Therefore, firing in a "boil" can hamper shot placement. Unless there 
is a no-value wind, the sniper must wait until the boil disappears. In general, 
changes in the velocity of the wind, up to about 12 mph, can readily be 
determined by observing the mirage. Beyond that speed, the movement of the 
mirage is too fast for detection of minor changes. I n general, when the waves 
of the mirage are shallow, its velocity and resultant wind speed are fast. 
Mi rage will disappear at wind speeds above 15 mph. 

3-197. The sniper can determine the true direction of the wind by traversing 
the telescope until the heat waves appear to move straight up with no lateral 
motion (a boiling mirage). 



3-62 



FM 3-05.222 



3-198. A mirage is particularly valuable in reading no-value winds. If the 
mirage is boiling, the effective wind velocity is zero. If there is any lateral 
movement of the mirage, it is necessary to make windage adjustments. 

3-199. Another important effect of mirage is the light diffraction caused by 
the uneven air densities, which are characteristic of heat waves. Depending 
on atmospheric conditions, this diffraction will cause a displacement of the 
target image in the direction of the movement of the mirage. Thus if a mirage 
is moving from left to right, the target will appear to beslightly to the right of 
its actual location. Si nee the sniper can only aim at the image received by his 
eye, he will actually aim at a point that is offset slightly from the center of the 
target. This error will be in addition to the displacement of the bullet caused 
by the wind. Since the total effect of the visible mirage (effective wind plus 
target displacement) will vary considerably with atmospheric conditions and 
light intensity, it is impossible to predict the amount of error produced at any 
given place and time. It is only through considerable experience in reading 
mi rage that the sniper will develop proficiency as a "wind doper." 

3-200. Before firing, the sniper should check the mirage and make the 
necessary sight adjustments or hold-off to compensate for any wind. 
Immediately after firing, but before plotting the call in the scorebook, he 
again checks the mirage. If any changes are noted, they must be considered 
in relating the strike of the bullet to the call. The above procedure should be 
used for each shot. 

CONVERSION OF WIND VELOCITY TO MINUTES OF ANGLE 

3-201. All telescopic sights have windage adjustments that are graduated in 
MOAs or fractions thereof. An MOA is l/60th of a degree. This number equals 
about 1 inch (1. 0472 inches) for every 100 yards and 3 centimeters (2.97 
centimeters) for every meter. 

Example: 1 MOA =2 inches at 200 yards 

1 M OA = 15 centimeters at 500 meters 

3-202. Snipers use MOAs to determine and adjust the elevation and windage 
needed on the telescope. After finding the wind direction and velocity in mph, 
the sniper must then convert it into MOAs using the wind formula as a rule 
of thumb only. The wind formula is as follows: 

Range (hundreds) X Velocity(mph) ... . _ „ ,, , ..r ^ 

— '^^ = Minutes Full- Value Wind 

GivenVariable 

3-203. The given variable (GV) for M80 ball depends on the target's range 
(R) and is due to bullet velocity loss: 

• 100 to 500 GV= 15 

• 600GV=14 

• 700 to 800 V =13 

• 900GV=12 

• 1,000 GV =11 

3-204. The variable for M118, M118LR, and M852 is 10 at all ranges. 



3-63 



FM 3-05.222 



3-205. If the target is 700 meters away and the wind velocity is 10 mph, the 
formula is as follows: 



7 X 10 
10 



7M0A 



NOTE: This formula determines the number of minutes for a full-value wind. 
For a half-value (1/2V) wind, the 7 MOA would be divided in half, resulting in 
3.5 MOA. 

3-206. The observer makes his own adjustment estimations and then 
compares them to the wind conversion table, which can be a valuable training 
tool. He must not rely on this table. If it is lost, his ability to perform the 
mission could be severely hampered. Until the observer gains skill in 
estimating wind speed (WS) and computing sight changes, he may refer to the 
wind conversion table (Table 3-7). The observer will give the sniper a sight 
adjustment for iron sights or a mil hold off for the scope. 









Table 3-7. Wind Conversion Table 


in Mils 








R(m)\ 


2 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


100 


0.00 


0.00 


0.25 


0.25 


0.25 


0.25 


0.50 


0.50 


0.50 


0.50 


1/2V 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.25 


0.25 


0.25 


0.25 


200 


0.00 


0.25 


0.25 


0.50 


0.50 


0.75 


0.75 


1.00 


1.00 


1.25 


1/2V 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.25 


0.25 


0.50 


0.50 


0.50 


0.50 


0.75 


300 


0.25 


0.25 


0.50 


0.75 


1.00 


1.00 


1.25 


1.50 


1.50 


1.75 


1/2V 


0.00 


0.00 


0.25 


0.50 


0.50 


0.50 


0.75 


0.75 


0.75 


1.00 


400 


0.25 


0.50 


0.75 


1.00 


1.25 


1.50 


1.50 


2.00 


2.25 


2.25 


1/2V 


0.00 


0.25 


0.50 


0.50 


0.75 


0.75 


0.75 


1.00 


1.25 


1.25 


500 


0.25 


0.50 


1.00 


1.25 


1.50 


1.75 


2.00 


2.25 


2.50 


3.00 


1/2V 


0.00 


0.25 


0.50 


0.75 


0.75 


1.00 


1.00 


1.25 


1.25 


1.50 


600 


0.25 


0.75 


1.00 


1.50 


1.75 


2.25 


2.50 


2.75 


3.25 


3.50 


1/2V 


0.00 


0.50 


0.50 


0.75 


1.00 


1.00 


1.25 


1.25 


1.50 


1.75 


700 


0.50 


0.75 


1.25 


1.50 


2.00 


2.50 


3.00 


3.25 


3.75 


4.25 


1/2V 


0.25 


0.50 


0.75 


0.75 


1.00 


1.25 


1.50 


1.75 


2.00 


2.25 


800 


0.50 


1.00 


1.50 


2.00 


2.25 


2.75 


3.25 


3.75 


4.25 


4.75 


1/2V 


0.25 


0.50 


0.75 


1.00 


1.25 


1.50 


1.75 


1.75 


2.25 


2.50 


900 


5.00 


1.00 


1.50 


2.00 


2.50 


3.25 


3.75 


4.25 


4.75 


5.25 


1/2V 


2.50 


0.50 


0.75 


1.00 


1.25 


1.50 


1.75 


2.25 


2.50 


2.50 


1,000 


5.00 


1.25 


1.75 


2.50 


3.00 


3.50 


4.25 


4.75 


5.25 


6.00 


1/2V 


2.50 


0.63 


0.75 


1.25 


1.50 


1.75 


2.25 


2.50 


2.50 


3.00 



3-64 



FM 3-05.222 



LIGHT 



3-207. Light does not affect the trajectory of the bullet. However, it may 
affect the way the sniper sees the target through the telescope. Light affects 
different people in different ways. The sniper generally fires high on a dull, 
cloudy day and low on a bright, clear day. Extreme light conditions from the 
left or the right may have an effect on the horizontal impact of a shot group. 

3-208. This effect can be compared to the refraction (bending) of light 
through a medium, such as a prism or a fish bowl. The same effect can be 
observed on a day with high humidity and with sunlight from high 
angles. To solve the problem of light and its effects, the sniper must 
accurately record the light conditions under which he is firing. Through 
experience and study, he will eventually determine the effect of light on 
his zero. Light may also affect firing of unknown distance ranges since it 
affects range determination capabilities, by elongating the target. 



TEMPERATURE 



ELEVATION 



3-209. Temperature has a definite effect on the elevation setting required to 
hit the center of the target. This effect is caused by the fact that an increase 
in temperature of 20 degrees Fahrenheit (F) will increase the muzzle velocity 
by approximately 50 fps. When ammunition sits in direct sunlight, the burn 
rate of powder is increased. The greatest effect of temperature is on the 
density of the air. As the temperature rises, the air density is lowered. Since 
there is less resistance, velocity decreases at a slower rate and the impact 
rises. This increase is in relation to the temperature in which the rifle was 
zeroed. If the sniper zeroes at 50 degrees and he is now firing at 90 degrees, 
the impact rises considerably. How high it rises is best determined by past 
firing recorded in the data book. The general rule is that a 20-degree increase 
from zero temperature will raise the impact by 1 minute; conversely, a 20- 
degree decrease will drop impact by 1 minute from 100 to 500 meters, 15 
degrees will affect the strike by 1 MOA from 600 to 900 meters, and 10 
degrees over 900 meters will affect the strike by 1 MOA. 



3-210. Elevation above sea level can have an important effect on bullet 
trajectory. At higher elevations, air density, temperature, and air drag on the 
bullet decrease. The basic rule of thumb is that the bullet strike will vary by 
1 MOA for every 5,000 feet of elevation. This amount will roughly correspond 
to the same barometric rulefor changes in round strike. 



BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 



HUMIDITY 



3-211. The effects of barometric pressure are that the higher the pressure, the 
denser the air. Thus the higher the pressure the lower the bullet will strike. As 
the pressure goes up, the sights go up. The basic rule is that from 100 to 500 
meters, 1 inch in barometric pressure will affect the strike by 0.25 MOA; from 
600 to 800 meters, a 1-inch change will affect the strike by 0.75 MOA, and from 
900 to 1000 meters, a 1-i nch change wi 1 1 effect the stri ke by 1.5 M OA. 



3-212. Humidity varies along with the altitude and temperature. The sniper 
can encounter problems if drastic humidity changes occur in his area of 



3-65 



FM 3-05.222 



operation. If humidity goes up, impact goes up; if humidity goes down, impact 
goes down. As a rule of thumb, a 20-percent change will equal about 1 minute 
affecting the impact. The sniper should keep a good data book during training 
and refer to his own record. 

3-213. To understand the effects of humidity on the strike of the bullet, the 
sniper must realize that the higher the humidity, the thinner the air; thus 
there is less resistance to the flight of the bullet. This will tend to slow the 
bullet at a slower rate, and, as a result, the sniper must lower his elevation to 
compensate for these factors. The effect of humidity at short ranges is not as 
noticeable as at longer ranges. The sniper's experience and his analysis of hits 
and groups under varied conditions will determine the effect of humidity on his 
zero. 

3-214. Some snipers fail to note all of the factors of weather. Certain 
combinations of weather will have different effects on the bullet. For this 
reason, a sniper may fire two successive days in the same location and under 
what appears to be the same conditions and yet use two different sight settings. 
For example, a 30-percent rise in humidity cannot always be determined 
readily. This rise in humidity makes the air less dense. If this thinner air is 
present with a 10-mile-per-hour wind, less elevation will be required to hit the 
same location than on a day when the humidity is 30 percent lower. 

3-215. By not considering all the effects of weather, some snipers may 
overemphasize certain effects and therefore make bad shots from time to time. 
Snipers normally fire for a certain period of time under average conditions. Asa 
result, they zero their rifles and (with the exception of minor displacements of 
shots and groups) have little difficulty except for the wind. However, a sniper 
can travel to a different location and fire again and find a change in his zero. 
Proper recording and study based on experience are all important in 
determining the effects of weather. Probably one of the most difficult things to 
impress upon a sniper is the evidence of a probable change in his zero. If a 
change is indicated, it should be applied to all ranges. 

SLOPE FIRING 

3-216. The sniper team conducts most firing practices by using the military 
range facilities, which are relatively flat. However, snipers may deploy to other 
regions of the world and have to operate in a mountainous or urban 
environment. This type of mission would require target engagements at higher 
and lower elevations. Unless the sniper takes corrective action, bullet impact 
will be above the POA. How high the bullet hits is determined by the range and 
angle to the target (Table 3-8, page 3-67). The amount of elevation change 
applied to the telescope of the rifle for anglefiring is known as slope dope. 



3-66 



FM 3-05.222 







Table 3-8. Bullet Rise 


at Given Angle and Range in Minutes 






Range 
(Meters) 


5 


10 15 20 


Slant Degrees 
25 30 35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


100 


0.01 


0.04 


0.09 


0.16 


0.25 


0.36 


0.49 


0.63 


0.79 


0.97 


1.2 


1.4 


200 


0.03 


0.09 


0.2 


0.34 


0.53 


0.76 


1.0 


1.3 


1.7 


2.0 


2.4 


2.9 


300 


0.03 


0.1 


0.3 


0.5 


0.9 


1.2 


1.6 


2.1 


2.7 


3.2 


3.9 


4.5 


400 


0.05 


0.19 


0.43 


0.76 


1.2 


1.7 


2.3 


2.9 


3.7 


4.5 


5.4 


6.3 


500 


0.06 


0.26 


0.57 


1.0 


1.6 


2.3 


3.0 


3.9 


4.9 


6.0 


7.2 


8.4 


600 


0.08 


0.31 


0.73 


1.3 


2.0 


2.9 


3.9 


5.0 


6.3 


7.7 


9.2 


10.7 


700 


0.1 


0.4 


0.9 


1.6 


2.5 


3.6 


4.9 


6.3 


7.9 


9.6 


11.5 


13.4 


800 


0.13 


0.5 


1.0 


2.0 


3.0 


4.4 


5.9 


7.7 


9.6 


11.7 


14.0 


16.4 


900 


0.15 


0.6 


1.3 


2.4 


3.7 


5.3 


7.2 


9.3 


11.6 


14.1 


16.9 


19.8 


1,000 


0.2 


0.7 


1.6 


2.8 


4.5 


6.4 


8.6 


11.0 


13.9 


16.9 


20.2 


23.7 


NOTE: Rar 


ige give 


n is siant range (meten 


>), not map distance. 













3-217. The following is a list of compensation factors to use in setting the 
sights of the SWS when firing from any of the following angles. To use 
Table 3-9, pages 3-68 and 3-69, the sniper finds the angle at which he must 
fire and then multiplies the estimated range by the decimal figure shown to 
the right. For example, if the estimated range is 500 meters and the angle of 
fire is 35 degrees, the zero of the weapon should be set for 410 meters. 

Example: 500 x .82 =410 meters 

3-218. As can be seen, the steeper the angle, the shorter the range will beset 
on the scope or sights for a first-round hit. Also, the steeper the angle, the 
more precise the sniper must be in estimating or measuring the angle. 
I nterpolation is necessary for angles between tens and fives. 

Example: F ind the compensation factor for 72 degrees. 
70 degrees =0.34; 75 degrees =0.26; 
72 is 40 percent between 70 and 75 degrees. 
0.34 - 0.26 = 0.08; 0.08 x 40 percent 
(0.40) =0.03; 0.34 - 0.03 =0.31 

NOTE: Table 3-9B and C, pages 3-68 and 3-69, are additional means of 
determining where to set the sights on the SWS to fire from a given angle. These 
tables are excellent references to reproduce and make into small cards for quick 
and easy access when conducting a mission. The data is for ranging only; the 
actual distance is used when determining the effects of the environment. 



3-67 



FM 3-05.222 



Table 3-9. Compensation Factors Used When Firing From a Given Angle 



Percent of Slope Angle Up or Down (Degrees) 


Multiply Range By 


5 


.99 


10 


.98 


15 


.96 


20 


.94 


25 


.91 


30 


.87 


35 


.82 


40 


.77 


45 


.70 


50 


.64 


55 


.57 


60 


.50 


65 


,42 


70 


.34 


75 


.26 


80 


.17 


85 


.09 


90 


.00 



NOTE: This chart can also be used to compensate for apparent size of a target when 
miling for distance; for example, a 5-meter target at 30 degrees to the viewer 
is .87 X 5 = 4.35, which is the apparent size of a 5-meter target. 



B 



800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Range on Scope 




Degrees 45 



Measured 
Range 



3-68 



FM 3-05.222 



Table 3-9. Compensation 


Factors Used When Firing From a 


Given Angle (Conti 


nued) 


C 












Angular Degree 














Range 
(m) 


5 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 


80 


85 


90 


50 


49.5 


49 


48 


47 


45.5 


43.5 


41 


38.5 


35 


32 


28.5 


25 


21 


17 


13 


8.5 


4.5 





100 


99 


98 


96 


94 


91 


87 


82 


77 


70 


64 


57 


50 


42 


34 


26 


17 


9 





150 


149 


147 


144 


141 


137 


131 


123 


116 


105 


96 


85.5 


75 


63 


51 


39 


25.5 


13.5 





200 


198 


196 


192 


188 


182 


174 


164 


154 


140 


128 


114 


100 


84 


68 


52 


34 


18 





250 


248 


245 


240 


235 


228 


218 


205 


193 


175 


160 


143 


125 


105 


85 


65 


42.5 


22.5 





300 


297 


294 


288 


282 


273 


261 


246 


231 


210 


192 


171 


150 


126 


102 


78 


51 


27 





350 


347 


343 


336 


329 


319 


305 


287 


270 


245 


224 


200 


175 


147 


119 


91 


59.5 


31.5 





400 


396 


392 


384 


376 


364 


348 


328 


308 


280 


256 


228 


200 


168 


136 


104 


68 


36 





450 


446 


441 


432 


423 


410 


392 


369 


347 


315 


288 


257 


225 


189 


153 


117 


76.5 


40.5 





500 


595 


490 


480 


470 


455 


435 


410 


385 


350 


320 


285 


250 


210 


170 


130 


85 


45 





550 


545 


539 


528 


517 


501 


479 


451 


424 


385 


352 


314 


275 


231 


187 


143 


93.5 


49.5 





600 


594 


588 


576 


564 


546 


522 


492 


462 


420 


384 


342 


300 


252 


204 


156 


102 


54 





650 


644 


637 


624 


611 


592 


566 


533 


501 


455 


416 


371 


325 


273 


221 


169 


111 


58.5 





700 


693 


686 


672 


658 


637 


609 


574 


539 


490 


448 


399 


350 


294 


238 


182 


119 


63 





750 


743 


735 


720 


705 


683 


653 


615 


578 


525 


480 


428 


375 


315 


255 


195 


128 


67.5 





800 


792 


784 


768 


752 


728 


696 


656 


616 


560 


512 


456 


400 


336 


272 


208 


136 


72 





850 


842 


833 


816 


799 


774 


740 


697 


655 


595 


544 


485 


425 


357 


289 


221 


145 


76.5 





900 


891 


882 


864 


846 


819 


783 


738 


693 


630 


576 


513 


450 


378 


306 


234 


153 


81 





950 


941 


931 


912 


893 


865 


827 


779 


732 


665 


608 


542 


475 


399 


323 


247 


162 


85.5 





1,000 


990 


980 


960 


940 


910 


870 


820 


770 


700 


640 


570 


500 


420 


340 


260 


170 


90 






HOLD-OFF 



ELEVATION 



3-219. Hold-off is shifting the POA to achieve a desired POI. Certain 
situations such as multiple targets at varying ranges do not allow proper 
elevation adjustments. Therefore, familiarization and practice of elevation 
hold-off techniques prepare the sniper to meet these situations. Windage is 
almost always held off by the sniper and will be practiced each range session. 



3-220. The sniper uses this technique only when he does not have time to 
change his sight setting. He rarely achieves pinpoint accuracy when holding 
off because a minor error in range determination or a lack of a precise aiming 
point might cause the bullet to miss the desired point. The sniper uses hold- 
off with the telescope only if several targets appear at various ranges and 
time does not permit adjusting the scope for each target. 



3-69 



FM 3-05.222 



3-221. The sniper uses hold-off to hit a target at ranges other than the range 
for which the rifle is presently adjusted. When he aims directly at a target at 
ranges greater than the set range, his bullet will hit below the POA. At closer 
distances, his bullet will hit higher than the POA. If the sniper understands 
this point and the effect of trajectory and bullet drop, he will be able to hit the 
target at ranges other than that for which the rifle was adjusted. For 
example, the sniper adjusts the rifle for a target located 500 meters 
downrange but another target appears at a range of 600 meters. The hold-off 
would be 25 inches; that is, the sniper should hold off 25 inches above the 
center of visible mass to hit the center of mass of that particular target 
(Figure 3-34). If another target were to appear at 400 meters, the sniper 
would aim 15 inches below the center of visible mass to hit the center of mass. 




Figure 3-34. Elevation 

3-222. The vertical mil dots on the M3A's reticle can be used as aiming 
points when using elevation hold-offs (Figure 3-35, page 3-71). For example, if 
the sniper has to engage a target at 500 meters and the scope is set at 400 
meters, he would pi ace the first mil dot 5 inches below the vertical line on the 
target's center mass. This setting gives the sniper a 15-inch hold-off at 500 
meters. 

3-223. For a 500-meter zero, the following measures apply: 

• 100 and 400 meters, the waist or beltline. 

• 200 and 300 meters, the groin. 

• 500 meters, the chest. 

• 600 meters, the top of the head. 



3-70 



FM 3-05.222 



6' 
5' 6" 

5' 
4 6" 

4' 
3' 6" 

3' 
26" 

2' 

1'6" 

1' 

6" 




Aiming Point-600 Meters 



Aiming Point-€00 Meters 



Aiming Point-100 and 400 Meters 



Aiming Point-200 and 300 Meters 



NOTE: M118 Special Bait and M852 National 
Match ammunition. 



Figure 3-35. Correct Holds for Various Ranges With Sights Set for 500 Meters 



WINDAGE 



3-224. The sniper can use a hold-off to compensate for the effects of wind. 
When using the M3A scope, the sniper uses the horizontal mil dots on the 
reticle to hold off for wind. The space between each mil dot equals 3.375 
MOAs, and a very accurate hold can be determined with the mil dots. For 
example, if the sniper has a target at 500 meters that requires a 10-inch hold- 
off, he would place the target's center mass halfway between the crosshairs 
and the first mil dot (1/2 mil) (Figure 3-36). 




Figure 3-36. Hold-Off for 7.62-mm Special Ball (M118) 



3-71 



FM 3-05.222 



3-225. When holding off, the sniper aims into the wind. If the wind is moving 
from the right to left, his POA is to the right. If it is moving from left to right, 
his POA is to the left. Constant practice in wind estimation can bring about 
proficiency in making sight adjustments or learning to apply hold-off correctly. 
If the sniper misses the target and the impact of the round is observed, he notes 
the lateral distance of his error and refires, holding off that distance in the 
opposite direction. The formula used tofind the hold-off distance is as follows: 

MOA (from wind formula) = Hold-off in mils 
3.5 

NOTE: The wind formula must be computed first tofind the MOA. 

Example: Range to a target is 400 yards; wind is from 3 o'clock at 8 mph. 
Find the hold-off required to hit the target (M118). 

RxV=MOA 4x8 =32 = 3.2 MOA 

10 10 

MOA = Hold-off in mils 32 = -91 = right 1 mil 
3.5 3.5 

For a half-value wind, divide mils by 2 for the hold-off. 

ENGAGEMENT OF MOVING TARGETS 

3-226. Moving targets are generally classified as walking or running and are 
the most difficult to hit. When engaging a target that is moving laterally 
across the LOS, the sniper must concentrate on moving his weapon with the 
target while aiming at a point some distance ahead. He must hold the lead, 
fire, and follow through after the shot. To engage moving targets, the sniper 
uses one of the techniques discussed below. 

LEADING 

3-227. A quarterback throwing a pass to his receiver can demonstrate the 
best example of a lead. He has to throw the ball at some point downfield in 
front of the receiver; the receiver will then run to that point. The same 
principle applies to firing at moving targets. Engaging moving targets 
requires the sniper to place the crosshairs ahead of the target's movement. 
The distance the crosshairs are placed in front of the target's movement is 
called a lead. The sniper uses the following four factors in determining leads. 

Speed of the Target 

3-228. Target speed will be a significant factor in determining the lead of the 
target. Running targets will require a greater lead than walking targets. 
Once target speed is determined, the sniper estimates the proper lead for the 
target at that specific range. Simultaneously, he applies the angle value to 
his lead estimation for the target (full-lead, half-lead). 

3-229. For example, a target walking at a 45-degree angle toward the sniper 
at an average of 300 meters would require a 6-inch lead. This amount is 
determined by using the full-value lead of a walking target 300 meters away 



3-72 



FM 3-05.222 



(a 12-inch lead) and dividing it in half for a half-value lead (as the target is 
moving at a 45-degree angle toward the sniper). Wind must also be 
considered, as it will affect the lead used. For a target moving with the wind, 
the sniper subtracts the wind value from the lead. For a target moving 
against the wind, he adds to the lead. 

3-230. Double leads are sometimes necessary for a sniper who uses the 
swing-through method on a target that is moving toward his firing side. The 
double lead is necessary because of the difficulty that a person has in 
swinging his weapon smoothly toward his firing side. Practice on a known- 
distance range and meticulous record keeping are required to hone a sniper's 
moving target engagement skill. 

Angle of Target Movement 

3-231. A target moving perpendicular to the bullet's flight path moves a 
greater lateral distance during its flight time than a target moving at an angle 
away from or toward the bullet's path. A method of estimating the angle of 
movement of a target moving across the sniper's front follows (Figure 3-37): 

• Full -value lead target. When only one arm and one side of the target 
are visible, the target is moving at or near a 90-degree angle and 
requires a full-value lead. 

• Half-value lead target. When one arm and two-thirds of the front or 
back of the target are visible, the target is moving at approximately a 
45-degree angle and requires a one-half value lead. 

• No-lead target. When both arms and the entire front or back are 
visible, the target is moving directly toward or away from the sniper 
and requires no lead. 







Full Lead 



No Lead 



Half Lead 



Half Lead 



Figure 3-37. Leads for Moving Targets 

Range to the Target 

3-232. The farther away a target is, the longer it takes for the bullet to reach 
it. Therefore, the lead must be increased as the distance to the target increases. 



3-73 



FM 3-05.222 



Wind Effects 



Lead Values 



3-233. The sniper must consider how the wind will affect the trajectory of 
the round. A wind blowing opposite to the target's direction requires more of 
a lead than a wind blowing in the same direction as the target's movement. 
When the target is moving against the wind, the wind effect is added to the 
lead. When he is moving with the wind, the wind effect is subtracted from the 
lead. Thus, "against add, with subtract." 

3-234. Once the required lead has been determined (Table 3-9, pages 3-68 
and 3-69), the sniper should use the mil scale in the telescope for precise 
hold-off. The mil scale can be mentally sectioned into 1/4-mil increments for 
leads. The chosen point on the mil scale becomes the sniper's point of 
concentration, just as the crosshairs are for stationary targets. The sniper 
concentrates on the lead point and fires the weapon when the target is at 
this point. 



3-235. Tables 3-10 through 3-12, pages 3-74 and 3-75, list the recommended 
leads for movers at various ranges and speeds. Snipers should usually not 
engage movers beyond 400 yards due to the excessive lead required and low 
probability of a hit. If a mover is engaged at distances beyond 400 yards, an 
immediate follow-up shot must be ready. 

3-236. The classification of a walker, fast walker, and a runner is based on a 
walker moving at 2 mph, a fast walker at 3 1/2 mph, and a runner at 5 mph. 

3-237. These are starting point leads and are only guides. Each individual 
will have his own leads based on how he perceives movement and his reaction 
time to it. 

Table 3-10. Recommended Leads in Mils for Movers 



Range (Meters) 


Walkers 


Fast Walkers 


Runners 


100 


Leading Edge 


7/8 


1 3/4 


200 


7/8 


1 1/4 


1 3/4 


300 


1 1/8 


1 3/4 


2 1/4 


400 


1 1/4 


1 3/4 


2 1/2 


500 


1 1/2 


1 3/4 


2 1/2 


600 


1 1/2 


2 1/4 


3 


700 


1 1/2 


2 1/4 


3 


800 


1 1/2 


2 1/2 


3 


900 


1 3/4 


2 1/2 


3 1/2 


1,000 


1 3/4 


2 1/2 


3 1/2 



3-74 



FM 3-05.222 



Table 3-11. Recommended Leads in Minutes of Angle for Movers 



Range (Meters) 


Walkers 


Fast Walkers 


Runners 


100 


Leading Edge 


3 


6 


200 


3 


4.5 


6 


300 


4 


6 


8 


400 


4.5 


6 


9 


500 


4.5 


6 


9 


600 


5 


7.5 


10 


700 


5 


7.5 


10 


800 


5.5 


8 


11 


900 


5.5 


8 


11 


1,000 


5.5 


8 


11 


Table 3-12. Recommended Leads in Feet for Movers 


Range (Meters) 


Walkers 


Fast Walkers 


Runners 


100 


Leading Edge 


0.25 


0.5 


200 


0.5 


0.75 


1 


300 


1 


1.5 


2 


400 


1.5 


2.25 


3 


500 


2 


3 


4 


600 


2.5 


3.75 


5 


700 


3 


4.5 


6 


800 


3.5 


5.25 


7 


900 


4 


6 


8 


1,000 


4.5 


7.25 


9 



TRACKING 



3-238. Tracking requires tine sniper toestabiisln an aiming point ahead of the 
target's movement and to maintain it as the weapon is fired. This technique 
requires the weapon and body position to be moved while following the target 
and firing. This method is preferred and needs to be perfected after the basics 
are mastered. 



TRAPPING OR AMBUSHING 



3-239. Trapping or ambushing is the sniper's alternate method of engaging 
moving targets. The sniper must establish an aiming point ahead of the 
target that is the correct lead for speed and distance. As the target reaches 
this point, the sniper fires his weapon. This method allows the sniper's 
weapon and body position to remain motionless. With practice, a sniper can 
determine exact leads and aiming points using the horizontal stadia lines in 
the ART scopes or the mil dots in the M3A. The sniper must remember to 
concentrate on the crosshairs and not on the target. He must also not jerk 



3-75 



FM 3-05.222 



the trigger. However, he must make the weapon go off the lead. The sniper 
can use a combination of tracking and ambushing to aid in determining 
target speed and direction. This technique is best suited for sentries who 
walk a set pattern. 



TRACKING AND HOLDING 



3-240. The sniper uses this technique to engage an erratically moving target. 
While the target is moving, the sniper keeps his crosshairs centered as much 
as possible and adjusts his position with the target. When the target stops, 
the sniper quickly perfects his hold and fires. This technique requires 
concentration and discipline to keep from firing before the target comes to a 
complete halt. 

FIRING A SNAPSHOT 

3-241. A sniper may often attempt to engage a target that only presents 
itself briefly, then resumes cover. Once he establishes a pattern, he can aim 
in the vicinity of the target's expected appearance and fire a snapshot at the 
moment of exposure. 

COMMON ERRORS WITH MOVING TARGETS 

3-242. When engaging moving targets, the sniper makes common errors 
because he is under greater stress than with a stationary target. There are 
more considerations, such as retaining a steady position and the correct 
aiming point, how fast the target is moving, and how far away it is. The more 
practice a sniper has firing at moving targets the better he will become. Some 
common mistakes that a sniper makes are when he— 

• Watches his target instead of his aiming point. He must force himself 
to watch his lead point. 

• J erks or flinches at the moment his weapon fires because he thinks he 
must fire NOW. This reflex can be overcome through practice on a live- 
fire range. 

• Hurries and thus forgets to adjust for wind speed and direction as 
needed. Windage must be calculated for moving targets just as for 
stationary targets. Failing to estimate when acquiring a lead will result 
in a miss. 

3-243. Engaging moving targets requires the sniper to determine target 
distance and wind effects on the round, the lateral speed of the target, the 
round's time of flight, and the placement of a proper lead to compensate for 
both. These added variables increase the chance of a miss. Therefore, the 
sniper should engage moving targets when it is the only option. 

ENGAGEMENT OF SNAP TARGETS 

3-244. Many times the sniper will see a target that shows itself for only a 
brief moment, especially in urban and countersniper environments. Under 
these circumstances it is very important to concentrate on trigger control. 
Trigger control is modified to a very rapid pull of the finger directly to the 



3-76 



FM 3-05.222 



rear without disturbing the lay of the weapon, similar to the moving target 
trigger control. 

3-245. Another valuable skill for the sniper to learn is the quick-kill firing 
technique. He is most vulnerable during movement. Not only is he 
compromised because of the heavier equipment requirement, but also because 
of his large, optically sighted sniper rifle. Using the quick-kill technique, the 
sniper or observer can engage a target very rapidly at close range. This 
method is very useful for chance encounters with the enemy and when 
security is threatened. The sniper carries the rifle pointed toward the front, 
with the muzzle always pointing where he is looking and not at port arms. 
When the rifle is raised to fire, the eye is looking at the target. As the sniper 
looks at his target, the weapon lines on the target and he fires in the same 
movement. This technique must be practiced to obtain proficiency. It is not 
"wild firing," but a learned technique. A close analogy could be made to a 
skeet shooter who points his shotgun as opposed to sighting it. 

FIRING THROUGH OBSTACLES AND BARRIERS 

3-246. Another variable the sniper may encounter is the effect that glass 
penetration has on exterior and terminal ballistics. Firing through glass is 
unpredictable, and unless the target is close to the glass, more than one shot 
may be required. The sniper should never shoot through glass if it is close to 
his position. He is better off opening the window or having someone else 
break the window for him. The U.S. Army conducted a penetration test by 
firing through a glass plate from a distance of 1 yard at a silhouette target 
100 yards away. Of the 14 test shots through various types of glass, only 2 
shots hit the target. 

GLASS PENETRATION 

3-247. The United States Marine Corps (USMC) conducted a test by firing at 
an 8- by 9-inch pane of safety glass at 90- and 45-degree angles with the 
following results: 

• Regardless of the angle, the path of the test bullet core was not greatly 
affected up to 5 feet beyond the point of initial impact; further from the 
glass, the apparent deflection became more pronounced. 

• At an angle, glass fragments were always blown perpendicular to the 
glass plate. 

• The M118 173 grain bullet's copper jacket fragments upon impact. All 
of the bullet fragments followed an erratic path both in height and 
width. Each of the main cores (lead) began to tumble about 2 feet from 
the initial impact point. 

• Due to the lamination of safety glass with a sheet plastic, large 
fragments of plastic were embedded in the target 1 foot from the POI . 
These fragments were large enough to cause severe wounds. 

• Glass fragments did not penetrate targets farther than 1 foot from 
the POI. 

• It can be concluded that anyone near the glass would be injured. 



3-77 



FM 3-05.222 



3-248. Therefore, as indicated by both the USIMC and U.S. Army tests, 
snipers should try to avoid engaging targets requiring glass penetration. 

PENETRATION PERFORMANCE OF M118 SPECIAL BALL 

3-249. To support the M 24 SWS program, two tests were conducted with the 
M 118 Special Ball ammunition at a range of 800 meters. The first test used a 
test sample of ballistic Kevlar, and the second test used a 10-gauge, mild steel 
plate. Testing personnel positioned a witness plate behind each of these 
targets. Witness plates consist of a 0.5-mm sheet of 2024T3 aluminum to 
measure residual velocity or energy. To pass the test, the bullet had to 
penetrate both the target and witness plate. Results of these tests follow: 

• M118 versus ballistic K&/lar. When 10 rounds were fired at 13 layers of 
ballistic Kevlar (equivalent to the U.S. personal armor system ground 
troop vest), full penetration was achieved of both the test sample and 
the aluminum witness plate. 

• M118 versus mild steel plate. When 20 rounds were fired at a 3.42-mm 
thick (10-gauge) SAE 1010 or 1020 steel plate (Rockwell hardness of 
B55 to B70), 16 achieved full penetration of both the test sample and 
aluminum witness plate. The 4 failing rounds penetrated the steel 
plate but only dented the witness plate. These 4 rounds were 
considered to have insufficient terminal energy to be effective. 

COLD BORE FIRST-SHOT HIT 

3-250. On a mission, a sniper will rarely get a second shot at the intended 
target. Therefore, he must be 98 percent sure that he will hit his target with the 
first shot. This requirement places a great deal of importance on the 
maintenance of a sniper's logbook. Whenever the sniper conducts a live-fire 
exercise, he should develop a database on his SWS and its cold bore zero. The 
sniper uses the integrated act of firing one round to hone his sniping skills. By 
maintaining a detailed logbook, he develops confidence in his system's ability to 
provide the "one shot-one kill" goal of every sniper. The sniper must pay close 
attention tothe maintenance and cleanliness of his rifle. He must also maintain 
proficiency in the marksmanship fundamentals. He should attempt to obtain 
his cold bore data at all ranges and climatic conditions. The bore and chamber 
must be completely dry and free of all lubricants. The exact POI of the bullet 
should be annotated in the logbook. Also keeping a file of the actual paper 
targets used is even better. This data will help detect trends that can be used to 
improve the sniper's performance. This exercise also develops the teamwork 
required for the sniper pair to accomplish the mission. A sniper going on a 
mission will foul his bore with 5 shots to preclude problems with the so- called 
cold bore shot. 

LIMITED VISIBILITY FIRING 

3-251. The U.S. Army currently fields the AN/PVS 10 as the night vision 
sight for its SWS. If unavailable, then the sniper can compromise by using 
issued equipment to mount a PVS-4 onto an M4 or M16. This NVD should be 
kept permanently mounted to avoid zeroing problems. This system is 
adequate because the rifle's effective range matches that of the NVD's ability 



3-78 



FM 3-05.222 



to distinguish target details. The IM24 can be used during limited visibility 
operations if the conditions are favorable. Moonlight, artificial illumination, 
and terrain will determine the potential effectiveness. The sniper will find 
that the reticle will fade out during limited visibility. Rather than trying to 
strain his eyes to make out the reticle, he should use the entire field of view 
of the telescope as the aiming device. Live-fire exercises will help the sniper 
determine his own maximum effective range. The sniper needs to use off- 
center vision in the rifle scope to seethe heavy crosshair post and target. 

3-252. The PVS-10 and the Universal Night Sight (UNS) are now standard 
issue. The NAD 750 and KN 200/250 (mentioned in Chapter 2), as well as the 
other NVDs, are not yet a standard-issue item. These sights are available for 
contingency operations and are in contingency stocks. Every effort should be 
made to acquire these sights for training. It is the best sight currently 
available for precision firing during limited visibility. It has a longer effective 
range for discriminating targets and does not need to be mounted and 
dismounted from the rifle. 

3-253. Another consideration during limited visibility firing is that of muzzle 
flash. Both the M4 and the M16 are equipped with an excellent flash 
suppressor. The enemy would have to be very close or using NVDs to pinpoint 
a couple of muzzle flashes. The M24 has a flash suppressor that attaches to 
the front sight block and is locked in place by a ring. To minimize the 
compromising effects of muzzle flash, the sniper should carefully select hide 
sites and ammunition lots. However, at a range of greater than 
100 meters, the muzzle flash is not noticeable, and even with NVDs the 
flash is barely noticeable. Snipers should not use flash hiders because they 
increase the muzzle blast signatureof the weapon and increase the likelihood 
of detection. They also change the barrel harmonics and are detrimental to 
the weapon's accuracy. 

NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL FIRING 

3-254. Performance of long-range precision fire is difficult at best during 
nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) conditions. Enemy NBC warfare 
creates new problems for the sniper. Not only must the sniper properly 
execute the fundamentals of marksmanship and contend with the forces of 
nature, he must overcome obstacles presented by protective equipment. 

3-255. Firing in mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) has a 
significant effect on the ability to deliver precision fire. The following 
problems and solutions have been identified: 

• Eyerdid'. Special emphasis must be made in maintaining proper eye 
relief and the absence of scope shadow. It is a must to maintain 
consistent stock weld. However, care must be taken not to break the 
mask's seal. 

• Trigger control. Problems encountered with trigger control consist of 
the following: 

■ Sense of touch. When gloves are worn, the sniper cannot 
determine the amount of pressure he is applying to the trigger. 
This point is particularly important if the sniper has his trigger 



3-79 



FM 3-05.222 



adjusted for a light pull. Training with a glove will be beneficial; 
however, the trigger should be adjusted to allow the sniper to feel 
the trigger without accidental discharge. 

■ Stock drag. While training, the sniper should have his observer 
watch his trigger finger to ensure that the finger and glove are 
not touching any part of the rifle but the trigger. The glove or 
finger resting on the trigger guard moves the rifle as the trigger is 
pulled to the rear. The sniper must wear a well-fitted glove. 

• Vertical sight picture. The sniper naturally cants the rifle into the 
cheek of the face while firing with a protective mask. Using the 
crosshair of the reticle as a reference mark, he keeps the weapon in a 
vertical position. Failure to stay upright will cause shots to hit low and 
in the direction of the cant. Also, windage and elevation corrections will 
not be true. 

• Sniper/ observer communications. The absence of a voice-emitter on 
the M25-series protective mask creates an obstacle in relaying 
information. The team either speaks louder or uses written messages. 
A system of foot taps, finger taps, or hand signals may be devised. 
Communication is a must; training should include the development 
and practice of communications at different MOPP levels. 

3-256. The easiest solution to NBC firing with the M24 SWS is to use the 
Harris bipod. The bipod helps stabilize the rifle and allows the sniper to 
maintain a solid position behind the rifle as he cants his head to achieve a 
proper sight picture. The sniper can also try tilting his head down so he is 
looking up through the telescope. NBC firing must be incorporated into live- 
fire ranges so that the most comfortable and effective position can be 
developed. Also, a detailed logbook should be developed that addresses the 
effects of N BC fi ri ng. 



3-80 



Chapter 4 

Field Skills 

The sniper's primary mission is to interdict selected enemy targets witli 
long-range precision fire. How well he accomplishes his mission depends 
on the knowledge, understanding, and application of various field 
techniques and skills that allow him to move, hide, observe, and detect 
targets (Appendix I). This chapter discusses those techniques and skills 
that the sniper must learn before employment in support of combat 
operations. The sniper's application of these skills will affect his survival 
on the battlefield. 



CAMOUFLAGE 

4-1. Camouflage is one of the basic weapons of war. To the sniper team, it 
can mean the difference between life and death. Camouflage measures are 
important since the team cannot afford to be detected at any time while 
moving alone, as part of another element, or while operating from a firing 
position. Marksmanship training teaches the sniper to hit a target. Knowing 
how and when to camouflage can enable the sniper to escape becoming a 
target. He must be camouflage-conscious from the time he departs on a 
mission until he returns. Paying attention to camouflage fundamentals is a 
mark of a well-trained sniper. FM 20-3, Camouflage, Concealment, and 
Decoys, provides more details. 

FUNDAMENTALS 

4-2. The sniper must pay careful attention when using camouflage clothing 
and equipment (artificial and natural). He should apply the following 
fundamental rules when determining his camouflage needs: 

• Take advantage of all available natural concealment such as trees, 
bushes, grass, earth, man-made structures, and shadows. 

• Alter the form, shadow, texture, and color of objects. 

• Camouflage against ground and air observation. 

• Camouflage a sniper post as it is prepared. 

■ Study the terrain and vegetation in the area. Arrange grass, 
leaves, brush, and other natural camouflage to conform to the 
area. 

■ Use only as much material as is needed. Excessive use of material 
(natural or artificial) can reveal a sniper's position. 

■ Obtain natural material over a wide area. Do not strip an area, as 
this may attract the enemy's attention. 



4-1 



FM 3-05.222 



■ Dispose of excess soil by covering it with leaves and grass or by 
dumping it under bushes, into streams, or into ravines. Piles of 
fresh dirt indicate that an area is occupied and reduce the 
effectiveness of camouflage. 

4-3. The sniper and his equipment must blend with the natural background. 
Remember that vegetation changes color many times in an area. 

VARIOUS GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS 

4-4. A sniper cannot use one type of camouflage in all types of terrain and 
geographic areas. Before operations in an area, a sniper should study the 
terrain, the vegetation, and the lay of the land to determine the best possible 
type of personal camouflage. 

4-5. I n areas with heavy snow or in wooded areas with snow-covered brush, 
the sniper should use a full, white camouflage suit with gray shading. With 
snow on the ground and the brush not covered, he should wear white trousers 
and green-brown tops. A hood or veil in snow areas is very effective, and 
equipment should be striped or totally covered in white. In snow regions, 
visibility during a bright night is nearly as good as during the day. This 
advantage gives the sniper full-time capabilities, but he must move along 
carefully concealed routes. 

4-6. In sandy and desert areas that have minimal vegetation, textured 
camouflage is normally not necessary. Still, proper coloring of a suit that 
breaks up the sniper's human outline is needed. Blending tan and brown 
colors is most effective. A bulky-type smock of light material with a hood 
works well. The sniper must be sure his hands, face, and all equipment blend 
into a solid pattern that corresponds with the terrain. The sniper must make 
full use of the terrain by using properly selected and concealed routes 
of movement. 

4-7. When deployed with regular troops in an urban area, the sniper should 
be dressed like the troops in the area. When the sniper is in position, he 
should be camouflaged to match his area of operations. He can use a bulky, 
shapeless, gray camouflage suit that has been colored to match rubble and 
debris. He should make sure some type of hood breaks up the outline of the 
head. Movement during daylight hours should be extremely slow and careful, 
if at all, becauseof the unlimited amount of possible enemy sniper positions. 

4-8. In jungle areas, the sniper can use foliage, artificial camouflage, and 
camouflage paint in a contrasting pattern that will blend with the texture of 
the terrain. In a very hot and humid area, he should wear only a light 
camouflage suit. A heavy suit will cause a loss of too much body fluid. The 
vegetation is usually very thick in jungle areas, so the sniper can rely more 
on the natural foil age for concealment. 



DISCIPLINE 



4-9. The sniper must always practice camouflage discipline. The sniper will 
change his camouflage to match the terrain patterns and foliage as he moves 
and as it dries or wilts. He ensures his camouflage presents a natural 
appearance at all times. 



4-2 



FM 3-05.222 



CONFIGURATION 

4-10. The sniper must constantly observe the terrain and vegetation 
changes to pick the most concealed routes of advance and be certain he is 
camouflaged properly. He should use shadows caused by vegetation, terrain 
features, and man-made features to remain undetected. He must master the 
techniques of hiding, blending, and deceiving. 



Hiding 



Blending 



Deceiving 



4-11. This technique enables the sniper to completely conceal his body from 
observation by lying in thick vegetation, lying under leaves, or even by 
digging a shallow trench and covering up in it. Hiding may be used if the 
sniper stumbles upon an enemy patrol and immediate concealment is needed 
or if he wishes to stay out of sight during daylight hours to await darkness. 
However, the sniper should not use the hiding technique in the final firing 
position (FFP), as he would be unable to see his target. 



4-12. A sniper should usethis technique since it is not possible to completely 
camouflage in such a way as to be indistinguishable from the surrounding 
area. Camouflage needs to be so nearly perfect that the sniper cannot be 
recognized through optical gear or with the human eye. He must be able to be 
looked at directly and not be seen. This trait takes much practice and 
experience. The ghi I lie suit is a form of blending. 

NOTE: A sniper should not attempt to use disguising as a camouflage 
technique. This requires him to change his appearance to look like 
another object. 



4-13. In this method, the sniper tricks the enemy into a false conclusion 
regarding his location, intentions, or movement. By planting objects such as 
ammunition cans, food cartons, or something intriguing, the sniper decoys 
the enemy into the open where he can be brought under fire. Cutting enemy 
communications wire and waiting for the repair personnel is another 
technique. After a unit has left a bivouac area, a sniper can stay behind 
to watch for enemy scouts that may search the area. The unit can also 
use mannequins to lure the enemy sniper into firing, thereby revealing 
his position. 



TARGET INDICATORS 



Olfactory 



4-14. A target indicator is anything a sniper does or fails to do that will 
reveal his position to an enemy. A sniper must know these indicators if he is 
to locate the enemy and prevent the enemy from locating him. There are four 
general areas: olfactory, tactile, auditory, and visual. 



4-15. The enemy can smell these target indicators. Cooking food, fires, 
cigarettes, aftershave lotion, soap, and insect repellents are examples. Most of 
these indicators are caused by the sniper's bodily functions. The sniper 



4-3 



FM 3-05.222 



Tactile 



Auditory 



Visual 



usually can eliminate this target indicator by washing the body, burying body 
wastes, and eliminating the cause. The indicator only gives a sign that the 
sniper is in the area. 



4-16. The sniper can touch these indicators; for example, trip wire, phone 
wire, and hide positions. He uses them mainly at night. Tactile indicators are 
defeated through the proper construction of sniper hides, and awareness of 
the altered vegetation he has left behind while constructing his hide. 



4-17. This indicator is a sound that the sniper might make by moving, 
rattling equipment, or talking, and is most noticeable during hours of 
darkness. The enemy may dismiss small noises as natural, but when they 
hear someone speak, they know for certain that others are near. The sniper 
should silence all equipment before a mission so that he will make no sound 
while running or walking. He can defeat auditory indicators through noise 
discipline and proper equipment preparation. 



4-18. This factor is the most important target indicator. The main reason a 
sniper is detected is because the enemy sees him. Being familiar with 
subcategories of visual target indicators can help the sniper locate the enemy 
and prevent him from being detected. The sniper can overcome the following 
visual indicators by properly using the principles of concealment. 

4-19. Why Things are Seen. The proper understanding and application of 
the principles of concealment used with the proper camouflage techniques 
can protect the sniper from enemy observation. The following principles 
explain why things are seen: 

• Siting. This detection involves anything that is out of place or in a 
location that it does not belong. It includes wrong foliage or items in an 
area that the sniper is occupying. Siting is dependent upon— 

■ Mission. 

■ Dispersion (more than one sniper team per objective). 

■ Terrain patterns (rural, urban, wooded, barren). 

• Shape Military equipment and personnel have familiar outlines and 
specific shapes that are easily recognizable. A sniper must alter or disguise 
these revealing shapes and outlines. Geometric shapes are manmade. 

• Sliadows. If used correctly, shadows can be very effective in hiding a 
sniper's position. They can be found under most conditions of day and 
night. However, the sniper can cast a shadow that can give him away. 

• S/7/iouettes. They can easily be seen in the daytime as well as at night. 
A sniper must break up the outline of his body and his equipment so 
it blends with the background to reduce the chance of his silhouette 
being recognized. 



4-4 



FM 3-05.222 



• Surface Reflections of light on shiny surfaces can instantly attract 
attention and can be seen for great distances. The sniper must 
camouflage all objects that have a distinguishable surface, such as 
hats, gloves, and shirtsleeves. He must also consider the texture of the 
surface he is camouflaging. 

• Spacing. This factor is normally more important when two or more 
sniper teams are deployed together. Teams should coordinate their 
locations so that one does not compromise another. Teams should also 
coordinate their movements so that only one team is moving near the 
objective at one time. Spacing is also a factor when dealing with one 
sniper team. A sniper team must consider the distance between team 
members when moving to, and when at, the objective or firing position. 
Team members may need to move forward into the firing position 
individually so as not to compromise the firing position. This movement 
will normally depend on the terrain and the enemy situation. 

• Color. Changing seasons cause vegetation to change. A sniper must be 
aware of the color of vegetation so that he does not contrast with it. The 
sniper must never use points of color, as the eye will notice any 
movement in the color. 

• Movement. The main reason a sniper's position is revealed to the 
enemy is due to movement. Even if all other indicators are absent, 
movement can give a sniper's position away. Rapid or jerky movement 
is very noticeable; while slow movement may be seen, it is not as 
noticeable nor will it attract the eye as readily. The sniper must also 
remember that animal and foliage movements can give him away. 

4-20. Effects of Terrain Patterns and Weather Conditions. The sniper 
must consider the weather conditions throughout the mission because they 
can constantly change. He must also consider terrain patterns because the 
patterns at the objective may be quite different from the ones en route to and 
from the objective. 



TYPES OF CAMOUFLAGE 



4-21. The two types of camouflage that the sniper team can use to 
camouflage itself and its equipment are natural and artificial. Each type has 
specific effects that can help the sniper remain undetected. 

4-22. Natural camouflage is vegetation or materials that are native to the 
given area. The sniper team should always augment its appearance by using 
some natural camouflage. Natural foliage, properly applied, is preferred to 
artificial material, but the sniper must be aware of wilting. 

4-23. Artificial camouflage is any manmade material or substance that the 
sniper uses for coloring or covering something to conceal it. He can use 
camouflage sticks or face paints to cover all exposed areas of skin such as 
face, hands, and the back of the neck. He should darken the parts of the 
face that form shadows. The sniper team uses the following types of 
camouflage patterns: 

• Striping. Used when in heavily wooded areas, and leafy vegetation 
is scarce. 



4-5 



FM 3-05.222 



MATERIALS 



• Blotching. Used when an area is thick with leafy vegetation. 

• Combination. Used when moving through changing terrain. It is 
normally the best all-round pattern. 

4-24. There are many types of camouflage materials. The sniper can use any 
of the fol lowi ng items to cover exposed ski n: 

• Artificial materials (or manufactured materials). 

• Army-issued camouflage paint sticks: 

■ Loam and light green— used for light-skinned personnel in all but 
snow regions. 

■ Sand and light green— used for dark-skinned personnel in all but 
snow regions. 

■ Loam and white— used for all personnel in snow-covered terrain. 

NOTE: The use of camouflage in a cold weather environment will make 
detecting cold weather injuries more difficult. 

• Commercial hunter's paint. There are many different colors. 

• Stage makeup. 

• Bear grease. 

• Natural materials (or self-made materials): 

■ Burnt cork. 

■ Charcoal. 

■ Lampblack (carbide). 

■ Mud. 



CAUTION 

Dyes or paints should not be used, as they do not 
come off. Mud may contain dangerous parasites. 



CLOTHING 



4-25. The sniper can wear many types of clothing to conceal himself from the 
enemy. Battle dress uniforms (BDUs) have a camouflage pattern but often 
require additional camouflaging, especially in operations that occur very close 
to the enemy. The sniper can wear any of the fol lowing: 

• U.S. Army uniforms: 

Camouflage fatigues. 

BDUs. 

Desert BDUs. 

Overwhites. 

Desert night camouflage uniforms. 



4-6 



FM 3-05.222 



GHILLIE SUIT 



Nonstandard uniforms with other camouflage patterns may help blend 
into the surrounding population. 

Gloves or mittens. 

Head masks: 

Balaclavas. 

Veils. 

H ead covers. 

Kaffiyehs. 

Ghillieor sniper hats. 



4-26. The term "ghillie suit" originated in Scotland during the 1800s. 
("Ghillie" is a Scottish and Irish term for a fishing and hunting guide.) 
Scottish game wardens made special camouflage suits to catch poachers. 
Today the ghillie suit is a specially made camouflage uniform that is covered 
with irregular patterns of garnish or netting (Figure 4-1, page 4-8). 

4-27. The sniper can make a ghillie suit from BDUs or one-piece aviator- 
type uniforms. Turning the uniform inside out places the pockets inside the 
suit and protects items in the pockets from damage caused by crawling on the 
ground. The sniper should cover the front of the ghillie suit with canvas or 
some type of heavy cloth to reinforce it. He should cover the knees and elbows 
with two layers of canvas, and reinforce the seam of the crotch with heavy 
nylon thread since these areas are prone to wear out more often. Shoo-goo is 
excellent for attaching the canvas to the uniform. 

4-28. The next step is to make a garnish or net cover. The sniper should 
make sure the garnish or netting covers the shoulders and reaches down to 
the elbows on the sleeves. The garnish applied to the back of the suit should 
be long enough to cover the sides of the sniper when he is in the prone 
position. A bush hat is also covered with garnish or netting. The garnish 
should be long enough to break up the outline of the sniper's neck, but should 
not be so long in front to obscure his vision or hinder movement. A cut-up 
hammock makes an excellent foundation for the garnish. 

4-29. A veil can be made from a net or pieces of cloth covered with garnish 
or netting. It covers the weapon and the sniper's head when he is in a firing 
position. The sniper can sew the veil into the ghillie suit or a booniehat, or he 
can carry it separately. He must remember that a ghillie suit does not make 
him invisible but is only a camouflage base. The sniper can add natural 
vegetation to help blend with the surroundings, at a rate of 60 to 70 percent 
natural to 30 to 40 percent man-made. 

NOTE: The ghillie suit is made to meet the sniper's need. However, he must 
take great care to ensure that he does not place an excessive amount of 
material on the netting. Doing so may form a new outline that can be seen by 
the enemy, or create a suit that will overheat him. 

NOTE: It may be to the advantage of the sniper to use only a veil, as a full 
ghillie suit will be very bulky and difficult to pack and transport. 



4-7 



FM 3-05.222 







*» 



Figure 4-1. Construction of the Ghillie Suit 



CAUTION 








If using camouflage netting as a base, remove 
the radar scattering rings. Also remember the 
plastic camouflage shines when wet and the 
netting may catch on foliage when the sniper is 
crawling. 



CAMOUFLAGE FOR EQUIPMENT 

4-30. The sniper must camouflage all the equipment that he will use. 
However, he must ensure that the camouflage does not interfere with or 
hinder the operation of the equipment. Equipment that the sniper should 
camouflage is as follows: 

• Rifles. The SWS and the M4/M16/M203 should also be camouflaged 
to break up their outlines. The SWS can be carried in a "drag bag" 
(Figure 4-2, page 4-9), which is a rifle case made of canvas and covered 
with garnish similar to the ghillie suit. However, the rifle will not be 



4-8 



FM 3-05.222 



combat ready while it is in the drag bag. The drag bag can become a 
liability in many circumstances. 

NOTE: The sniper should use drag bags carefully because they grab and snag 
on foliage during movement, but are beneficial when climbing buildings. 

• Optics. The sniper must also camouflage optics to break up the outline 
and to reduce the possibility of light reflecting off the lenses. He can 
cover the lenses with mesh-type webbing or nylon hose material. He 
can also use a cover cutout that changes the circular appearance of the 
optic's objective lens. 

• ALICE Packs. If the sniper uses the ALICE pack while wearing the 
ghillie suit, he must camouflage the pack the same as the suit. He can 
use paints, dyes, netting, and garnish. However, the sniper should 
avoid wearing the ALICE pack with the ghillie suit. 



Closed Bag 



Camouflaged Bag 




Open Bag 




Figure 4-2. Construction of an Equipment "Drag Bag" 

FACIAL CAMOUFLAGE PATTERNS 

4-31. Facial patterns can vary from irregular stripes across the face to bold 
splotching. The best pattern, perhaps, is a combination of both strips and 
blotches. The sniper should avoid wild types of designs and colors that stand 
out from the background. Heshould cover all exposed skin, to include the— 

• Hands and forearms. 

• Neck, front and back. 



4-9 



FM 3-05.222 



• Ears, as well as behind the ears. 

• Face: 
Forehead-darkened. 
Cheekbones-darkened. 
Nose-darkened. 
Chin-darkened. 
Under eyes- lightened. 
Under nose-lightened. 
Under chin-lightened. 

USING REMOVABLE CAMOUFLAGE SPRAY PAINT ON THE SWS AND EQUIPMENT 

4-32. The sniper should paint his weapon with a removable paint (such as 
Bow Flage) so that he can change the colors to suit different vegetation and 
changing seasons. Bow Flage spray paint will not affect the accuracy or 
performance of the weapon. However, the sniper must take care when 
applying this paint. Bow Flage should not make contact with the lens of 
optical equipment, the bore of the weapon, the chamber, the face of the bolt, 
the trigger area, or the adjustment knobs of the telescope. It will not damage 
the weapon to be stored with the paint on it, but it is easily removed with 
Bow Flage remover or Shooter's Choice cleaning solvent. 

FIELD-EXPEDIENT CAMOUFLAGE 

4-33. The sniper may have to use field-expedient camouflage if other 
methods are not available. I nstead of camouflage sticks or face paint, he may 
use charcoal, walnut stain, mud, or whatever works. He should not use oil or 
grease due to the strong odor. The sniper can attach natural vegetation to the 
body using boot bands or rubber bands, or by cutting holes in the uniform. 

COVER AND CONCEALMENT 

4-34. Properly understanding and applying the principles of cover and 
concealment, along with proper camouflage techniques, protects the sniper 
from enemy observation. 



COVER 



4-35. Cover is natural or artificial protection from the fire of enemy 
weapons. Natural (ravines, hollows, reverse slopes) and artificial (fighting 
positions, trenches, walls) cover protect the sniper from flat trajectory fires 
and partly protect him from high-angle fires and the effects of nuclear 
explosions. Even a 6-inch depression (if properly used) or fold in the ground 
may provide enough cover to save the sniper under fire. He must always look 
for and take advantage of all cover the terrain offers. By combining this habit 
with proper movement techniques, he can protect himself from enemy fire. To 
get protection from enemy fire when moving, the sniper should use routes 
that put cover between himself and the places where the enemy is known or 
thought to be. He should use natural and artificial cover to keep the enemy 
from seeing him and firing at him. 



4-10 



FM 3-05.222 



CONCEALMENT 



4-36. Concealment is natural or artificial protection from enemy 
observation. The surroundings may provide natural concealment that needs 
no change before use (bushes, grass, and shadows). The sniper can create 
artificial concealment from materials such as burlap and camouflage nets, or 
he can move natural materials (bushes, leaves, and grass) from their original 
location. He must consider the effects of the change of seasons on the 
concealment provided by both natural and artificial materials. 

4-37. The principles of concealment include the following: 

• Avoid Unnecessary Movement. Remain still; movement attracts 
attention. The sniper's position may be concealed when he remains 
still, yet easily detected if he moves. This movement against a 
stationary background will make the sniper stand out. When he must 
change positions, he should move carefully over a concealed route to 
the new position, preferably during limited visibility. He should move 
inches at a time, slowly and cautiously, always scanning ahead for the 
next position. 

• Use All Available Concealment. Background is important; the sniper 
must blend in to avoid detection. The trees, bushes, grass, earth, and 
man-made structures that form the background vary in color and 
appearance. This feature makes it possible for the sniper to blend in 
with them. The sniper should select trees or bushes to blend with the 
uniform and to absorb the figure outline. He must always assume that 
his area is under observation. The sniper in the open stands out clearly, 
but the sniper in the shadows is difficult to see. Shadows exist under 
most conditions, day and night. A sniper should never fire from the 
edge of a woodline; he should fire from a position inside the woodline 
(in the shade or shadows provided by the treetops). 

• Stay Low to Observe. A low silhouette makes it difficult for the enemy 
to see a sniper. Therefore, he should observe from a crouch, a squat, or 
a prone position. 

• Expose Nothing That Shines. Reflection of light on a shiny surface 
instantly attracts attention and can be seen from great distances. The 
sniper should uncover his rifle scope only when indexing and reducing 
a target. He should then use optics cautiously in bright sunshine 
because of the reflections they cause. 

• Avoid Skylining. Figures on the skyline can be seen from a great 
distance, even at night, because a dark outline stands out against the 
lighter sky. The silhouette formed by the body makes a good target. 

• Alter Familiar Outlines. Military equipment and the human body are 
familiar outlines to the enemy. The sniper should alter or disguise 
these revealing shapes by using a ghillie suit or outer smock that is 
covered with irregular patterns of garnish. He must alter his outline 
from his head to the soles of his boots. 

• Keep Ouiet. Noise, such as talking, can be picked up by enemy patrols 
or observation posts. The sniper should silence gear before a mission so 
that it makes no sound when he walks or runs. 



4-11 



FM 3-05.222 



INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM MOVEMENT 

4-38. In many cases the success of a sniper's mission will depend upon his 
being able to close the range to his target, engage or observe the target, and 
withdraw without being detected. To succeed, he must be able to move 
silently through different types of terrain. 

PREPARATION FOR MOVEMENT 

4-39. As with any mission, the sniper must make preparations before 
moving. He must make a detailed study of large-scale maps and aerial 
photographs of the area, interview inhabitants and people who have been 
through the areas before, and review any other intelligence available about 
the area. He may construct sand tables of the area of operations (AO) to assist 
in forming and rehearsing the plan. The sniper must select camouflage to suit 
the area. He must also allow enough time for the selection of the proper 
camouflage, which should match the type of terrain the team will be moving 
through. Before moving, personnel should make sure that all shiny 
equipment is toned down and all gear is silenced. The sniper must ensure 
that only mission-essential gear is taken along. 



Route Selection 



4-40. A sniper should try to avoid known enemy positions and obstacles, 
open areas, and areas believed to be under enemy observation. He should 
select routes that make maximum use of cover and concealment and should 
never use trails. A sniper should try to take advantage of the more difficult 
terrain such as swamps or dense woods. 



Movement 



4-41. The sniper team cannot afford to be seen at any time by anyone. 
Therefore, its movement will be slow and deliberate. The movement over any 
given distance will be considerably slower than infantry units. Stealth is a 
sniper's security. 

Rules of Movement 

4-42. When moving, the sniper should always remember the following rules: 

• Always assume that the area is under enemy observation. 

• Move slowly; progress by feet and inches. 

• Do not cause the overhead movement of trees, bushes, or tall grasses by 
rubbing against them. 

• Plan every movement and traverse the route in segments. 

• Stop, look, and listen often. 

• Move during disturbances such as gunfire, explosions, aircraft noise, 
wind, or anything that will distract the enemy's attention or conceal 
the team's movement. 



4-12 



FM 3-05.222 



TYPES OF MOVEMENT 



Walking 



4-43. The sniper team will always move with caution. It will use various 
methods of walking and crawling based upon the enemy threat and the speed 
of movement required. 



4-44. Walking is the fastest, easiest, and most useful way to move when 
extreme silence is desired. It is used when threat is low and speed is 
important. The sniper walks in a crouch to maintain a low profile with 
shadows and bushes so as not to be silhouetted. To ensure solid footing, he 
keeps his weight on one foot as he raises the other, being sure to clear all 
brush. He then gently sets the moving foot down, toes first, and then the heel. 
He takes short steps to maintain balance and carries the weapon in-line with 
the body by grasping the forward sling swivel (muzzle pointed down). At 
night, he holds the weapon close to his body to free his other hand to feel for 
obstacles. The sniper should use this walking technique when near the 
enemy; otherwise, he would use the standard patrol walk. 



Hands and Knees Crawl 



4-45. The sniper uses this self-explanatory crawl when cover is adequate or 
silence is necessary (Figure 4-3). The sniper holds the rifle in one hand close to 
the chest and in-line with the body, or places it on the ground alongside the 
body. The weight of the upper body is supported by the opposite arm. While 
supporting the rifle in one hand, the sniper picks a point ahead to position the 
opposite hand and slowly and quietly moves the hand into position. When 
moving the hand into position, the sniper can support the weight of his upper 
body on the opposite elbow. The sniper then alternately moves his hands 
forward, being careful not to make any noise. Leaves, twigs, and pebbles can be 
moved out of the way with the hand if absolute silence is required. 




High Crawl 



Figure 4-3. Hands and Knees Crawl 



4-46. When cover is more prevalent or when speed is required, the sniper 
uses this movement (Figure 4-4, page 4-14). The body is kept free of the 



4-13 



FM 3-05.222 



ground and the weight rests on the forearms and the lower legs (shins). The 
rifle can either be carried, as in the low crawl, or cradled in the arms. 
Movement is made by alternately pulling with each arm and pushing with 
one leg. The sniper can alternate legs for pushing when cover is adequate. An 
alternate method is to pull with both arms and push with one leg. The sniper 
should always keep in mind that the head and buttocks cannot be raised too 
high and the legs must not be allowed to make excessive noise when being 
dragged over brush and debris. Both heels must remain in contact with the 
ground. This is the standard Army high crawl. 




Medium Crawl 



Low Crawl 



Figure 4-4. High Crawl 



4-47. The medium crawl allows the sniper to move in fairly low cover 
because it is faster and less tiring to the body (Figure 4-5, page 4-15). This 
movement is similar to the low crawl, except that one leg is cocked forward to 
push with. One leg is used until tired, then the other leg is used. However, 
the sniper must not alternate legs, as this causes the lower portion of the 
body to rise into the air. This is the standard Army low crawl and is 
conducted i n the same manner. 



4-48. The sniper uses the low crawl when an enemy is near, when vegetation 
is sparse, or when moving in or out of position to fire or to observe (Figure 4-6, 
page 4-15). To low crawl, he lies face down on the ground, legs together, feet flat 
on the ground, and arms to the front and flat on the ground. To carry the rifle, 
he grasps the upper portion of the sling and lays the stock on the back of his 
hand or wrist, with the rifle lying on the inside of his body under one arm. He 
can push the rifle forward as he moves. However, care must betaken to ensure 
that the muzzle does not protrude into the air or stick into the ground. To move 
forward, the sniper extends his arms and pulls with his arms while pushing 
with his toes, being careful not to raise his heels or head. This movement is 
extremely slow and requires practice to keep from using quick or jerky 
movements. The head is maintained down one side of the face. 



4-14 



FM 3-05.222 







Figure 4-5. Medium Crawl 




Figure 4-6. Low Crawl 
Turning While Crawling 

4-49. It may be necessary to change direction or turn completely around 
while crawling. To execute a right turn, the sniper moves his upper body as 
far to the right as possible and then moves his left leg to the left as far as 
possible. He then closes the right leg to the left leg. This turn will create a 
pivot-type movement (Figure 4-7, page 4-16). Left turns are done in the 
opposite fash ion. 



4-15 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 4-7. Turning Wliile Crawling 

Backward Movement 

4-50. The sniper moves backward by reversing the crawling movement. 

Assuming the Prone Position 

4-51. The sniper assumes the prone position from a walk by stopping, 
tucking his rifle under his arm, and crouching slowly. Simultaneously, he 
feels the ground with the free hand for a clear spot. He then lowers his knees, 
one at a time, to the ground. He shifts his weight to one knee and lifts and 



4-16 



FM 3-05.222 



extends the free leg to the rear. The sniper uses his toes to feel for a clear 
spot. Rolling onto that side, he then lowers the rest of his body into position. 



Night Movement 



STALKING 



4-52. Movement at night is basically the same as during the day except it is 
slower and more deli berate because of the limited visibility. The sniper has to 
rely on the senses of touch and hearing to a greater extent. If at all possible, 
the sniper should move under the cover of darkness, fog, haze, rain, or high 
winds to conceal his movement. This is a safety factor; however, it makes the 
enemy harder to spot and specific positions or landmarks harder to locate. 



4-53. Stalking is the sniper's art of moving unseen into a firing position 
within a range that will ensure a first-round kill and then withdrawing 
undetected. Stalking incorporates all aspects of fieldcraft and can only be 
effectively learned by repeated practice over various types of ground. 

Reconnaissance 

4-54. The sniper should conduct a complete reconnaissance before his 
mission. Seldom will he have an opportunity to view the ground. He must 
rely on maps and aerial photographs for his information. The sniper should 
address the fol lowi ng before stal ki ng: 

• Location, position, or target to be stalked. 

• Cover and concealment. 

• Best possible firing position to engage targets. 

• Best line of advance to stalk. 

• Obstacles, whether natural or artificial. 

• Observation points along the route. 

• Known or suspected enemy locations. 

• Method of movement throughout the mission. 

• Withdrawal route (to include method of movement). 

Conduct of the Stallc 

4-55. A sniper may lose his sense of direction while stalking, particularly if 
he has to crawl a great distance. Losing direction can be reduced if the 
sniper— 

• Uses a compass, map, and aerial photograph, and thoroughly and 
accurately plans the route, direction, and distance to various 
checkpoints. 

• Memorizes a distinct landmark or two, or even a series. 

• Notes the direction of the wind and sun. However, he must bear in 
mind that over a long period of time the wind direction can change and 
the sun will change position. 

• Has the ability to use terrain association. 



4-17 



FM 3-05.222 



4-56. The sniper must be alert at all times. Any relaxation on a stalk can 
lead to carelessness, resulting in an unsuccessful mission and even death. He 
should also conduct an observation at periodic intervals. If the sniper is 
surprised or exposed during the stalk, immediate reaction is necessary. The 
sniper must decide whether to freeze or move quickly to the nearest cover 
and hide. 

4-57. Disturbed animals or birds can draw attention to the area of approach. 
If animals are alarmed, the sniper should stop, wait, and listen. Their flight 
may indicate someone's approach or call attention to his position. However, 
advantage should betaken of any local disturbances or distractions that could 
enable him to move more quickly than would otherwise be possible. It should 
be emphasized that such movement includes a degree of risk, and when the 
enemy is close, risks should be avoided. 

4-58. While halted, the sniper identifies his next position and the position 
after that position. If he is moving through tall grass, he should occasionally 
make a slight change of direction to keep the grass from waving in an 
unnatural motion. If crossing roads or trails, he should look for a low spot or 
cross on the leading edge of a curve and always avoid cleared areas, steep 
slopes, and loose rocks. The sniper should never skyline himself. He should 
also be aware of any changes in local cover, since such changes will usually 
require an alteration to his personal camouflage. 

4-59. During route selection, the sniper must always plan one or two points 
ahead of his next point. Doing so prevents the sniper from crawling into a 
dead-end position. 

Night Stalking 

4-60. A sniper is less adapted to stalking at night than during the day. He 
must use slower, more deliberate movement to occupy an observation post or 
a firing position. The principal differences between day and night stalking are 
that at night— 

• There is a degree of protection offered by the darkness against aimed 
enemy fire. However, a false sense of security may compromise the 
sniper. 

• The sniper should useNVDstoaid in movement. 

• While observation is still important, much more use is made of hearing, 
making silence vital. 

• Cover is less important than background. The sniper should 
particularly avoid crests and skylines against which he may be 
silhouetted. He should use lunar shadows to hide in to help defeat 
NVDs. 

• Maintaining direction is much more difficult to achieve, which places 
greater emphasis on a thorough reconnaissance. A compass or 
knowledge of the stars may help. 

Silent Movement Techniques 

4-61. Stealthful movement is critical to a sniper. Survival and mission 
success require the sniper to learn the skills of memorizing the ground and 



4-18 



FM 3-05.222 



the surrounding terrain, applying silent and stealth movement, moving over 
different terrain, and using various noise obstacles. The sniper must 
memorize the terrain, select a route, move, communicate using touch signals, 
and avoid or negotiate obstacles using stealth techniques. The sniper can 
accomplish his mission by— 

• Using binoculars to observe the terrain to the front, simultaneously 
selecting a route of advance and memorizing the terrain. 

• Specifying signals with his team partner for different obstacles. 
Considerations include— 

■ Finding the obstacles. 

■ Identifying the obstacles (barbed wire, explosives, mines). 

■ Negotiating the obstacles (Should the team go around, over, or 
under the obstacles?). 

■ Clearing the obstacles (or getting caught in the obstacle). 

■ Signaling partner (a signal must be relayed to the sniper's partner). 

• Using stealth and silent movement techniques. They include— 

■ Cautious and deliberate movement. 

■ Frequent halts to listen and observe. 

■ No unnecessary movement. 

■ Silent movement. All equipment is taped and padded. 

■ Looking where the next move is going to be made. 

■ Clearing foliage or debris from the next position. 

■ Constant awareness of the natural habitat of birds and animals in 
your area. 

• Obtaining a safe passage of obstacles. Factors include— 

■ Avoiding or bypassing noise obstacles. 

■ If noise obstacles must be moved through, checking the debris and 
clearing loose noise obstacles from the path. 

■ Memorizing locations of obstacles for night movement. 

• Using the basic elements of walking stealthily. They are— 

■ Maintaining balance. 

■ Shifting weight gradually from the rear foot to the front foot. 

■ Moving the rear foot to the front, taking care to clear brush. The 
moving foot may be placed either heel first, toe first, edge of foot 
first, or flat on the ground. 

• Knowing how to move through rubble and debris. The sniper must— 

■ Test the debris with his hand. 

■ Removedebris that will break. 

■ Put his feet down flat-footed. This way will reduce noise. 

• Avoiding movement through mud and muck. If it cannot be avoided, 
the boots should be wrapped with burlap rags or socks. 



4-19 



FM 3-05.222 



Crossing in the sand. IMovement is noiseless and can be fairly fast. 

Keeping a low silhouette when moving over an obstacle. Trying not to 
brush or scrape against the obstacle, he should lower himself silently 
on the other side and move away at a medium-slow pace. 

Always maintaining positive control of his weapon. 

Never pulling or tugging at snagged equipment to free it; he should 
untangle or cut it free. 



Detection Devices 



4-62. The sniper must be constantly vigilant in his movements and acts to 
defeat enemy detection. Heshould be able to use the following devices: 

• Passive and Active Liglit Intensification D&zices. The sniper must be 
aware of enemy detection devices and remember that he could 
unknowingly be under observation. Where there is the possibility that 
NVDs are being used, the sniper can combat them by moving very slowly 
and staying very low to the ground. This way his dark silhouette will be 
broken up by vegetation. Preferably, he will move in dark shadows or 
tree lines that will obscure the enemy's vision. Also, moving in defilade 
through ground haze, fog, or rain will greatly benefit the sniper by 
helping him to remain undetected. Using the new IR reflecting material 
(used in equipment netting) as a base for the ghillie suit will limit the 
enemy's IR viewing capabilities. This should be used with caution, and 
the sniper must experiment with the correct balance. 

• Sensors. Sensors are remote monitoring devices with seismic sensors, 
magnetic sensors, motion sensors, IR sensors, or thermal sensors 
planted in the ground along likely avenues of advance or perimeters. 
These devices normally vary in sensitivity. They are triggered by 
vibration of the ground, metal, movement, breaking a beam of light, or 
heat within their area of influence. The sniper can move past these 
devices undetected only by using the slowest, most careful, and 
errorless movement. He can help combat the effects of seismic devices 
by moving when other actions that will activate the devices, such as 
artillery fire, low-flying aircraft, rain, snow, or even a heavy wind, are 
in progress or, in some instances, moving without rhythm. The sniper 
can defeat most other sensors if he knows their limitations and 
capabilities. 

• Ground Surveillance Radars. Ground surveillance radars can detect 
troop or vehicle movement at an extended range, but only along its line 
of sight and only if the object is moving at a given speed or faster. It 
takes a well-trained individual to properly monitor the device. A sniper 
can combat the use of ground surveillance radars by moving in 
defilade, out of the direct line of sight of the equipment, or slower than 
the radar can detect. He should move extremely slow and low to the 
ground, using natural objects and vegetation to mask the movement. 
The more laterally to the radar the sniper moves, the easier it is for the 
radar to detect the sni per's movement. 

• Thermal Imagers. Thermal imagers are infrared heat detectors that 
locate body heat. The difference between heat sources is what is 



4-20 



FM 3-05.222 



registered. These devices could locate even a motionless and 
camouflaged sniper. One possible way to confuse such a detector would 
be to attach a space blanket (Mylar) to the inside of the camouflage 
suit. The blanket would reflect the body heat inward and could possibly 
keep the sniper from being distinguished from the heat pattern of the 
surrounding terrain. This method would work best when the 
temperature is warm and the greatest amount of radiant heat is rising 
from the ground. Active infrared spotlights and metascopes may be 
used against the sniper. The sniper must always avoid the IR light or 
he will be detected. 



CAUTION 

By trapping the body heat and not allowing it to 
dissipate, the sniper increases the chance of 
becoming a heat casualty. 



Selecting Lines of Advance 

4-63. Part of the sniper's mission will be to analyze the terrain, select a good 
route to the target, use obstacles (man-made and natural) and terrain to their 
best advantage, and determine the best method of movement to arrive at his 
target. Once at the target site, he must be able to select firing positions and 
plan a stalk. 

4-64. On the ground, the sniper looks for a route that will provide the best 
cover and concealment. He should fully use low ground, dead space, and 
shadows and avoid open areas. He looks for a route that will provide easy 
movement, yet will allow quiet movement at night. The sniper selects the 
route, then chooses the movement techniques that will allow undetected 
movement over that specific terrain. 

4-65. Position selection is also critical to mission success. The sniper should 
not select a position that looks obvious and ideal; it will appear that way to 
the enemy. He should select a position away from prominent terrain features 
of contrasting background. When possible, he selects an area that has an 
obstacle (natural or man-made) between him and the target. 

4-66. Stalk planning involves map and ground reconnaissance, selection of a 
route to the objective, selection of the type of movement, notation of known or 
suspected enemy locations, and selection of a route of withdrawal. Sniper 
teams must not be detected or even suspected by the enemy. To maintain 
efficiency, each sniper must master individual movement techniques and 
ensure team effort is kept at the highest possible level. 

Sniper Team Movement and Navigation 

4-67. Normally, the sniper carries the SWS, the observer carries an 
M4/M16/M203, and both have sidearms. Due to the number of personnel and 
firepower, the sniper team cannot afford to be detected by the enemy nor can 
it successfully meet the enemy in sustained engagements. Another technique 



4-21 



FM 3-05.222 



is for the sniper to carry the IM24 bagged and on his back, while carrying an 
|VI4 at the ready. This gives the team greater firepower. 

4-68. When possible, the sniper team should have a security element 
(squad/platoon) attached. The security element allows the team to reach its 
area of operations quicker and safer. Plus, it provides the team a reaction 
force should the team be detected. 

4-69. Snipers use the following guidelines when attaching a security 
element: 

• The security element leader is in chargeof the team while it is attached. 

• Sniper teams always appear as an integral part of the element. 

• Sniper teams wear the same uniform as the element members. 

• Sniper teams maintain proper intervals and positions in all formations. 

• The SWS is carried in-line and close to the body, hiding its outline and 
barrel length, or it is bagged and the shooter carries an M4. 

• All equipment that is unique to sniper teams is concealed from view 
(optics, ghi I lie suits). 

• Once in the area of operations, the sniper team separates from the 
security element and operates alone. 

4-70. Two examples of sniper teams separating from security elements follow: 

• The security element provides security while the team prepares for its 
operation. The team— 

■ Dons the ghillie suits and camouflages itself and its equipment (if 
mission requires). 

■ Ensures that all equipment is secure and caches any nonessential 
equipment (if mission requires). 

■ Once it is prepared, assumes a concealed position, and the 
security element departs the area. 

■ Once the security element has departed, waits in position long 
enough to ensure neither it nor the security element have been 
compromised. The team then moves to its tentative position. 

• The security element conducts a short security halt at the separation 
point. The snipers halt, ensuring they have good available concealment 
and know each other's location. The security element then proceeds, 
leaving the sniper team in place. The sniper team remains in position 
until the security element is clear of the area. The team then organizes 
itself as required by the mission and moves on to its tentative position. 
This type of separation also works well in military operations in urban 
terrain (MOUT) situations. 

4-71. When selecting routes, the sniper team must remember its 
strengths and weaknesses. The following guidelines should be used when 
selecting routes: 

• Avoid known enemy positions and obstacles. 

• Seek terrain that offers the best cover and concealment. 



4-22 



FM 3-05.222 



• Takeadvantageof difficult terrain (swamps, dense woods). 

• Avoid natural lines of drift. 

• Do not use trails, roads, or footpaths. 

• Avoid built-up or populated areas. 

• Avoid areas of heavy enemy guerrilla activity. 

• Avoid areas between opposing forces in contact with each other. 

4-72. When the sniper team moves, it must always assume its area is under 
enemy observation. Because of this threat and the small amount of firepower 
that the team has, it can use only one type of formation— the sniper 
movement formation. Characteristics are as follows: 

• The observer is the point man; the sniper follows. 

• The observer's sector of security is 9 o'clock to 3 o'clock; the sniper's 
sector of security is 3 o'clock to 9 o'clock (overlapping each other). 

• Team members maintain visual contact, even when lying on the ground. 

• Team members maintain an interval of no more than 2 meters. 

• The sniper reacts to the point man's actions. 

• Team leader designates the movement techniques and routes used. 

• Team leader designates rally points. 

• During the stalk, team moves by using individual bounding techniques. 
It can move by successive bounds or alternating bounds. 

• Team crosses linear danger areas by moving together across the danger 
area after a security or listing halt. 

Sniper Team Immediate Action Drills 

4-73. A sniper team must never become decisively engaged with the enemy. 
It must rehearse immediate action drills so they become a natural and 
immediate reaction should it make unexpected contact with the enemy. 
Examples of such actions are as follows: 

• Visual Contact. If the sniper team sees the enemy and the enemy does 
not see the team, it freezes. If the team has time, it will do the foil owing: 

■ Assume the best covered and concealed position. 

■ Remain in position until the enemy has passed. 

NOTE: The team will not initiate contact. 

• Ambush. The sniper team's objective is to break contact immediately 
during an ambush. One example of this technique involves performing 
the following: 

■ The observer delivers rapid fire on the enemy and the team 
immediately moves out of the area. 

■ The team moves to a location where the enemy cannot observe or 
pi ace direct fire on it. 

■ If contact cannot be broken, the sniper calls for indirect fire or 
security element (if attached). 



4-23 



FM 3-05.222 



■ If team members get separated, they should either link up at the 
objective rally point (ORP) or move to the next designated rally 
point. This move will depend upon the team SOP. 

• Indirect Fire. I ndirect fire can cause the team to move out of the area 
as quickly as possible and may result in its exact location and direction 
being pinpointed. Therefore, the team must not only react to indirect 
fire but also take the following actions to conceal its movement once it 
is out of the impact area: 

■ The team leader moves the team out of the impact area using the 
quickest route by giving the direction and distance (clock method). 

■ Both members move out of the impact area the designated 
distance and direction. 

■ The team leader then moves the team farther away from the 
impact area by using the most direct concealed route. They 
continue the mission using an alternate route. 

■ If the team members get separated, they should either link up at 
the ORP or move next designated rally point. 

• Air Attack. If the sniper team finds itself caught in an air attack or its 
position is about to be destroyed, it should react as follows: 

■ Assume the best available covered and concealed positions. 

■ Between passes of aircraft, move to a position that offers better 
cover and concealment. 

■ Do not engage the ai rcraft. 

■ Remain in position until the attacking aircraft departs. 

■ Link up at the ORP or move to the next designated rally point if 
the members get separated. 

Navigational Aids 

4-74. To aid the sniper team in navigation, it should memorize the route by 
studying maps, aerial photos, or sketches. The team notes distinctive features 
(hills, streams, and roads) and its location in relation to the route. It plans an 
alternate route in case the primary route cannot be used. It plans an offset to 
circumvent known obstacles to movement. The team uses terrain countdown, 
which involves memorizing terrain features from the start to the objective, to 
maintain the route. During the mission, the sniper team mentally counts 
each terrain feature, thus ensuring it maintains the proper route. The team 
designates all en route rally points along the routes. 

4-75. The sniper team maintains orientation at all times. As it moves, it 
observes the terrain carefully and mentally checks off the distinctive features 
noted in the planning and study of the route. The team must be aware of the 
map terrain interval to prevent counting low terrain features not represented 
on a map. 

4-76. The following aids are available to ensure orientation: 

• Global positioning system (GPS). 

• The location and direction of flow of principal streams. 



4-24 



FM 3-05.222 



• Hills, valleys, roads, and other peculiar terrain features. 

• Railroad tracks, power lines, and other man-made objects. 

TRACKING AND COUNTERTRACKING 

4-77. Tracking is the art of being able to follow a person or an animal by the 
signs that they leave during their movement. It is nearly impossible to move 
cross-country and not leave signs of one's passage. These signs, no matter 
how small, can be detected by a trained and experienced tracker. However, a 
person who is trained in tracking techniques can use deception drills that can 
minimize telltale signs and throw off or confuse trackers who are not well 
trained or who do not have the experience to spot the signs of a deception. 

4-78. As a tracker follows a trail, he builds a picture of the enemy in his 
mind by asking himself these questions: How many persons am I following? 
What is their state of training? How are they equipped? Are they healthy? 
What is their state of morale? Do they know they are being followed? To 
answer these questions, the tracker uses available indicators— that is, signs 
that tell an action occurred at a specific time and place (Figure 4-8). By 
comparing indicators, the tracker obtains answers to his questions. 

NOTE: Throughout this section, the terms tracker and sniper are used 
interchangeably. 




Figure 4-8. The Area a Tracker Surveys to Find Traciting indicators 

TRACKING SIGNS 

4-79. Signs are visible marks left by individuals or animals as they pass 
through an area. The sniper must know the following categories of signs: 

• Ground Signs. These are signs left below the knees. All ground signs 
are further divided as follows: 

■ Large signs are caused by the movement of ten or more 
individuals through the area. 

■ Small signs are caused by the movement of one to nine 
individuals through the area. 



4-25 



FM 3-05.222 



High Signs (aiso ianown as top signs). These are signs left above the 
knees. They are also divided into large and small top signs. 

Temporary Signs. These signs will eventually fade with time (for 
example, a footprint). 

Permanent Signs. These signs require weeks to fade or will leave a 
mark forever (for example, broken branches or chipped bark). 



TRACKING INDICATORS 



Displacement 



4-80. Any sign the tracker discovers can be defined by one of six tracking 
indicators. They include displacement, stains, weathering, litter, camouflage, 
and immediate-use intelligence. 



4-81. Displacement takes place when anything is moved from its original 
position. A well-defined footprint in soft, moist ground is a good example of 
displacement. The footgear or bare feet of the person who left the print 
displaced the soil by compression, leaving an indentation in the ground. The 
tracker can study this sign and determine several important facts. For 
example, a print left by worn footgear or by bare feet may indicate lack of 
proper equipment. Displacement can also result from clearing a trail by 
breaking or cutting through heavy vegetation with a machete; these trails are 
obvious to the most inexperienced tracker. Individuals may unconsciously 
break more branches as they move behind someone who is cutting the path. 
Displacement indicators can also be made by persons carrying heavy loads 
who stop to rest; prints made by box edges can help to identify the load. When 
loads are set down at a rest halt or campsite, they usually crush grass and 
twigs. A reclining man can also flatten the vegetation. 

4-82. Analyzing Footprints. Footprints can indicate direction, rate of 
movement, number, sex, and whether the individual knows he is being 
tracked. Figures 4-9 through 4-12 show different appearances of tracks made 
during various activities and countertracking techniques. The footprint can 
be the whole print but is usually only the "heel dig" and "toe push" footprint. 
They may also be found on the underside of large leaves that have not dried 
out and are lying on the ground. 

4-83. If footprints are deep and the pace is long, rapid movement is 
apparent. Extremely long strides and deep prints with toe prints deeper than 
heel prints indicate running (Figure4-9). 



aC3)%> 



v.- ' ''" ..' ^. ar^" 



°^/r:," oO 



'''■to .. ob,^ a 






O d* 



Figure 4-9. Running 



4-26 



FM 3-05.222 



4-84. Prints that are deep, have a short stride, are narrowly spaced, and 
show signs of shuffling indicate the person who left the print is carrying a 
heavy load (Figure 4-10). 




Figure 4-10. Carrying a Heavy Load 

4-85. If the party members realize they are being followed, they may try to 
hide their tracks. Persons walking backward have a short, irregular stride 
(Figure 4-11). The prints have an unnaturally deep toe, and soil is displaced 
in the direction of movement. These types of prints are characterized by "toe 
digs" and "heel push" as opposed to the normal footprint. 



% - 




t^z-^.'-^- 







<> 




u* — ^° 



Figure 4-11. Walking Backward 

4-86. To determine the sex of a member of the party being followed, the 
tracker should study the size and position of the footprints (Figure 4-12, page 
4-28). Women tend to be pigeon-toed; men walk with their feet straight ahead 
or pointed slightly to the outside. Prints left by women are usually smaller 
and the stride is usually shorter than that taken by men. 



4-27 



FM 3-05.222 



dO.'-: 



adD: 



* « 
o 



?<o>. 






oO-; 






^i- ^?6:^,^ 









Figure 4-12. Man Versus Woman 

4-87. Determining Key Prints. Normally, the last man in the file leaves 
the clearest footprints; these should be the key prints. The tracker cuts a 
stick to match the length of the prints and notches it to show the length and 
widest part of the sole. He can then study the angle of the key prints in 
relation to the direction of march. He looks for an identifying mark or feature, 
such as worn or frayed footgear, to identify the key prints. If the trail 
becomes vague, erased, or merges with another, the tracker can employ his 
stick-measuring device and identify the key prints with close study. This 
method helps him to stay on the trail. By using the box method, he can count 
up to 18 persons. The tracker can— 

• Use the stride as a unit of measure when determining key prints 
(Figure 4-13). He uses these prints and the edges of the road or trail to 
box in an area to analyze. 

• Also use the 36-inch box method if key prints are not evident (Figure 
4-14, page 4-29). To use this method, the tracker uses the edges of the 
road or trail as the sides of the box. He measures a cross section of the 
area 36 inches long, counting each indentation in the box and dividing 
by two. This method gives a close estimate of the number of individuals 
who made the prints; however, this system is not as accurate as the 
stride measurement. 



Key Prints 



Prints of 8 Persons 




Figure 4-13. Using the Stride as a Unit of Measure 



4-28 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure 4-14. Using the 36-Inch Box Method 

4-88. Recognizing Other Signs of Displacement. Foliage, moss, vines, 
sticks, or rocks that are scuffed or snapped from their original position form 
valuable indicators. Broken dirt seals around rocks, mud or dirt moved to 
rocks or other natural debris, and water moved onto the banks of a stream 
are also good indicators (Figure 4-15). Vines may be dragged, dew droplets 
displaced, or stones and sticks overturned to show a different color 
underneath. Grass or other vegetation may be bent or broken in the direction 
of movement (Figure 4-16). 








Figure 4-15. Turned Over Rocks and Sticks 



Figure 4-16. Crushed or Disturbed Vegetation 



4-89. The tracker inspects all areas for bits of clothing, threads, or dirt from 
torn footgear or can fall and be left on thorns, snags, or the ground. 

4-90. Flushed from their natural habitat, wild animals and birds are 
another example of displacement. Cries of birds excited by unnatural 



4-29 



FM 3-05.222 



movement are an indicator; moving tops of tall grass or brush on a windless 
day indicate tliat sometiiing is moving the vegetation. 

4-91. Changes in the normal life of insects and spiders may indicate that 
someone has recently passed. Valuable clues are disturbed bees, ant holes 
covered by someone moving over them, or torn spider webs. Spiders often 
spin webs across open areas, trails, or roads to trap flying insects. If the 
tracked person does not avoid these webs, he leaves an indicator to an 
observant tracker. 

4-92. If the person being followed tries to use a stream to cover his trail, the 
tracker can still follow successfully. Algae and other water plants can be 
displaced by lost footing or by careless walking. Rocks can be displaced from 
their original position or overturned to indicate a lighter or darker color on 
the opposite side. The person entering or exiting a stream creates slide marks 
or footprints, or scuffs the bark on roots or sticks (Figure 4-17). Normally, a 
person or animal seeks the path of least resistance; therefore, when searching 
the stream for an indication of departures, trackers will find signs in open 
areas along the banks. 




Stains 



Figure 4-17. Slip lUlarks and Waterfilled Footprints on Stream Banks 



4-93. A stain occurs when any substance from one organism or article is 
smeared or deposited on something else. The best example of staining is blood 
from a profusely bleeding wound. Bloodstains often appear as spatters or drops 
and are not always on the ground; they also appear smeared on leaves or twigs 
of trees and bushes. The tracker can determine the seriousness of the wound 
and how far the wounded person can move unassisted. This process may lead 
the tracker to enemy bodies or indicate where they have been carried. 

4-94. By studying bloodstains, the tracker can determine the wound's location 
as follows: 

• If the blood seems to be dripping steadily, it probably came from a 
wound on the trunk. 



4-30 



FM 3-05.222 



Weathering 



• If the blood appears to be slung toward the front, rear, or sides, the 
wound is probably in the extremity. 

• Arterial wounds appear to pour blood at regular intervals as if poured 
from a pitcher. If the wound is vei nous, the blood pours steadily. 

• A lung wound deposits pink, bubbly, and frothy bloodstains. 

• A bloodstain from a head wound appears heavy, wet, and slimy. 

• Abdominal wounds often mix blood with digestive juices so the deposit 
has an odor and is light in color. 

4-95. Any body fluids such as urine or feces deposited on the ground, trees, 
bushes, or rocks will leave a stain. 

4-96. On a calm, clear day, leaves of bushes and small trees are generally 
turned so that the dark top sideshows. However, when a man passes through 
an area and disturbs the leaves, he will generally cause the lighter side of the 
leaf to show. This movement is also true with some varieties of grass. Moving 
causes an unnatural discoloration of the area, which is called "shine." Grass 
or leaves that have been stepped on will have a bruise on the lighter side. 

4-97. Staining can also occur when muddy footgear is dragged over grass, 
stones, and shrubs. Thus, staining and displacement combine to indicate 
movement and direction. Crushed leaves may stain rocky ground that is too 
hard to show footprints. Roots, stones, and vines may be stained where leaves 
or berries are crushed by moving feet. 

4-98. The tracker may have difficulty determining the difference between 
staining and displacement since both terms can be applied to some indicators. 
For example, muddied water may indicate recent movement; displaced mud 
also stains the water. Muddy footgear can stain stones in streams, and algae 
can be displaced from stones in streams and can stain other stones or the 
bank. Muddy water collects in new footprints in swampy ground; however, 
the mud settles and the water clears with time. The tracker can use this 
information to indicate time. Normally, the mud clears in about one hour, 
although time varies with the terrain. Since muddied water travels with the 
current, it is usually best to move downstream. 



4-99. Weathering either aids or hinders the tracker. It also affects indicators 
in certain ways so that the tracker can determine their relative ages. 
However, wind, snow, rain, or sunlight can erase indicators entirely and 
hinder the tracker. The tracker should know how weathering affects soil, 
vegetation, and other indicators in his area. He cannot properly determine 
the age of indicators until he understands the effects that weathering has on 
trail signs. 

4-100. For example, when bloodstains are fresh, they are bright red. Air and 
sunlight first change blood to a deep ruby-red color, then to a dark brown 
crust when the moisture evaporates. Scuff marks on trees or bushes darken 
with time. Sap oozes on trees and then hardens when it makes contact with 
the air. 



4-31 



FM 3-05.222 



4-101. Weather greatly affects footprints (Figure 4-18). By carefully studying 
this weathering process, the tracker can estimate the age of the print. 
If particles of soil are just beginning to fall into the print, this is a sign that 
the print is very recent. At this point, the tracker should then focus on 
becoming a stalker. If the edges of the print are dried and crusty, the prints 
are probably about 1 hour old. This process varies with terrain and is only 
a guide. 




Figure 4-18. Effects of Weather on the Clarity of Footprints 

4-102. A light rain may round the edges of the print. By remembering when 
the last rain occurred, the tracker can place the print into a time frame. A 
heavy rain may erase all signs. 

4-103. Trails exiting streams may appear weathered by rain due to water 
running from clothing or equipment into the tracks. This trait is especially 
true if the party exits the stream single file. Then, each person deposits water 
into the tracks. The existence of a wet, weathered trail slowly fading into a 
dry trail indicates the trail is fresh. 

4-104. Wind dries out tracks and blows litter, sticks, or leaves into prints. By 
recalling wind activity, the tracker may estimate the age of the tracks. For 
example, the tracker may reason "the wind is calm at the present but blew hard 
about an hour ago. These tracks have litter blown into them, so they must be 
over an hour old." However, he must be sure that the litter was blown into the 
prints and not crushed into them when the prints were made. 

4-105. Wind affects sound and odors. If the wind is blowing down the trail 
(toward the tracker), sounds and odors may be carried to him; conversely, if 
the wind is blowing up the trail (away from the tracker), he must be 
extremely cautious since wind also carries sounds toward the enemy. The 
tracker can determine wind direction by dropping a handful of dust or dried 
grass from shoulder height. By pointing in the same direction the wind is 
blowing, the tracker can localize sounds by cupping his hands behind his ears 
and turning slowly. When sounds are loudest, the tracker is facing the origin. 

4-106. In calm weather (no wind), air currents that may be too light to detect 
can carry sounds to the tracker. Air cools in the evening and moves downhill 
toward the valleys. If the tracker is moving uphill late in the day or night, air 
currents will probably be moving toward him if no other wind is blowing. As 
the morning sun warms the air in the valleys, it moves uphill. The tracker 
considers these factors when plotting patrol routes or other operations. If he 
keeps the wind in his face, sounds and odors will be carried to him from his 
objective or from the party being tracked. 



4-32 



FM 3-05.222 



Litter 



4-107. The tracker should also consider the sun. It is difficult to fire 
directly into the sun, but if the tracker has the sun at his back and the 
wind in his face, he has a slight advantage. 



4-108. Litter consists of anything not indigenous to the area that is left on 
the ground. A poorly trained or poorly disciplined unit moving over terrain is 
apt to leave a trail of litter. Unmistakable signs of recent movement are gum 
or candy wrappers, ration cans, cigarette butts, remains of fires, urine, and 
bloody bandages. Rain flattens or washes litter away and turns paper into 
pulp. Exposure to weather can cause ration cans to rust at the opened edge; 
then, the rust moves toward the center. The tracker must consider weather 
conditions when estimating the age of litter. He can use the last rain or 
strong wind as the basis for a timeframe. 

4-109. The sniper should also know the wildlife in the area. Even sumps, 
regardless of how well camouflaged, are a potential source of litter. The best 
policy you can follow is to take out with you everything you bring in. 



Camouflage 



4-110. Camouflage applies to tracking when the followed party uses 
techniques to baffle or slow the tracker— that is, walking backward to leave 
confusing prints, brushing out trails, and moving over rocky ground or 
through streams. Camouflaged movement indicates a trained adversary. 

Immediate-Use Intelligence 

4-111. The tracker combines all indicators and interprets what he has seen 
to form a composite picture for on-the-spot intelligence. For example, 
indicators may show contact is imminent and require extreme stealth. 

4-112. The tracker avoids reporting his interpretations as facts. He reports 
what he has seen, rather than stating these things exist. There are many ways 
a tracker can interpret the sex and size of the party, the load, and the type of 
equipment. Time frames can be determined by weathering effects on indicators. 

4-113. I mmediate-use intelligence is information about the enemy that can be 
used to gain surprise, to keep him off balance, or to keep him from escaping the 
area entirely. The commander may have many sources of intelligence such as 
reports, documents, or prisoners of war. These sources can be combined to form 
indicators of the enemy's last location, future plans, and destination. 

4-114. However, tracking gives the commander definite information on 
which to act immediately. For example, a unit may report there are no men of 
military age in a village. This information is of value only if it is combined 
with other information to make a composite enemy picture in the area. 
Therefore, a tracker who interprets trail signs and reports that he is 30 
minutes behind a known enemy unit, moving north, and located at a specific 
location, gives the commander information on which he can act. 



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FM 3-05.222 



DOG-TRACKER TEAMS 

4-115. The three types of tracker dogs are as follows: 

• Visual dogs rely upon their acute vision. They usually are the final part 
of tracking before shifting over to the attack mode. 

• Search c/ogs are allowed to run free and search using airborne scents. 

• Tracker dogs run on leashes and use ground scents. 

4-116. Many myths surround the abilities and limitations of canine trackers. 
The first and perhaps greatest myth is that tracking involves only the dog's 
sense of smell. Canine tracking involves a team— a merging of man and dog. 
Dogs use both their eyes and ears; the tracker uses his eyes and knowledge of 
the quarry. Together, they create an effective team that maximizes their 
strengths and minimizes their weaknesses. The sniper team is not only trying 
to evade and outwit "just" a dog but also the dog's handler. The most common 
breed of dog used is the German shepherd. These dogs are trained to respond 
independently to a variety of situations and threats. Good tracking dogs are a 
rare and difficult-to-replace asset. 

4-117. A visual tracker assists the dog handlers in finding a track if the dog 
loses the trail. He can radio ahead to another tracker and give him an oral 
account of the track picture. A visual tracker is slower than dogs because he 
must always use his powers of observation, which creates fatigue. His 
effectiveness is limited at night. 

4-118. Tracker dogs smell microbes in the earth that are released from 
disturbed soil. The trail has no innate smell of a specific quarry, although 
trails do vary depending on the size and number of the quarry. For example, 
a scent is like the wake a ship leaves in the ocean, but no part of the ship is 
left in the wake. It is the white, foamy, disturbed water that is the trail. The 
result is entirely different from a point smell of the quarry such as sweat, 
urine, or cigarette smoke. The same training that makes tracking dogs adept 
at tracking a scent trail applies to finding a point smell. 

4-119. Smelling is a highly complex process and many variables affect it. The 
most important element in tracking is the actual ground such as earth and 
grass. It contains living microbes that are always disturbed by the quarry's 
passage. Artificial surfaces (concrete and macadam) and mainly inorganic 
surfaces (stone) provide little or no living microbes to form a scent track. 

4-120. A search or a scent-discrimination dog builds a scent picture of the 
person that he is tracking. Scent may be short-lived and its life span is 
dependent upon the weather and the area that the person last passed 
through. The sun and the wind, as well as time, destroy the scent. There are 
both airborne and ground scents. Airborne scents can be blown away within 
minutes or a few hours. Ground scents can last longer than 48 hours under 
ideal conditions. Bloodhounds have been known to successfully track a scent 
that was left behind 7 days before. 

4-121. Wind and moisture are other major variables that affect tracking. 
Foggy and drizzly weather that keeps the ground moist is best. Too much 
rain can wash a trail away; depending on the strength of the trail, it takes 
persistent, hard rain to erase a scent trail. Usually, the scent is not washed 



4-34 



FM 3-05.222 



away but only sealed beneath a layer of ground water. A short, violent 
rainfall could deposit enough water to seal the scent track, but after the rain 
stops and the water layer evaporates, the microbe trail would again be 
detectable by dogs. Hard, dry ground releases the fewest microbes and is the 
most difficult terrain for dogs to track on. A dog may also have difficulty 
following a trail on a beach or dusty path, but his human tracker could easily 
follow the footprints visually. Snipers must always remember they are being 
tracked by a man and a dog team. Tracker dogs track on the tail of the sniper 
while search dogs track downwind of the trail. 

4-122. Wind strength and direction are important factors in tracking. 
Basically, strong wind inhibits tracking a scent trail but makes it easier for a 
dog to find a point scent source— like a hide. A general rule is that a dog can 
smell a man-size source downwind out to 50 meters and a group-size source— 
a hide— out to 200 meters under ideal conditions. Upwind, a source 1 meter 
away could be missed. 

Wind Direction ^ 

Wind Speed: Still Windy 

D X D D 

Distance: 1 Meter 30 to 50 Maximum 150 to 

Meters 200 Meters 

D = Dog Team 

X = Sniper/Sniper Team 

4-123. A strong wind disperses microbes that arise from the ground, 
hindering a dog's ability to follow a trail. However, a strong wind increases 
the size of a point scent, helping a dog to find the target in an area search. 

4-124. An inflexible rule for the life of a scent trail cannot be provided. In 
Germany, trackers rate their chance of following a trail that is more than 3 
days old as negligible. Terrain, weather, and the sensitivity of the tracking 
dog are some of the many variables that affect the scent trail. A point smell 
will last as long as the target emits odors. 

4-125. While dogs are mainly scent hunters, they also have good short-range 
vision. Dogs are colorblind and do not have good distance vision (camouflage 
works extremely well against dogs). However, they can detect slight 
movements. Dogs also have a phenomenal sense of hearing, extending far 
beyond human norms in both the frequency range and in sensitivity. Dogs 
use smell to approximate a target, and then rely on sound and movement to 
pinpoint that target. 

4-126. Although dogs have tremendous detection abilities, they also have 
limitations. Following a scent trail is the most difficult task a tracking dog 
can perform. The level of effort is so intense that most dogs cannot work 
longer than 20 to 30 minutes at a time, followed by a 10- to 20-minute rest. 
Dogs can perform this cycle no more than five or six times in a 24-hour period 
before reaching complete exhaustion. The efficiency of the search also 
decreases as the dog tires. I n wartime, the situation will force the maximum 
from men and equipment, but times should remain constant for dogs 
because they always give 100 percent. If the snipers keep moving and stay 



4-35 



FM 3-05.222 



out of the detection range of the human handlers, then they could outlast the 
dog-scent trackers. 

4-127. When looking for sniper teams, trackers mainly use wood line sweeps 
and area searches. A wood line sweep consists of walking the dog upwind of 
a suspected wood line or brush line— the key is upwind. If the wind is blowing 
through the woods and out of the wood line, trackers move 50 to 100 meters 
inside a wooded area to sweep the woods' edge. Since wood line sweeps tend 
to be less specific, trackers perform them faster. Trackers perform an area 
search when a team's location is specific, such as a small wooded area or 
block of houses. The search area is cordoned off, if possible and the dog- 
tracker teams are brought on-line about 25 to 150 meters apart, depending on 
terrain and visibility. The handlers then advance, each moving their dogs 
through a specific corridor. The handler controls the dog entirely with voice 
commands and gestures. He remains undercover, directing the dog in a 
search pattern or to a likely target area. The search line moves forward with 
each dog dashing back and forth in assigned sectors. 

TECHNIQUES TO DEFEAT DOG-TRACKER TEAMS 

4-128. Although dog and handler tracking teams are a potent threat, there 
are counters available to the sniper team. As always, the best defenses are 
basic infantry techniques: good camouflage and light, noise, and trash 
discipline. Dogs find a team either by detecting a trail or by a point source 
such as human waste odors at the hide site. It is critical to try to obscure or 
limit trails around the hide, especially along the wood line or area closest to 
the team's target area. Surveillance targets are usually major axes of 
advance. 'Trolling the wood lines" along likely-looking roads or intersections 
is a favorite tactic of dog-tracker teams. When moving into a target area, the 
sniper team should take the following countermeasures: 

• Remain as far away from the target area as the situation allows. 

• Never establish a position at the edge of cover and concealment nearest 
the target area. 

• Minimize the track. Try to approach the position area on hard, dry 
ground or along a stream or river. 

• Urinate in a hole and cover it up. Never urinate more than once in 
exactly the same spot. 

• Deeply bury fecal matter. If the duration of the mission permits, use 
meals, ready to eat (MRE) bags sealed with tape and take it with you. 

• N ever smoke. 

• Carry all trash until it can be buried elsewhere. 

4-129. When dogs are being used against a sniper team, they use other odors 
left behind or around the team to find it. Sweat from exertion or fear is one of 
these. Wet clothing or material from damp environments holds in the scent. 
Soap or deodorant used before infiltration helps the dogs to find the team. 
Foreign odors such as oils, preservatives, polish, and petroleum products also 
aid the dogs. Time permitting, the sniper should try to change his diet to that 
of the local inhabitants before infiltration. 



4-36 



FM 3-05.222 



4-130. When the sniper team first arrives in its AO, it is best to move 
initially in a direction that is from 90 to 170 degrees away from the objective. 
Objects or items of clothing not belonging to any of the team members should 
be carried into the AO in a plastic bag. When the team first starts moving, it 
should drop an item of clothing or piece of cloth out of the bag and leave it on 
a back trail. This step can confuse a dog long enough to give the team more of 
a head start. Also, if dogs are brought in late, the team's scent will be very 
faint while this scent will still be strong. 

4-131. While traveling, the team should try to avoid heavily foliaged areas, 
as these areas hold the scent longer. Periodically, when the situation permits, 
move across an open area that the sun shines on during the day and that has 
the potential of being windswept. The wind moves the scent and will 
eventually blow it away; the sun destroys scent very rapidly. 

4-132. When the situation permits, make changes in direction at the open 
points of terrain to force the dog to cast for a scent. If dogs are very close 
behind, moving through water does not confuse them, as scent will be 
hanging in the air above the water. Moving through water will only slow the 
team down. Throwing CS gas to the rear or using blood, spice mixtures, or 
any other concoctions will prevent a dog from smelling the team's scent, but it 
will not be effective on a trained tracker dog. 

4-133. While a dog will not be confused by water if he is close, running 
water, such as a rapidly moving stream, will confuse a dog if he is several 
hours behind. However, areas with foliage, stagnant air, and little sunlight 
will hold the scent longer. Therefore, the team should try to avoid any 
swampy areas. 

4-134. The sniper team should move through areas that have been frequently 
traveled by other people, as this will confuse the scent picture to the dog. Team 
members should split up from time to time to confuse the dogs. The best place 
for this is in areas frequently traveled by indigenous personnel. 

4-135. If a dog-tracker is on the sniper team's trail, it should not run because 
the scent will become stronger. The team may attempt to wear out the dog 
handler and confuse the dog but should always be on the lookout for a good 
ambush site that it can fishhook into. If it becomes necessary to ambush the 
tracking party, fishhook into the ambush site and kill or wound the handler, 
not the dog. A tracker dog is trained with his handler and will protect him 
should he become wounded. This practice will allow the team to move off and 
away from the area while the rest of the tracking party tries to give 
assistance to the handler. Also, that dog will not work well with anyone other 
than his handler. 

4-136. If a dog search team moves into the area, the sniper team should first 
check wind direction and strength. If the team is downwind of the estimated 
search area, the chances are minimal that the team's point smells will be 
detected. If upwind of the search area, the team should attempt to move 
downwind. Terrain and visibility dictate whether the team can move without 
being detected visually by the handlers. Remember, sweeps are not always 
conducted just outside of a wood line. Wind direction determines whether the 
sweep will be parallel to the outside or 50 to 100 meters inside the wood line. 



4-37 



FM 3-05.222 



4-137. The team has options if caught inside the search area of a line search. 
The handlers rely on radio communications and often do not have visual 
contact with each other. If the team has been generally localized through 
enemy radio detection-finding equipment, the search net will still be loose 
during the initial sweep. A sniper team has a small chance of hiding and 
escaping detection in deep brush or in woodpiles. Larger groups will almost 
certainly be found. Yet, the team may have the chance to eliminate the 
handler and to escape the search net. 

4-138. The handler hides behind cover with the dog. He searches for 
movement and then sends the dog out in a straight line toward the front. 
Usually, when the dog has moved about 50 to 75 meters, the handler calls the 
dog back. The handler then moves slowly forward and always from covered 
position to covered position. Commands are by voice and gesture with a backup 
whistle to signal the dog to return. If a handler is killed or badly injured after 
he has released the dog, but before he has recalled it, the dog continues to 
randomly search out and away from the handler. The dog usually returns to 
another handler or to his former handler's last position within several minutes. 
This time lapse creates a gap from 25 to 150 meters wide in the search pattern. 
Response times by the other searchers tend to be fast. Given the high degree of 
radio "chatter," the injured handler will probably be quickly missed from the 
radio net. Killing the dog before the handler will probably delay discovery only 
by moments. Dogs are so reliable that if the dog does not return immediately, 
the handler knows something is wrong. 

4-139. If the sniper does not have a firearm, human versus dog combat is a 
hazard. One dog can be dealt with relatively easily if a knife or large club is 
available. The sniper must keep low and strike upward using the wrist, never 
overhand. Dogs are quick and will try to strike the groin or legs. Most attack 
dogs are trained to go for the groin or throat. If alone and faced with two or 
moredogs, thesniper should flee the situation. 

4-140. Dog-tracker teams are a potent threat to the sniper team. Although 
small and lightly armed, they can greatly increase the area that a rear area 
security unit can search. Due to the dog-tracker team's effectiveness and its 
lack of firepower, a sniper team may be tempted to destroy such an "easy" 
target. Whether a team should fight or run depends on the situation and the 
team leader. Eliminating or injuring the dog-tracker team only confirms to 
threat security forces that there is a hostile team operating in the area. The 
techniques for attacking a dog-tracker team should be used only in extreme 
situations or as a last measure. 



COUNTERTRACKING 



4-141. There are two types of human trackers— combat trackers and 
professional trackers. Combat trackers look ahead for signs and do not 
necessarily look for each individual sign. Professional trackers go from sign to 
sign. If they cannot find any sign, they will stop and search till they find one. 
The only way to lose a trained professional tracker is to fishhook into an area 
and then ambush him. 



4-38 



FM 3-05.222 



Evasion 



4-142. If an enemy tracker finds tracks of two men, it tells him that a highly 
trained specialty team may be operating in his area. However, a knowledge of 
countertracking enables the sniper team to survive by remaining undetected. 

4-143. As with the dogs, to confuse the combat tracker and throw him off the 
track, the sniper always starts his movement away from his objective. He 
travels in a straight line for about an hour and then changes direction. 
Changing will cause the tracker to cast in different directions to find the track. 



4-144. Evasion of the tracker or pursuit team is a difficult task that requires 
the use of immediate-action drills mostly designed to counter the threat. A 
team skilled in tracking techniques can successfully use deception drills to 
minimize signs that the enemy can use against them. However, it is very 
difficult for a person, especially a group, to move across any area without 
leaving signs noticeable to the trained eye. 

Camouflage 

4-145. The followed party may use two types of routes to cover its movement. 
It must also remember that travel time reduces when trying to camouflage the 
trail. Two types of routes include: 

• Most-Used Routes. Movement on lightly-traveled sandy or soft trails is 
easily tracked. However, a person may try to confuse the tracker by 
moving on hard-surfaced, often-traveled roads or by merging with 
civilians. These routes should be carefully examined. If a well-defined 
approach leads to the enemy, it will probably be mined, ambushed, or 
covered by snipers. 

• Least-Used Routes. These routes avoid all man-made trails or roads 
and confuse the tracker. They are normally magnetic azimuths 
between two points. However, the tracker can use the proper concepts 
to follow the party if he is experienced and persistent. 

Reduction of Trail Signs 

4-146. A sniper who tries to hide his trail moves at reduced speed; therefore, 
the experienced tracker gains time. A sniper should use the following 
methods to reduce trail signs: 

• Wrap footgear with rags or wear soft-soled sneakers that make 
footprints rounded and less distinctive. 

• Change into footgear with a different tread immediately following a 
deceptive maneuver. 

• Wal k on hard or rocky ground. 

Deception Techniques 

4-147. Evading a skilled and persistent enemy tracker requires skillfully 
executed maneuvers to deceive the tracker and cause him to lose the trail. An 
enemy tracker cannot be outrun by a sniper team that is carrying equipment, 
because he travels light and is escorted by enemy forces designed for pursuit. 
The size of the pursuing force dictates the sniper team's chances of success in 



4-39 



FM 3-05.222 



using ambush-type maneuvers. Sniper teams use some of the following 
techniques in immediate-action drills and deception drills. 

4-148. Backward Walking. One of the most basic techniques is walking 
backward (Figure 4-19) in tracks already made, and then stepping off the 
trail onto terrain or objects that leave little to no signs. Skillful use of this 
maneuver causes the tracker to look in the wrong direction once he has lost 
the trail. This must be used in conjunction with another deception technique. 
This technique will probably fail if a professional tracker is on your trail. 



Direction of Travel 



CO 




CO 



Backtrack 



Hidden Trail 



Figure 4-19. Backward-Walking Deception Technique 

4-149. Big Tree. A good deception tactic is to change directions at large 
trees (Figure 4-20, page 4-41). To change, the sniper moves in any given 
direction and walks past a large tree (12 inches wide or larger) from 5 to 10 
paces. He carefully walks backward to the forward side of the tree and makes 
a 90-degree change in the direction of travel, passing the tree on its forward 
side. This technique uses the tree as a screen to hide the new trail from the 
pursuing tracker. A variation used near a clear area would be for the sniper 
to pass by the side of the tree that he wishes to change direction to on his 
next leg. He walks past the tree into a clear area for 75 to 100 meters and 
then walks backwards to the tree. At this time he moves 90 degrees and 
passes on the side away from the tracker. This method could cause the 
tracker to follow his sign into the open area where, when he loses the track, 
he might cast in the wrong direction for the track. This technique works only 
on combat trackers and not professional trackers. 



4-40 



FM 3-05.222 



False Trail /^ 



"1 
-J 



Big Tree 




Figure 4-20. Big Tree Deception Technique 

NOTE: By studying signs, an observant tracker can determine if an attempt 
is being made to confuse him. If the sniper team tries to lose the tracker by 
walking backward, footprints will be deepened at the toe and soil will be 
scuffed or dragged in the direction of movement. By following carefully, the 
tracker can normally find a turnaround point. 

4-150. Cut the Corner. The sniper team uses this deception method when 
approaching a known road or trail. About 100 meters from the road, 
the team changes its direction of movement, either 45 degrees left or right. 
Once the road is reached, the team leaves a visibletrail in the same direction of 
the deception for a short distance down the road. The tracker should believe 
that the team "cut the corner" to save time. The team backtracks on the trail to 
the point where it entered the road and then carefully moves down the road 
without leaving a good trail. Once the desired distance is achieved, the team 
changes direction and continues movement (Figure 4-21). A combination using 
the big tree method here would improve the effectiveness of this deception. 



^(^ 



^^ 



.\ 



^^ 



New Direction 



Backtrack 



J 




5S i::^ 

CO CO 



C3 O C3 



00 
100 m' qO 

C>0 

00 




•y 



,0 J45° 



f Prig 



inal Direction 



NOTE: Not to Scale 



Figure 4-21. Cut-the-Corner Deception Technique 



4-41 



FM 3-05.222 



4-151. Slip the Stream. The sniper team uses this deception when 
approaching a known stream. It executes this method the same as the cut- 
the-corner maneuver. The team establishes the 45-degree deception 
maneuver upstream, then enters the stream. The team moves upstream and 
establishes false trails if time permits. By moving upstream, floating debris 
and silt will flow downstream and cover the true direction and exit point. The 
team then moves downstream to escape since creeks and streams gain 
tributaries that offer more escape alternatives (Figure 4-22). False exit points 
can also be used to further confuse. However, the sniper must be careful not 
to cause a false exit to give away his intended travel direction. 



New Direction 




Figure 4-22. Slip-the-Stream Deception Technique 

4-152. Arctic Circle. The team uses this deception in snow-covered terrain to 
escape pursuers or to hide a patrol base. It establishes a trail in a circle as large 
as possible (Figure4-23). The trail that starts on a road and returns to the same 
start point is effective. At some point along the circular trail, the team removes 
snowshoes (if used) and carefully steps off the trail, leaving one set of tracks. 
The large tree maneuver can be used to screen the trail. From the hide position, 
the team returns over the same steps and carefully fills them with snow one at 
a time. This technique is especially effective if it is snowing. 



IHidden Trail 




Road or Trail 




Figure 4-23. Arctic Circle Deception Technique 



4-42 



FM 3-05.222 



4-153. Fishhook. The team uses this technique to double back on its own trail 
in an overwatch position (Figure 4-24). It can observe the back trail for trackers 
or ambush pursuers. If the pursuing force is too large to be destroyed, the team 
strives to eliminate the tracker. It uses hit-and-run tactics, then moves to 
another ambush position. The terrain must be used to advantage. 




Figure 4-24. The Fishhook Deception Technique 

4-154. Dog and visual trackers are not infallible; they can be confused with 
simple techniques and clear thinking. The sniper should not panic and try to 
outrun a dog or visual tracker. It only makes it easier for the tracking party. 
The successful sniper keeps his head and always plans two steps ahead. Even 
if trackers are not in the area, it is best to always use countertracking 
techniques. 

NOTE: Snipers must always remember that there is no way to hide a trail 
from a professional tracker! 

OBSERVATION AND TARGET DETECTION 

4-155. The sniper's mission requires that he deliver precision fire to selected 
targets. He cannot meet this requirement without first observing and 
detecting the target. During this process, the sniper team is concerned with 
the significance of the target rather than the number of targets. The sniper 
team will record the location identification of all targets observed and then 
fire at them in a descending order of importance. 

USE OF TARGET INDICATORS 

4-156. As discussed in the camouflage and concealment section, the sniper 
team must protect itself from target indicators that could reveal its presence 
to the enemy. It can also use these target indicators to locate the enemy by 
using the planned and systematic process of observation. The first 
consideration is toward the discovery of any immediate danger to the sniper 
team. The team begins with a hasty search of the entire area and follows up 
with a slow, deliberate observation called a detailed search. As long as the 
sniper team remains in position, it will maintain constant observation of the 
area using the hasty and detailed search methods as the situation requires. 



4-43 



FM 3-05.222 



Hasty Search 



Detailed Search 



4-157. This process is the first phase of observing a target area. The observer 
conducts a hasty search (about 10 seconds) for any enemy activity immediately 
after the team occupies the firing position. The search is carried out by making 
quick glances at specific points, terrain features, or other areas that could 
conceal the enemy. The sniper should not sweep his eyes across the terrain in 
one continuous movement; it will prevent him from detecting motion. The 
observer views the area closest to the team's position fi rst si nee it could pose the 
most immediate threat. The observer then searches farther out until the entire 
target area has been searched. The hasty search is effective because the eyes 
are sensitive to the slightest movement occurring within a wide arc of the 
object. This spot is called "side vision" or "seeing out of the corner of the eye." 
The eye must be focused on a specific point to have this sensitivity. When the 
observer sees or suspects a target, he uses the binoculars or the observation 
telescope for a detailed view of the suspected target area. 



4-158. After the hasty search, the designated observer starts a detailed 
search using the overlapping strip method (Figure 4-25). Normally, the area 
nearest the team offers the greatest danger, therefore, the search should 
begin there. The detailed search begins at either flank. The observer 
systematically searches the terrain to his front in a 180-degree arc, 50 meters 
in depth. After reaching the opposite flank, the observer searches the next 
area nearest his post. The search should be in overlapping strips of at least 10 
meters to ensure total coverage of the area. It should cover as far out as the 
observer can see, always including areas of interest that attracted the 
observer during the hasty search. 



2d Scan 

(SO M With 

10 M Overlap)' 




1st Scan 

(SOM) 



Figure 4-25. Overlapping Strip Method 

4-159. The observer must memorize as much of the area as possible. He 
should make mental notes of prominent terrain features and other areas that 



4-44 



FM 3-05.222 



may offer cover and concealment for the enemy. This way, he becomes 
familiar with the terrain as he searches. These become his key points of 
interest for his hasty searches. 

4-160. This cycle of a hasty search followed by a detailed search should be 
repeated every 15 to 20 minutes depending upon the terrain and area of 
responsibility. Repetition allows the sniper team to become accustomed to the 
area and to look closer at various points with each consecutive pass over the 
area. After the initial searches, the observer should view the area using a 
combination of both hasty and detailed searches. While the observer conducts 
the initial searches of the area, the sniper should record prominent features, 
reference points, and distances on a range card. 

MAINTAINING OBSERVATION 

4-161. The team members should alternate the task of observing the area 
about every 30 minutes. When maintaining observation, the observer keeps 
movement of his head and body to a minimum. He should not expose his head 
any higher than is necessary to see the area being observed. After completing 
his detailed search, the observer maintains observation of the area by using a 
method similar to the hasty search. He glances quickly at various points 
throughout the entire area and focuses his eyes on specific features that he 
had designated during his detailed search. 

4-162. While maintaining observation, the observer should devise a set 
sequence for searching to ensure coverage of all terrain. Since it is entirely 
possible that his hasty search may fail to detect the enemy, he should 
periodically repeat a detailed search. 

WHY OBJ ECTSARE SEEN 

4-163. The relative ease or difficulty in seeing objects depends upon several 
factors. The observer may determine objects by— 

• Shape. Some objects can be recognized instantly by their shape, 
particularly if it contrasts with the background. Experience teaches 
people to associate an object with its shape or outline. At a distance, 
the outline of objects can be seen well before the details can be 
determined. The human body and the equipment that a soldier carries 
are easily identified unless the outline has been altered. Areas of 
importance when considering shape during observation are— 

■ The clear-cut outline of a soldier or his equipment, either partially 
or fully exposed. 

■ Man-made objects, which have geometric shapes. 

■ Geometric shapes, which do not occur in nature on a large scale. 

• Shadow. In sunlight, an object or a man will cast a shadow that can 
give away his presence. Shadows may be more revealing than the 
object itself. Care must be taken to detect alterations of the natural 
shape of a shadow. Where light is excessively bright, shadows will look 
especially black. Contrast will be extreme, and in this exaggerated 
contrast the observer's eye cannot adjust to both areas simultaneously. 



4-45 



FM 3-05.222 



This requires the observer to "isolate" the shadowed area from the 
bright sunlight so that his eye can adapt to the shadow. 

• Silhoudte. Any object silhouetted against a contrasting background is 
conspicuous. Any smooth, flat background, such as water, a field, or best 
of all, the sky, will cause an object to become well delineated. However, 
special care must be taken when searching areas with an uneven 
background, as it is moredifficult to detect the silhouette of an object. 

• Surface If an object has a surface that contrasts with its surroundings, 
it becomes conspicuous. An object with a smooth surface reflects light 
and becomes more obvious than an object with a rough surface that 
casts shadows on itself. An extremely smooth object becomes shiny. 
The reflections from a belt buckle, watch, or optical device can be 
seen over a mile away from the source. Any shine will attract the 
observer's attention. 

• Spacing. Nature never places objects in a regular, equally spaced 
pattern. Only man uses rows and equal spacing. 

• Siting. Anything that does not belong in the immediate surroundings 
are obvious and become readily detectable. This evidence should 
arouse the observer's curiosity and cause him to investigate the area 
more thoroughly. 

• Color. The greater the contrasting color, the more visible the object 
becomes. This point is especially true when the color is not natural for 
that area. Color alone will usually not identify the object but is often an 
aid in locating it. 

• Movement. This final reason why things are seen will seldom reveal the 
identity of an object, but it is the most common reason an enemy's 
position is revealed. Even when all other indicators are absent, 
movement will give a position away. A stationary object may be 
impossible to see and a slow-moving object difficult to detect, but a 
quick or jerky movement will be seen. 

ELEMENTS OF OBSERVATION 

4-164. Four elements in the process of observation include awareness, 
understanding, recording, and response. Each of these elements may be 
construed as a separate process or as occurring at the same time. 



Awareness 



4-165. Awareness is being consciously attuned to a specific fact. A sniper 
team must always be aware of the surroundings and take nothing for 
granted. The team should consider the following points because they may 
influence and distort awareness: 

• An object's size and shape can be misinterpreted if viewed incompletely 
or inaccurately. 

• Distractions can occur during observation. 

• Active participation or degree of i nterest can diminish toward the event. 

• Physical abilities (five senses) can be limited. 



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Understanding 



Recording 



• Environmental changes can affect or occur at the time of observation. 

• Imagination or perception can cause possible exaggerations or 
inaccuracies when reporting or recalling facts. 



4-166. Understanding is derived from education, training, practice, and 
experience. It enhances the sniper team's knowledge about what should be 
observed, broadens its ability to view and consider all factors, and aids in its 
evaluation of the information. 



4-167. Recording is the ability to save and recall what was observed. Usually, 
the sniper team has mechanical aids such as writing utensils, logbooks, sketch 
kits, tape recordings, and cameras to support the recording of events. However, 
the most accessible method is memory. The ability to record, retain, and recall 
depends on the team's mental capacity (and alertness) and ability to recognize 
what is essential to record. Added factors that affect recording include: 

• The amount of training and practice in observation. 

• Skill through experience. 

• Similarity of previous incidents. 

• Time interval between observing and recording. 

• The ability to understand or convey messages through oral or other 
communication. 

• Preconceived perception of the event as to what or it occurred and who 
was involved. 



Response 



4-168. Response is the sniper team's action toward information. It may be as 
simple as recording events in a logbook, making a communications call, or 
firing a well-aimed shot. 

TARGET INDICATION AT UNKNOWN DISTANCES 

4-169. Snipers usually deploy in pairs and can recognize and direct each 
other to targets quickly and efficiently. To recognize targets quickly, the 
sniper uses standard methods of indication, with slight variations to meet his 
individual needs. 

4-170. The three methods of indicating targets are the direct method, the 
reference-point method, and the clock-ray method. It is easier to recognize a 
target if the area of ground in which it is likely to appear is known. Such an 
area of ground is called an "arc of fire." An arc of fire is indicated in the 
following sequence: 

• The axis (the middle of the arc). 

• The left and right limits of the arc. 

• Reference points (prominent objects). These should be as permanent as 
possible (woods, mounds), a reasonable distance apart, and easy to 
identify. A specific point of the object is nominated and given a name 



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FM 3-05.222 



and range (mound- bottom left corner; to be known as mound-range 
400) the same as on your range card. 

Direct Method 

4-171. The sniper uses this method to indicate obvious targets. The range, 
whereto look, and a description of the target are given. Terms used for where 
to look include the following: 

• Axis of arc— for targets on or very near the axis. 

• Left or right— for targets 90 degrees from the axis. 

• Slightly, quarter, half, or three-quarters and left or right— for targets 
between the axis and the left or right limits. 

Reference-Point Method 

4-172. To indicate less obvious targets, the sniper may use a reference point 
together with the direct method, and perhaps the words above and below as 
well. For example: 

• 300-mound (reference point— slightly right— small bush [target]). 

• 200-mound (reference point— slightly right and below— gate [target]). 

Ciocic-Ray Method 

4-173. To indicate less-obvious targets, a reference-point target with a clock 
ray may be used. To use this method, it is imagined that there is a clock face 
standing up on the landscape with its center on the reference point. To 
indicate a target, the range, the reference point and whether the target is to 
the left or to the right of it, and the approximate hour on the clock face are 
given. For example: 300-mound— right— 4 o'clock— small bush. 

4-174. When indicating targets, the following points must be considered: 

• Range. Its main purpose is to give an indication of how far to look but it 
should also be as accurate as possible. The sniper sets the range given 
to him by his observer as indicated by his shooter's data book. 

• Ddiailed Indication. This value may require more detail than a normal 
indication; nevertheless, it should still be as brief and as clear as possible. 

4-175. The sniper can use mil measurements along with the methods of 
indication to specify the distance between an object and the reference point 
used (for example, mound— reference point; go left 50 mils, lone tree, base of 
tree— target). The mil scale in binoculars can assist in accurate indication, 
although occasionally the use of hand angles will have to suffice. It is 
important that each sniper is conversant with the angles subtended by the 
various parts of his hand when the arm is outstretched. 

4-176. Sniper teams must always be aware of the difficulties that can be 
caused when the observer and the sniper are observing through instruments 
with different magnifications and fields of view (telescope, binoculars). If time 
and concealment allow it, the observer and the sniper should use the same 
viewing instrument, particularly if the mil scale in the binoculars is being 
used to give accurate measurements from a reference point. 



4-48 



FM 3-05.222 



4-177. It is necessary that both the observer and the sniper know exactly 
what the other is doing and what he is saying when locating the target. Any 
method that is understandable to both and is fast to use is acceptable. They 
must use short and concise words to locate the target. Each must always be 
aware of what the other is doing so that the sniper does not shoot before the 
observer is ready. An example of this dialogue would be: 

• Observer: "60— half right, barn, right 50 mils, 2 o'clock, large 

ROCK, BOTTOM LEFT CORNER, TARGET." 

• Sniper: 'Yarget identified, ready" (or describe back to observer the 
target). 

• Sniper: 'Yarget is 2 milstall; 1 mil wide." 

• Observer: "set elevation at 5+1, windage 0, parallax 2d ball." 

• Sniper: (repeats directions upon setting scope) "Ready." 

• Observer: "hold of right" (wind correction). The sniper should have a 
round downrange within 1 to2 seconds after the wind call. 

4-178. It is extremely important that the sniper fires as soon as possible 
after the wind call to preclude any wind change that could affect the impact 
of his bullet. If the wind does change, then the observer stops the firing 
sequence and gives new wind readings to the sniper. The sniper and the 
observer must not be afraid to talk to each other, but they should keep 
everything said as short and concise as possible. 

INDEXING TARGETS 

4-179. The sniper must have some system for remembering or indexing 
target locations. He may want to fire at the highest priority target first. He 
must be selective, patient, and not fire at a target just to have a kill. 
Indiscriminate firing may alert more valuable and closer targets. 
Engagement of a distant target may result in disclosure of the sniper post to 
a closer enemy. 

4-180. Since several targets may be sighted at the same time, the observer 
needs some system to remember all of the locations. To remember, he uses 
aiming points and reference points and records this information on the sector 
sketch or range card and observer's log. 

4-181. To index targets, the sniper team uses the prepared range card for a 
reference since it can greatly reduce the engagement time. When indexing a 
target to the sniper, the observer locates a prominent terrain feature near the 
target. He indicates this feature and any other information to the sniper to 
assist in finding the target. Information between team members varies with 
the situation. The observer may sound like a forward observer (FO) giving a 
call for fire to a fire direction center (FDC), depending on the condition of the 
battlefield and the total number of possible targets from which to choose. 

4-182. The sniper team must also consider the following factors: 

• Exposure Time. Moving targets may expose themselves for only a short 
time. The sniper team must be alert to note the points of disappearance 
of as many targets as possible before engaging any one of them. By 



4-49 



FM 3-05.222 



doing so, the sniper team may be able to take several targets under fire 
in rapid succession. 

Number ofTargdis. When the sniper team is unable to remember and 
plot all target locations, it should concentrate only on the most 
important target. By concentrating only on the most important targets, 
the team will effectively locate and engage high-priority targets or 
those targets that represent the greatest threat. 

Spacing. The greater the space interval between targets, the more 
difficult it is to note their movements. In such cases, the sniper team 
should accurately locate and engage the nearest target. 

Aiming Points. Targets that disappear behind good aiming points are 
easily recorded and remembered. Targets with poor aiming points are 
easily lost. If two such targets are of equal value and a threat to the 
team, the poor aiming point target should be engaged first, until the 
target with a good aiming point becomes a greater threat. 



TARGET SELECTION 



4-183. Snipers select targets according to their value. Certain enemy 
personnel and equipment can be listed as key targets, but their real worth 
must be decided by the sniper team in relation to the circumstances in which 
they are located. 

4-184. As stated in the discussion of recording targets, the sniper team may 
have no choice of targets. It may lose a rapidly moving target if it waits to 
identify target details. It must also consider any enemy threatening its 
position as an "extremely high-value" target. When forced to choose a target, 
the sniper team will consider the foil owing factors: 

• Certainty of Targdi's Identity. The sniper team must be reasonably 
certain that the target it is considering is the key target. 

• Target Effect on the Enemy. The sniper team must consider what effect 
the elimination of the target will have on the enemy's fighting ability. 
It must determine that the target is the one available target that will 
cause the greatest harm to the enemy. 

• Enemy Reaction to Sniper Fire. The sniper team must consider what 
the enemy will do once the shot has been fired. The team must be 
prepared for such actions as immediate suppression by indirect fires 
and enemy sweeps of the area. 

• Effect on theOverall Mission. The sniper team must consider how the 
engagement will affect the overall mission. The mission may be one of 
intelligence-gathering for a certain period. Firing will not only alert the 
enemy to a team's presence, but it may also terminate the mission if 
the team has to move from its position as a result of the engagement. 

• Probability of First-Round Hit. The sniper team must determine 
the chances of hitting the target with the first shot by considering 
the following: 

■ Distance to the target. 

■ Direction and velocity of the wind. 



4-50 



FM 3-05.222 



Visibility of the target area. 

Amount of the target that is exposed. 

Length of time the target is exposed. 

Speed and direction of target movement. 

Nature of the terrain and vegetation surrounding the target. 

Distance. Although the sniper may be capable of hitting a human 
target at a range of 800 meters, he should not risk such a distant shot 
without a special reason. The sniper has been trained to stalk to within 
200 meters of a trained observer and plan his retrograde. He must 
make use of this ability and ensure his first shot hits the target. A 
clean, one-shot kill is far more demoralizing to the enemy than a near- 
miss from 600 meters. 

Multiple TargdiS. The sniper should carefully weigh the possible 
consequences of firing at one of a number of targets, especially when 
the target cannot be identified in detail. The sniper may trade his life 
for an unimportant target by putting himself in a position where he 
must fire repeatedly in self-defense. 

Equipment as Targdis. A well-placed shot can disable crew-served 
weapons, radios, vehicles, or other equipment. Such equipment may 
serve as "bait" and allow the sniper to make repeated engagements of 
crew members or radio operators while keeping the equipment idle, to 
be disabled at the sniper's convenience. Retaliation by indirect fire 
must be considered in these circumstances. 

Intelligence Col lection. Intelligence is an important collateral function 
of the sniper team. When in a location near to the enemy, the sniper 
team must be very judicious in its decision to fire. The sniper may 
interrupt a pattern of activity that, if observed longer, would allow the 
pair to report facts that would far outweigh the value of a kill. The 
well-trained sniper team will carefully evaluate such situations. 

Ke/ Target Selection. A sniper selects targets according to their value. 
A target's real worth is determined by the sniper and the nature of his 
mission. Key personnel targets can be identified by actions, 
mannerisms, positions within formations, rank or insignias, and 
equipment being worn or carried. Key personnel targets are as follows: 

■ Snipers. Snipers are the number one target of a sniper team. The 
fleeting nature of a sniper is reason enough to engage him 
because he may never be seen again. 

■ Dog-Tracking Teams. Dog-tracking teams pose a great threat to 
sniper teams and other special teams that may be working in the 
area. It is hard to fool a trained dog; therefore, the dog-tracking 
team must be stopped. When engaging a dog-tracking team, the 
sniper should engage the dog's handler first, unless it is known 
that the dogs are trained to attack on gunshot. 

- Scouts. Scouts are keen observers, provide valuable information 
about friendly units, and control indirect fires, which make them 
dangerous on the battlefield. 



4-51 



FM 3-05.222 



■ Officers (Military and Poiitical). These individuals are also 
targets because in some forces losing key officers is a major 
disruption and causes coordination loss for hours. 

■ Noncommissioned Officers (NCOs). Losing NCOs not only affects 
the operation of a unit but also affects the morale of lower- 
ranking personnel. 

■ Vehicie Commanders and Drivers. Many vehicles are rendered 
useless or the capabilities are greatly degraded without a 
commander or driver. 

■ Communications Personnel. Eliminating these personnel can 
seriously cripple the enemy's communication network, because in 
some forces only highly trained personnel can operate various radios. 

■ Weapons Crews. Eliminating these personnel reduces the amount 
and accuracy of enemy fire on friendly troops. 

■ Optics on Vehicles. Personnel who are in closed vehicles are 
limited to viewing through optics. The sniper can blind a vehicle 
by damaging these optic systems. 

■ Communications and Radar Equipment. The right shot in the 
right place can completely ruin a tactically valuable radar or 
communications system. Also, only highly trained personnel 
may attempt to repair these systems in place. Eliminating 
these personnel may impair the enemy's ability to perform 
field repair. 

■ Weapons Systems. Many high-technology weapons, especially 
computer-guided systems, can be rendered useless by one well- 
placed round in the guidance controller of the system. 

PRINCIPLESOF VISION 

4-185. To fully understand and accomplish the principles of training the eye, 
the sniper must know its capabilities and limitations. The parts of the eye 
correspond to the parts of the camera and react in much the same way 
(Figure 4-26, page 4-53). The eye has a lens like a camera; however, the lens 
of the eye focuses automatically and more rapidly than the camera lens. The 
eye also has a diaphragm, called the iris, that regulates the amount of light 
into the eye. It permits the individual to see in bright light or in dark 
shadows. J ust as with the camera, the eye cannot accomplish both at the 
same time. The eye's film is the photoreceptor cells located on the back wall, 
or retina, of the eye. There are two types of cells: 

• Cone Cells. They are located in the central portion of the retina, used 
for day vision, and enable one to distinguish color, shape, and sharp 
contrast. The eye needs a lot of light to activate the cone cells, so these 
cells are blind during periods of low light. 

• Rod Cells. They are located peripheral to the cone cells and are used for 
night vision. They see mostly in black and white and are excellent at 
seeing movement. These are the cells that give the observer peripheral 
and night vision. 



4-52 



FM 3-05.222 




y Cone Region 

Diaphragm 




Q 



Film 



d 



1 ^--c 

Rod Region 



Figure 4-26. Functional Similarities Between the Eye and a Camera 

OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES 

4-186. Training the eye requires training the mind as well. The sniper's 
proficiency as an observer will come from a good mental attitude and a 
trained eye. As an observer, just as with a hunter, the eye must be trained to 
notice little things, such as the bending of grass when there is no wind, the 
unnatural shape of a shadow, or the wisp of vapor in cold air. Even when the 
enemy cannot be seen, his location can be given away by little things, such as 
a window that is now open when it was closed before, a puff of smoke, signs of 
fresh soil, or disturbed undergrowth. 

4-187. Observers should learn the habits of the animals in the area or watch 
the domestic animals. A chicken suddenly darting from behind a building; 
sheep, goats, or cows suddenly moving or just becoming more alert in a field; 
wild birds flying or becoming quiet; insects becoming quiet at night; or 
animals startled from their positions should alert the observer of possible 
enemy activity in his area. 

4-188. The observer should study and memorize the AO. Any change will 
alert the prepared mind to the possibility of the enemy. The observer should 
inspect all changes to determine the cause. He should also remember some 
key rules while observing. He must learn to— 

• Look for the reasons why thi ngs are seen. 

• Look for objects that seem out of place. Almost every object in the wild 
is vertical; only man-made objects such as a gun barrel are horizontal. 

• See things in the proper perspective at distances. Learn to see 
movement, color, shape, and contrast in miniature. 

• Look through vegetation, not at it. The observer should not be satisfied 
until he has seen as far as possible into the vegetation. 

4-189. Due to constantly changing clouds and the sun's positions, light is a 
changing factor in observation. The sniper should always be ready to watch 
the changing contrast and shadows. An area that the sniper first thought 
held no enemy may prove different when the light changes. When the sun is 
to the sniper's back, light will reflect from the enemy's optical devices. But 



4-53 



FM 3-05.222 



when the light changes and is to the front, the enemy will be able to see the 
light reflected from the sniper's optical devices. 

4-190. It is also more tiring for the sniper to observe when the light 
shines in his eyes. He should arrange for a relief observer more 
frequently at this time if possible. If not, the use of some type of shading 
will help to cut down on the amount of light coming into the eyes. 

LIMITED VISIBILITY TECHNIQUES 

4-191. Twilight is another time of light changes. The eye begins to produce 
visual purple and the cone cells begin shutting down. Also, the iris opens 
more to let more light in. This reaction causes the eye to constantly change 
focus, and consequently, tires the eye quicker. However, during twilight the 
enemy will usually become more careless, allowing an alert observer to spot 
that last change in position or that last cigarette before dark. The sniper 
should also remember this is not a time for him to become relaxed. 

4-192. Limited visibility runs the gamut from bright moonlight to utter 
darkness. But no matter how bright the night is, the eye cannot function with 
daylight precision. For maximum effectiveness, an observer must apply the 
following principles of night vision when training the eye: 

• Night Adaptation. Allow approximately 30 minutes for the eye to adjust. 

• Off-Center Vision. Never look directly at an object at night. This 
look will cause the object to disappear. When it reappears, it could 
appear to change shape or move. 

• Scanning. It is important that the eye stops movement for a few 
seconds during the scan to be able to see an object. When scanning 
around an object, the temptation to look directly at the object "just to 
make sure" should be resisted. 

4-193. The sniper should remember that the following factors can affect 
night vision: 

• Lack of Vitamin A. 

• Colds, headaches, fatigue, narcotics, alcohol, and heavy smoking. 

• Exposure to bright light. It will destroy night vision for about 10 to 30 
minutes, depending on the brightness and duration of the light. 

4-194. Darkness blots out detail, so the eye must be trained to recognize 
objects by outline alone. While some people can see better than others at 
night, everyone can use the following techniques to improve their vision at 
night: 

• Train the eye to actually see all the detail possible at nighttime. When 
the sniper sees a tree, he actually sees the tree, not a faint outline that 
bethinks may be a tree. 

• Open the iris. While the iris of the eye is basically automatic, the eye 
can be trained to open up the iris even more to gather more light, 
which allows more detail to be seen. 

• Practice roofing, which is silhouetting objects against a light background. 



4-54 



FM 3-05.222 



• Maneuver to catch the light. At night, noticeable light will only be in 
patches where it filters through the trees. The sniper must maneuver 
to place an object between his eyes and that patch of light. 

• Lower the body. By lowering the body or even lying down, the sniper 
will be able to pick up more light and therefore see things that might 
otherwise go unnoticed. 

OBSERVATION BY SOUND 

4-195. Many times sound will warn the sniper long before the enemy is 
actually seen. Also, the sounds or lack of sounds from birds or animals may 
alert one to the possible presence of the enemy. It is therefore important to 
train the ears along with the eyes. 

4-196. The ear nearest the origin of the sound will pick up the sound first 
and will hear it slightly louder than the other ear. The difference is what 
enables the sniper to detect the direction of the sound. When the sound hits 
both ears equally then the sound is to his front or rear. The brain will 
determine front or rear. However, if the sound reaches both ears at the same 
time and with the same intensity, as in fog or extremely humid weather, 
then the direction that the sound came from will not be discernible or will 
be confusing. 

4-197. Sound also loses its intensity with distance traveled. The ears 
must be trained to become familiar with the different sounds at different 
distances so that the distance to the sound can be estimated. This 
estimate would then give the sniper a general location of the sound. 

4-198. The sniper must learn to actually hear all sounds. Most people rely on 
sight for most of their information. A trained sniper must learn to use his 
ears as well as his eyes. The observer must make a conscious effort to hear all 
of the sounds, so that when a sound changes or a new one occurs, he will be 
alerted to it. Heshould close his eyes and listen tothesounds around him. He 
must categorize the sounds and remember them. Detailed observation 
includes a recheck of the surrounding sounds. 

4-199. By cupping his hand behind one ear, the sniper can increase his 
ability to hear and pinpoint the direction of a sound. 

TARGET LOCATION BY THE "CRACK-THUMP" METHOD 

4-200. A trained ear enables the sniper to determine the approximate 
location of a shot being fired by using the "crack-thump" method. When the 
sniper is being fired at, he will hear two distinct sounds. One sound is the 
crack of the bullet as it breaks the sound barrier as it passes by his position. 
The other sound is the thump created by the muzzle blast of the weapon 
being fired. The crack -thump relationship is the time that passes between the 
two sounds. This time interval can be used to estimate the distance to the 
weapon being fired. 

4-201. When the sniper hears the crack, he does not look into the direction of 
the crack. The sound will give him a false location becausethesonic waves of 
the bullet strike objects perpendicular to the bullet's path (Figure 2-27, 
page 2-32). The sniper would mistakenly look 90 degrees from the enemy's 



4-55 



FM 3-05.222 



true position. The crack should instead alert the sniper to start counting 
seconds. 

4-202. The second sound heard is the thump of the weapon being fired. This 
point is the enemy's location. The time passed in seconds is the distance to 
the enemy. Sound travels at 340 meters per second at 30 degrees F. The 
speed of the bullet is twice that, which means it arrives before the sound of 
the muzzle blast. Therefore, half a second is approximately 300 meters, and a 
full second 600 meters. It becomes easier to distinguish between the two 
sounds as the distance increases. By listening for the thump and then looking 
in the direction of the thump, it is possible to determine the approximate 
location of the weapon being fired. 

4-203. Flash-bang may be used to determine the distance to a weapon fired 
or and explosion seen. Since the light is instantaneous, the count will equal 
approximately 350 meters every second or 1,000 meters every 3 seconds or 1 
mile every 5 seconds. 

4-204. The speed of light is far greater than the speed of sound or of bullets. 
Remember that the crack-thump and flash-bang relationships are a double- 
edged sword that may be used against the sniper. 

4-205. The speed, size, and shape of the bullet will produce different sounds. 
Initially, they will sound alike, but with practice the sniper will be able to 
distinguish between different types of weapons. A 7.62 x 39-mm bullet is just 
going subsonic at 600 meters. Since the crack-thump sounds differ from 
weapon to weapon, with practice the experienced sniper will be able to 
distinguish enemy fire from friendly fire. 

4-206. The crack-thump method has the following limitations: 

• Isolating the crack and thump is difficult when many shots are 
being fired. 

• Mountainous areas and tall buildings cause echoes and make this 
method ineffective. 

4-207. To overcome these limitations, the innovative sniper team can use— 

• Dummy Targdis. The sniper team can use polystyrene plastic heads or 
mannequins dressed to resemble a soldier to lure enemy snipers into 
firing. The head is placed on a stick and slowly raised into the enemy's 
view while another team observes the area for muzzle blast or flash. 

• The Shot-Hole Analysis. Locating two or more shot holes in trees, 
walls, or dummy heads may make it possible to determine the 
direction of the shots. The team can use the dummy-head method 
and triangulate on the enemy sniper's position. However, this 
method only works if all shots come from the same position. 

OBSERVATION DEVICE USE AND SELECTION 

4-208. The sniper team's success depends upon its powers of observation. I n 
addition to the rifle telescope, which is not used for observation, the team has 
an observation telescope, binoculars, night vision sight, and night vision 
goggles to enhance its ability to observe and engage targets. Team members 
must relieve each other often when using this equipment since prolonged use 



4-56 



FM 3-05.222 



can cause eye fatigue, which greatly reduces the effectiveness of observation. 
Periods of observation during daylight should be limited to 30 minutes 
followed by at least 15 minutes of rest. When using NVDs, the observer 
should limit his initial period of viewing to 10 minutes followed by a 15- 
minute rest period. After several periods of viewing, he can extend the 
viewing period to 15 and then 20 minutes. 

4-209. The M19 or M22 binoculars are the fastest and easiest aid to use 
when greater magnification is not needed. The binoculars also have a mil 
scale that can aid the sniper in judging sizes and distances. The M19 and 
M22 binoculars can also be used to observe at twilight by gathering more 
light than the naked eye. Using this reticle pattern aids the sniper in 
determining range and adjusting indirect fires. The sniper uses the 
binoculars to— 

• Observe target areas. 

• Observe enemy movement and positions. 

• Identify aircraft. 

• Improve low-light-level viewing. 

• Estimate range. 

• Call for and adjust indirect fires. 

4-210. The M22 binoculars are the latest in the inventory but have several 
flaws. The M22's flaws are directly attributable to its antilaser protective 
coating. This coating reflects light like a mirror and is an excellent target 
indicator. Also, this coating reduces the amount of light that is transmitted 
through the lens system and greatly reduces the observation capability of the 
sniper during dawn and dusk. 

4-211. The M 49 is a fixed 20x observation-spotting telescope and can be used 
to discern much more detail at a greater distance than the binoculars or the 
sniper telescope. With good moonlight, the observer can see a target up to 800 
meters away. However, the high magnification of the observation scope 
decreases its field of view. Moreover, the terrain will not be in focus unless it 
is near the object being inspected. The sniper should use the observation 
scope for the inspection and identification of a specific point only, not for 
observation of an area. The M 144 is a variable power (15x to 45x) observation 
scope and a replacement for the M49. More modern and higher-quality 
spotting scopes are available in limited quantities. The sniper team should 
research theavailability of these improved observation devices. 

RANGE ESTIMATION 

4-212. Range estimation is the process of determining the distance between 
two points (Appendix] ). The ability to accurately determine range is the key 
skill needed by the sniper to accomplish his mission. 

FACTORS AFFECTING ESTIMATION 

4-213. Range can be determined by measuring or by estimating. Below are 
three main factors that affect the appearance of objects when determining 
range by eye. 



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Nature of the Target 

4-214. Objects of regular outline, such as a house, will appear closer than 
one of irregular outline, such as a clump of trees. A target that contrasts with 
its background will appear to be closer than it actually is. A partially exposed 
target will appear more distant than it actually is. 

Nature of the Terrain 

4-215. Observing over smooth terrain, such as sand, water, or snow, causes 
the observer to underestimate distance targets. Objects will appear nearer 
than they really are when the viewer is looking across a depression, most of 
which is hidden from view. They will also appear nearer when the viewer is 
looking downward from high ground or when the viewer is looking down on a 
straight, open road or along railroad tracks. 

4-216. As the observer's eye follows the contour of the terrain, he tends to 
overestimate the distance to targets. Objects will appear more distant than they 
really are when the viewer is looking across a depression, all of which is visible. 
They also appear more distant than they really are when the viewer is looking 
from low ground toward high ground and when the field of vision is narrowly 
confined, such as in twisted streets or on forest trails. 

Light Conditions 

4-217. The more clearly a target can be seen, the closer it will appear. A 
target viewed in full sunlight appears to be closer than the same target 
viewed at dusk or dawn or through smoke, fog, or rain. The position of the 
sun in relation to the target also affects the apparent range. When the sun is 
behind the viewer, the target appears closer. When the sun appears behind 
the target, the target is more difficult to see and appears farther away. 

MILINGTHE TARGET FOR RANGE 

4-218. When ranging on a human target, the sniper may use two different 
methods. The first method is to range on the target using the vertical 
crosshairs and mil dots. The second method is to use the horizontal crosshairs 
and mil dots. 



Vertical Method 



4-219. The sniper most often uses this method of range finding when using 
the M3A. He must become very good at estimating the height of the target in 
either meters or feet and inches. The sniper has the option of using a 1-meter 
(head to crotch) target frame or using the entire target (head to toe) as the 
target frame. To use the vertical method, the sniper places the crosshairs at 
either the feet or crotch, and measures to the top of the head of the target. 
The mil value is then read for that target. The sniper must determine the 
height of the target if he is not using the 1-meter target frame. Since the 
telescope is graduated in meters, the height of the target must be converted 
into meters. The sniper then calculates the range using the mil-relation 
formula. The estimation of the height of the target may be the most 
important factor in this formula. An error of 3 inches on a 5-foot 9-inch target 



4-58 



FM 3-05.222 



that is actually 5 feet 6 inches results in a 19-meter error at a reading of 
4 mils. 

Normal height of the human =69 inches 

69 i nches x 25 4 

Range to target i n meters (438.5 or 440 meters) 



Size of target in mi Is (4) 

NOTE: This example may prove to be of specific use when facing an enemy 
entrenched in bunkers or in dense vegetation. 

Horizontal Method 

4-220. The horizontal method is based upon a target width of 19 inches at 
the shoulders. This technique can be very accurate out to ranges of 350 
meters, and is very effective in an urban environment. Beyond this range it is 
no longer effective. The sniper should use this method to double-check ranges 
derived from groin to head. For example, a range estimate derived from a 
groin to head (1 meter) measurement of 2 mils would be equal to a 
1 mil shoulder to shoulder measurement (horizontal = 1/2 vertical). A good 
rule of thumb is that if the target is smaller than 1 1/2 mils (322 meters), 
it is more accurate to use the vertical method in combination with the 
horizontal method. 

4-221. The mil dots in the M3A are 3/4 MOA in diameter. Therefore, it is 
important to note where on the dots the bottom or the top of the target falls 
within the mil dot. The mil dots are spaced 1 mil from center to center, 
or cross to center of first dot. 

4-222. Objects viewed from an oblique angle may cause the sniper to 
overestimate the range to that object. Snipers should be aware of this effect 
and compensate accordingly. 

DETERMINING RANGE TECHNIQUES 

4-223. A sniper team must accurately determine distance, properly adjust 
elevation on the SWS, and prepare topographic sketches or range cards. To 
meet these needs, team members have to be skilled in various range 
estimation techniques. The team can use any of the following methods to 
determine distance between its position and the target. 

Sniper Telescope 

4-224. The M3A has a mil dot reticle and the mil-relation formula is used for 
range determination. Using the telescope for range estimation is especially 
helpful when establishing known ranges for a range card or a reference mark. 
The sniper rifle's inherent stability helps to improve the accuracy of the 
measurements. The sniper can determine range by using the range feature of 
the sniping telescope and the following: 

• Personnel. The distance from the individual's head to his waist is 
normally 30 inches; from the top of his head to his groin is 1 meter 
(39.4 inches). The head to groin is the most common measuring point 



4-59 



FM 3-05.222 



for the human body. The 1-meter measurement will not vary but an 
inch or two from the6-foot-6-inch man tothe5-foot-6-inch man. 

• Tanks. The distance from the ground line to the deck or from the deck 
to the turret top of a Soviet-style tank is approximately 30 inches. 

• Vehicles. The distance from the ground line to the fender above the 
wheel is approximately 30 inches. The distance to the roofline is 
3 1/2 to 4 feet. 

• Tress. The width of the trees in the vicinity of the sniper will be a good 
indication of the width of the trees in the target area. 

• Window Frames. The vertical length of a standard frame is 
approximately 60 inches. This distance is 1.5 meters by 2.0 meters 
in Europe. 

NOTE: Through the process of interpolation, the sniper can range on any 
object of known size. For example, the head of any individual will measure 
approximately 12 inches. The M3A has a mil-dot reticle. On this telescope a 
mil dot equals 3/4 of an MOA, and the space between mil dots equals 1 mil or 
3.44 MOA (round to 3.5 in the field). The figure 3.44 is the true number of 
MOA in a mil as one radian is equal to 57.295 degrees. This makes 6.283 
radians in a circle or 6283 mils in a circle. With 21,600 MOA in a circle, the 
result is 3.44 MOA in a mil. 



Mil-Relation Formula 



4-225. The sniper can also use the mil-relation formula to determine ranges. 
The M3A rifle telescope has 10 mils vertical and horizontal measurement 
between the heavy duplex reticle lines; the space between each dot represents 
1 mil. Military binoculars also have a mil scale in the left ocular eyepiece. By 
using the known measured sizes of objects, the sniper can use the mil-relation 
formula to determine the range. 

NOTE: The size of objects in meters yields ranges in meters; the size of 
objects in yards yields ranges in yards. Other relationships must also be 
understood: 1 mil equals 3.44 MOA or 3.6 inches at 100 yards; 1 meter at 
1,000 meters or approximately 1 yard at 1,000 yards. 

4-226. The sniper uses the following formula to determine the range to 
the target: 

^ ^ ^ Size of object in meters and yards X 1,000 

Range to target = 

Size of object in mils 

Example 1) Object =2 meters. Mils =4 mils (as measured in the M3A scope) 

2 X 1,000 2,000 ^r.r. . r, ... 

= = 500 meters = Range to target 

Example 2) Object =2 yards. Mils =5 mils (as measured in theM3A scope) 

2x1,000 2,000 ,^^ , n ^ ^ ^ 
= = 400 yards = Range to target 



4-60 



FM 3-05.222 



Example 3) Object =69 inches, Mils =4 mils (Toconvert inches to meters, 
multiply by 25.4.) 

69 X. 25.4 1752.6 ^^„ , 

= = 438 meters 

4 4 

NOTE: The distance to the target in yards must be converted to meters to 
correctly set the M3A's ballistic cam. 

4-227. Once the sniper understands the formula, he must become proficient 
at estimating the actual height of the target in his scope. At longer ranges the 
measurements must be accurate to within 1/10 mil. Otherwise, the data will 
be more than the allowable ballistic error. The ability of the sniper team to 
accurately estimate the height of the target is the single most important 
factor in using this formula. 

Mil Relation (Worm Formula) 

Sample Problems: 

No. 1: As a member of a sniper team, you and your partner are in your hide 
site and are preparing a range card. To your front you see a Soviet-type truck 
that you determine to be 4 meters long. Your team is equipped with an M24 
system. Through your binoculars the truck is 5 mils in length. Determine the 
range to this reference for your system. 

Solution: STEP 1. No conversion needed. 

STEP 2. Determine the range. 

,.,-.j..u 4 meters X 1,000 „„„ 

Width = = 800 meters 

5 mils 

No. 2: You are a member of a sniper team assigned to cover a certain area of 
ground. You are making a range card and determining ranges to reference 
points in that area. You see a tank located to your front. Through your 
binoculars you find the width of the tank to be 8 mils. You determine the length 
of the tank to be 5 meters. Determine the correct range for your system. 

Solution: STEP 1. No conversion needed. 

STEP 2. Determine the range. 

,AiJ4.u 5 meters X 1,000 ___ 

Width = = 625 meters 

8 mils 

Military Binoculars 

4-228. The sniper can calculate the range to a target by using the MB, M19, 
and M22 binoculars, or any other optical device that has vertical and 
horizontal mil reticles. 

4-229. M3 Binoculars. The graduations between the numbers on the 
horizontal reference line are in 10-mil graduations. The height of the vertical 
lines along the horizontal reference line is 2 1/2 mils. The graduation of the 
horizontal reference lines on the left of the reticle is 5 mils (vertical) between 
the reference lines. These lines are also 5 mils long (horizontal). The small 
horizontal lines located above the horizontal reference line in the center of 



4-61 



FM 3-05.222 



the reticle are 5 mils apart (vertical) and are also 5 mils long (horizontal). The 
vertical scale on the reticle is not to be used for range finding purposes. 

4-230. M19 Binoculars. The graduation between the number lines on 
the horizontal and the vertical lines on the reticle is 10 mils (Figure 4-27). 
The total height of the vertical lines on the horizontal reference lines is 5 
mils. These lines are further graduated 2 1/2 mils above the horizontal line 
and 2 1/2 mils below the line. The total width of the horizontal lines on the 
vertical reference line is 5 mils. These lines are further graduated into 2 1/2 
mils on the left side of the line and 2 1/2 mils on the right side of the vertical 
reference line. 

4-231. M22 Binoculars. The graduation between the numbered lines on the 
horizontal and vertical reference lines is 10 mils. There are 5 mils between a 
numbered graduation and the 2 1/2-mil tall line that falls between the 
numbered graduations. The value of the longer lines that intersect the 
horizontal and vertical lines on the reticle is 5 mils. The value of the shorter 
lines that intersect the horizontal and vertical reference lines on the reticle is 
2 1/2 mils. These are the lines that fall between the 5-mi I lines. 



10 mils 



5 mils { \- 



— 7 
-- 6 

— 5 
-- 4 
-- 3 

2 
1 



NOTE: Not to Scale 



[[ I I I } 2.5 mils 



54321 __ 12345 



Estimation 



Figure 4-27. The M19 Binocular Reticle Showing the Mil Measurements 

of the Stadia Lines 



4-232. There will be times when the sniper must estimate the range to the 
target. This method requires no equipment and can be accomplished without 
exposing the observer's position. There are two methods of estimation that 
meet these requirements: the 100-meter unit-of-measure method and the 
appearance-of-objects method. 



4-62 



FM 3-05.222 



4-233. The 100-Meter Unit-of-Measure Method. The sniper must be able 
to visualize a distance of 100 meters on the ground. For ranges up to 500 
meters, he determines the number of 100-meter increments between the two 
points that he wishes to measure. Beyond 500 meters, the sniper must select 
a point halfway to the target, determine the number of 100-meter increments 
of the halfway point, and then double this number to find the range to the 
target (Figure 4-28). 



NOTE: The house is about 400 meters 
The sHo is about 800 meters. 



Halfway 



,700 



800 




Figure 4-28. The "Halfway Point" Distance Estimation Process 

4-234. During training exercises, the sniper must become familiar with the 
effect that sloping ground has on the appearance of a 100-meter increment. 
Ground that slopes upward gives the illusion of a shorter distance, and the 
observer's tendency is to overestimate a 100-meter increment. Conversely, 
ground that slopes downward gives the illusion of a longer distance. In this 
case, the sniper's tendency is to underestimate. 

4-235. Proficiency in the 100-meter unit-of-measure method requires 
constant practice. Throughout the training in this technique, comparisons 
should continuously be made between the range as determined by the sniper 
and the actual range as determined by pacing or other more accurate means 
of measurement. The best training technique is to require the sniper to pace 
the range after he has visually determined it. In this way he discovers the 
actual range for himself, which makes a greater impression than if he were 
simply told the correct range. 

4-236. The greatest limitation of the 100-meter unit of measure is that its 
accuracy is directly related to how much of the terrain is visible at the greater 
ranges. This point is particularly true at a range of 500 meters or more when 
the sniper can only see a portion of the ground between himself and the 
target. It becomes very difficult to use the 100-meter unit-of-measure method 
of range determination with any degree of accuracy. 

4-237. The Appearance-of-Objects Method. The appearance-of-objects 
method is the means of determining range by the size and other 
characteristic details of the object in question. It is a common method of 
determining distances and used by most people in their everyday living. For 



4-63 



FM 3-05.222 



example, a motorist attempting to pass another car must judge the distance 
of oncoming vehicles based on his knowledge of how vehicles appear at 
various distances. Of course, in this example, the motorist is not interested in 
precise distances, but only that he has sufficient road space to safely pass the 
car in front of him. This same technique can be used by the sniper to 
determine ranges on the battlefield. If he knows the characteristic size and 
detail of personnel and equipment at known ranges, then he can compare 
these characteristics to similar objects at unknown ranges. When the 
characteristics match, so does the range. 

4-238. To use this method with any degree of accuracy, the sniper must 
be familiar with the characteristic details of objects as they appear at 
various ranges. For example, the sniper should study the appearance of a 
man when he is standing at a range of 100 meters. He fixes the man's 
appearance firmly in his mind, carefully noting details of size and 
characteristics of uniform and equipment. Next, he studies the same man 
in a kneeling position and then in a prone position. By comparing the 
appearance of these positions at known ranges from 100 to 500 meters, 
the sniper can establish a series of mental images that will help him 
determine range on unfamiliar terrain. Training should also be conducted 
in the appearance of other familiar objects such as weapons or vehicles. 
Because the successful use of this method depends upon visibility, 
anything that limits the visibility (such as weather, smoke, or darkness) 
will also limit the effectiveness of this method. 



Combination of Methods 



Measuring 



4-239. Under proper conditions, either the 100-meter unit-of- measure 
method or the appearance-of-objects method is an effective way of 
determining range. However, proper conditions do not always exist on the 
battlefield and the sniper will need to use a combination of methods. The 
terrain might limit using the 100-meter unit-of-measure method and the 
visibility could limit using the appearance-of-objects method. For example, an 
observer may not be able to see all of the terrain out to the target; however, 
he may see enough to get a general idea of the distance within 100 meters. A 
slight haze may obscure many of the target details, but the observer should 
still be able to judge its size. Thus, by carefully considering the approximate 
ranges as determined by both methods, an experienced observer should 
arrive at a figure close to the true range. 



4-240. The sniper can measure distance on a map or pace the distance 
between two points. The following paragraphs discuss each method. 

4-241. Map (Paper-Strip Metliod). The paper-strip method is useful when 
determining longer distances (1,000 meters plus). When using this method, 
the sniper places the edge of a strip of paper on the map and ensures it is 
long enough to reach between the two points. Then he pencils in a tick mark 
on the paper at the team position and another at the distant location. He 
places the paper on the map's bar scale, located at the bottom center of the 
map, and aligns the left tick mark with the on the scale. Then he reads to 



4-64 



FM 3-05.222 



the right to the second mark and 
represented between the two marks. 



notes the corresponding distance 



4-242. Actual Measurement. The sniper uses this method by pacing the 
distance between two points, provided the enemy is not in the vicinity. 
This method obviously has limited applications and can be very 
hazardous to the sniper team. It is one of the least desirable methods. 

Bracketing Method 

4-243. The bracketing method is used when the sniper assumes that the 
target is no less than "X" meters away, but no more than 'Y" meters away. 
The sniper then uses the average of the two distances as the estimated range. 
Snipers can increase their accuracy of eye-range estimation by using an 
average of both team members' estimate. 



Halving Method 



Range Card 



Speed of Sound 



4-244. The sniper uses this method for distances beyond 500 meters. He 
selects a point midway to the target, determines the number of 100-meter 
increments to the halfway point, and then doubles the estimate. Again, it is 
best to average the results of both team members. 



4-245. This method is a very accurate means of estimating range. The fact 
that the sniper has established a range card means he has been in the area 
long enough to know the target area. He has already determined ranges to 
indicated reference points. The observer will give his targets to the sniper by 
giving deflections and distances from known reference points in the target 
field of view. The sniper can adjust his telescope for a good median distance 
in the target area and simply adjust fire from that point. There are 
multiple key distances that should be calculated and noted with 
references on the range card. The first is the point blank zero of the 
weapon. With a 300-meter zero, the point-blank zero of the M118 ammunition 
is 375 meters. Targets under this range do not need to be corrected for. The 
other key distances are merely a point of reference against which further 
distance determinations can be judged. These are marked as target reference 
points (TRP) and are also used as reference points for directing the sniper 
onto a target. 



4-246. The sniper can estimate the approximate distance from the observer 
to a sound source (bursting shell, weapon firing) by timing the sound. The 
speed of sound in still air at 50 degrees F is about 340 meters per second. 
However, wind and variations in temperature alter this speed somewhat. For 
practical use, the sniper may assume the speed of sound is 350 meters per 
second under all conditions. He can time the sound either with a watch or by 
counting from the time the flash appears until the sound is heard by the 
observer. The sniper counts "one-1,000, two-1,000," and so on, to determine 
the approximate time in seconds. He then multiplies the time in seconds by 
350 to get the approximate distance in meters to the source of the fire. 



4-65 



FM 3-05.222 



Measurement by Bullet Impact 

4-247. Another undesirable but potentially useful method is to actually fire a 
round at the point in question. This practice is possible if you know your 
target is coming into the area at a later time and you plan to ambush the 
target. However, this method is not tactically sound and is also very 
hazardous to the sniper team. 

Laser Range Finders 

4-248. These can also be used to determine range to a very high degree of 
accuracy. When aiming the laser at a specific target, the sniper should 
support it much the same way as his weapon to ensure accuracy. I f the target 
is too small, aiming the laser at a larger object near the target will suffice- 
that is, a building, vehicle, tree, or terrain feature. The range finder must be 
used with yellow filters to keep the laser eye-safe for the sniper and observer 
when observing through optics, as the AN/GVS 5 is not eye safe. This cover 
limits the range; however, the limitations are well within the range of the 
sniper. Rain, fog, or smoke will severely limit the use of laser range finders. 
Laser detectors and NVDs that are set to the correct wavelength may also 
intercept laser range finders. 



CAUTION 

Viewing an "eye-safe" laser through magnifying 
optics increases the laser's intensity to unsafe 
levels. 



Sniper Cheat Book 

4-249. The sniper team should keep a "cheat book" complete with 
measurements. The team fills in the cheat book during its area analysis, 
mission planning, isolation, and once in the AO. A tape measure will prove 
invaluable. Each cheat book should include the following: 

• Average height of human targets in AO. 

• Vehicles: 

■ Height of road wheels. 
- Vehicle dimensions. 

■ Length of main gun tubes on tanks. 

■ Lengths and sizes of different weapon systems. 

• Urban environment: 

■ Average size of doorways. 

■ Average size of windows. 

■ Average width of streets and lanes (average width of a paved road 
i n the U nited States is 10 feet). 

4-250. As the sniper team develops its cheat book, all measurements are 
converted into constants and computed with different mil readings. These 
measurements should also be incorporated into the sniper's logbook. The 



4-66 



FM 3-05.222 



team should use the "worm formula" (paragraph 4-227) when preparing the 
cheat book. 

SELECTION AND PREPARATION OF HIDES 

4-251. To effectively accomplish its mission or to support combat operations, 
the sniper team must select a position called a sniper hide or post. Once 
constructed, it will provide the sniper team with a well -concealed post from 
which to observe and fire without fear of enemy detection. Selecting the 
location of a position is one of the most important tasks a sniper team must 
accomplish during the mission planning phase of an operation. After selecting 
the location, the team must also determine how it will move into the area and 
locate and occupy the final position. 

HIDE SELECTION 

4-252. U pon receiving a mission, the sniper team locates the target area and 
then determines the best location for a tentative position by using one or 
more of the following sources of information: 

• Topographic maps. 

• Aerial photographs. 

• Visual reconnaissance before the mission. 

• Information gained from units operating in the area. 

4-253. In selecting a sniper hide, maximum consideration is given to the 
fundamentals and principles of camouflage, cover, and concealment. Once on 
the ground, the sniper team ensures the position provides an optimum 
balance between the following considerations: 

• Maximumfieldsof fireand observation of the target area. 

• M aximum concealment from enemy observation. 

• Covered routes into and out of the position. 

• Located no closer than 300 meters from the target area whenever possi ble. 

• A natural or man-made obstacle between the position and the target area. 

4-254. A sniper team must remember that if a position appears ideal, it may 
also appear that way to the enemy. Therefore, the team should avoid 
choosing locations that are— 

• On a point or crest of prominent terrain features. 

• C I ose to i sol ated obj ects. 

• At bends or ends of roads, trails, or streams. 

• I n populated areas, unless mission-essential. 

4-255. The sniper team must use its imagination and ingenuity in choosing a good 
location for the given mission. The team must choose a location that not only allows 
the team to be effective but also must appear to the enemy to be the least 
likely place for a team position. Examples of such positions are— 

• Under logs in a deadfall area. 

• Tunnels bored from one side of a knoll to the other. 

• Swamps. 



4-67 



FM 3-05.222 



Deep shadows. 
Inside rubble piles. 



HIDE SITE LOCATION 



4-256. The sniper team should determine the site location by the following 
factors of area effectiveness: 

• Mission. 

• Dispersion. 

• Terrain patterns. 

4-257. Various factors can affect the team's site location. The sniper team 
should select tentative sites and routes to the objective area by using— 

• Aerial photographs. 

• Maps. 

• Reconnaissance and after-action reports. 

• I nterrogations of indigenous personnel, prisoners of war, and other sources. 

• Weather reports. 

• Area studies. 

4-258. When the team is selecting a site, it should look for— 

• Terrain patterns (urban, rural, wooded, barren). 

• Soil type (to determine tools). 

• Population density. 

• Weather conditions (snow, rain). 

• Drainage. 

• Types of vegetation. 

• Drinking water. 

4-259. The sniper team must also consider some additional requirements 
when selecting the hide site. It should conduct a reconnaissance of the area 
to determine— 

• Fields of fire. 

• Cover and concealment. 

• Avenues of approach. 

• I solated and conspicuous patterns. 

• Terrain features lying between your position and the objectives. 



SNIPER HIDE CHECKLIST 



4-260. There are many factors to consider in the selection, construction, and 
use of a sniper hide. The sniper team must remain alert to the danger of 
compromise and consider its mission as an overriding factor. Figure 4-29, 
page 4-69, lists the guidelines that the sniper team should use when selecting 
a site and constructing the sniper hide. 



4-68 



FM 3-05.222 



D Select and construct a sniper hide from which to observe and fire. Because the slightest movement 
is the only requirement for detection, construction is usually accomplished at night. Caution must still 
be exercised, as the enemy may employ NVDs, and sound travels greater distances at night. 

D Do not place the sniper hide against a contrasting background or near a prominent terrain feature. 
These features are usually under observation or used as registration points. 

D Consider those areas that are least likely to be occupied by the enemy. 

D Ensure that the position is located within effective range of the expected targets and that it affords a 
clear field of fire. 

D Construct or empty alternate hides where necessary to effectively cover an area. 

D Assume that the sniper hide is under enemy observation. 

D Avoid making sounds. 

D Avoid unnecessary movement. 

D Avoid observing over a skyline or the top of cover or concealment that has an even outline or 
contrasting background. 

D Avoid using the binoculars or telescope where light may reflect from lenses. 

D Observe around a tree from a position near the ground. The snipers should stay in the shadows 
when observing from a sniper hide. 

D Give careful consideration to the route into or out of the hide. A worn path can easily be detected. 
The route should be concealed and covered, if possible. 

D Use resourcefulness and ingenuity to determine the type of hide to be constructed. 

D When possible, choose a position that has a terrain obstacle (for example, a river, thick brush) 
between it and the target and/or known or suspected enemy location. 



Figure 4-29. Checklist for Selecting and Constructing a Hide 



HIDE SITE OCCUPATION 



4-261. During the mission planning phase, the sniper also selects an ORP. 
From this point, the sniper team reconnoiters the tentative position to 
determine the exact location of its final position. The location of the ORP 
should provide cover and concealment from enemy fire and observation, be 
located as close to the selected area as possible, and have good routes into and 
out of the selected area. 

4-262. From the ORP, the team moves forward to a location that allows the 
team to view the tentative position area. Once a suitable location has been 
found, the team member moves to the position. While conducting the 
reconnaissance or moving to the position, the team— 

• Moves slowly and deliberately, using the sniper low crawl. 

• Avoids unnecessary movement of trees, bushes, and grass. 

• Avoids making any noises. 

• Stays i n the shadows, if there are any. 

• Stops, looks, and listens every few feet. 

• Looks for locations to hide spoil if a hide is to be dug into the terrain. 
4-263. When the sniper team arrives at the firing position, it— 

• Conducts a hasty and detailed search of the target area. 

• Starts construction of the firing position, if required. 



4-69 



FM 3-05.222 



• Organizes equipment so that it is easily accessible. 

• Establishes a system of observi ng, eating, resting, and using the latrine. 

HASTY SNIPER HIDE OR FINAL FIRING POSITION 

4-264. The sniper team uses a hasty position when it will be in position for a 
short time, cannot construct a position due to the proximity of the enemy, or must 
immediately assume a position. Due to the limited nature of sniper missions and 
the requirement to stalk, the sniper team will most often use a hasty position. 

4-265. This position (fast find) provides protection from enemy fire or 
observation. Natural cover (ravines, hollows, reverse slopes) and artificial cover 
(foxholes, trenches, walls) protect the sniper from flat trajectory fires and enemy 
observation. Snipers must form the habit of looking for and taking advantage of 
every bit of cover and concealment the terrain offers. They must combine this 
habit with proper use of movement techniques to provide adequate protection 
from enemy fi re and observation. 

4-266. Cover and concealment in a hasty position provide protection from 
enemy fire and observation. The cover and concealment may be artificial or 
natural. Concealment may not provide protection from enemy fire. A sniper 
team should not make the mistake of believing they are protected from 
enemy fire merely because they are concealed from enemy eyes. 

4-267. There should be no limitation on ingenuity of the sniper team in 
selecting a hasty sniper hide. Under certain circumstances it may be 
necessary to fire from trees, rooftops, steeples, logs, tunnels, deep shadows, 
buildings, swamps, woods, and an unlimited variety of open areas. The sniper 
team's success depends to a large degree on its knowledge, understanding, 
and application of the various field techniques or skills that allow them to 
move, hide, observe, and detect the enemy (Table 4-1). 

Table 4-1. Hasty Sniper Hide Advantages and Disadvantages 



Advantages 



Disadvantages 



• Requires no construction. The sniper team uses 
wliat is available for cover and concealment. 

• Can be occupied in a short time. As soon as a 
suitable position is found, the team need only 
prepare loopholes by moving small amounts of 
vegetation or by simply backing several meters 
away from the vegetation that is already there to 
conceal the weapon's muzzle blast. 

Note: Loopholes may be various objects or 
constructed by the team, but must provide an 
adequate view for firing. 



Affords no freedom of movement. Any 
movement that is not slow and deliberate may 
result in the team being compromised. 

Restricts observation of large areas. This type of 
position is normally used to observe a specific 
target area (intersection, passage, or crossing). 

Offers no protection from direct or indirect fires. 
The team has only available cover for protection 
from direct fires. 

Relies heavily on personal camouflage. The 
team's only protection against detection is 
personal camouflage and the ability to use the 
available terrain. 



Occupation Time: The team should not remain in this type of position longer than 8 hours; it will only 
result in loss of effectiveness. This is due to muscle strain or cramps, which is a result of lack of freedom 
of movement combined with eye fatigue. 



4-70 



FM 3-05.222 



EXPEDIENT SNIPER HIDE 

4-268. When a sniper team has to remain in position for a longer time than 
the hasty position can provide, it should construct an expedient position 
(Figure 4-30). The expedient position lowers the sniper's silhouette as low to 
the ground as possible, but it still allows him to fire and observe effectively. 
Table 4-2 lists characteristics of an expedient sniper hide. 




2' 

i 



6' 



i 


^^P^ 




^^^^^^ 


14" 


\ ^^^^^^ 




y Firing PlatformC 


ff^ 


^^i^^l^fe^ 


^^ 


W^^^^^y-^:^ 




^^^^^ 



Observer Witli Binoculars 



Firer With Weapon 



Figure 4-30. Overhead and Side View of the Expedient Sniper Hide Site 
Table 4-2. Expedient Sniper Hide Advantages and Disadvantages 



Advantages 



Disadvantages 



Requires little construction. This position is 
constructed by digging a hole in the ground just 
large enough for the team and its equipment. 
Soil dug from this position can be placed in 
sandbags and used for building firing platforms. 

Conceals most of the body and equipment. The 
optics, rifles, and heads of the sniper team are 
the only items that are above ground level in this 
position. 

Provides some protection from direct fires due to 
its lower silhouette. 



Affords little freedom of movement. The team 
has more freedom of movement in this position 
than in the hasty position. However, teams must 
remember that stretching or reaching for a 
canteen causes the exposed head to move 
unless controlled. Team members can lower the 
head below ground level, but this movement 
should be done slowly to ensure a target 
indicator is not produced. 

Allows little protection from indirect fires. This 
position does not protect the team from shrapnel 
and debris falling into the position. 

Exposes the head, weapons, and optics. The 
team must rely heavily on the camouflaging of 
these exposed items. 



Construction Time: 1 to 3 hours (depending on the situation). 
Occupation Time: 6 to 12 hours. 



4-71 



FM 3-05.222 



BELLYHIDE 



4-269. The belly hide (Figure 4-31) is similar to the expedient position, but it has 
overhead cover that not only protects the team from the effects of indirect fires 
but also allows more freedom of movement. A belly hide is most useful in mobile 
situations or when the sniper does not intend to be in the position for extended 
periodsof time. This position can be dug out under a tree, a rock, or any available 
object that will provide overhead protection and a concealed entrance and exit. 
Table 4-3, pages 4-72 and 4-73, lists the belly hide characteristics. 



Side View 




Overhead View q j 






^^s 




^^^^' 






a 



Figure 4-31. Overhead and Side View of the Expedient Belly IHide Site 
Table 4-3. Belly IHide Advantages, Disadvantages, and Construction 



Advantages 



Allows some freedom of movement. The 
darkened area inside this position allows the 
team to move freely. The team should cover the 
entrance/exit hole with a poncho or piece of 
canvas so outside light does not silhouette the 
team inside the position. 

Conceals all but the rifle barrel. All equipment is 
inside the position except the rifle barrels, but the 
barrels could be inside, depending on the room 
available to construct the position. 

Provides protection from direct and indirect fires. 
The team should try to choose a position that 
has an object that will provide good overhead 
protection (rock, tracked vehicle, rubble pile, and 
so forth), or prepare it in the same manner as 
overhead cover for other infantry positions. 

Is simple and can be quickly built. This hide can 
be used when the sniper is mobile, because 
many can be built. 



Disadvantages 



Is uncomfortable. 

Cannot be occupied for long periods of time. 

The sniper is exposed while firing. 

Provides limited protection from the weather or 
fire. 

Requires extra construction time. 

Requires extra materials and tools. Construction 
of overhead cover will require saws or axes, 
waterproof material, and so forth. 

Has limited space. The sniper team will have to 
lie in the belly hide without a lot of variation in 
body position due to limited space and design of 
the position. 



4-72 



FM 3-05.222 



Table 4-3. Belly Hide Advantages, Disadvantages, and Construction (Continued) 



Construction 


• Dig a pit (shallow) for the prone position. 












• Build an overhead cover using: 












■ Dirt and sod. 












■ A drop cloth. 












■ Woven saplings. 












■ Corrugated metal, shell boxes, scrap 


metal. 


doors. 


chicken wire, 


or scrap 


lumber. 


Construction Time: 4 to 6 hours. 












Occupation Time: 12 to 48 hours. 













SEMIPERMANENT SNIPER HIDE 



4-270. The sniper uses the semipermanent hide mostly in a defensive or 
outpost situation (Figure 4-32). Construction of this position requires 
additional equipment and personnel. However, it will allow sniper teams to 
remain there for extended periods or be relieved in place by other sniper 
teams. Like the belly hide, the sniper can construct this position by tunneling 
through a knoll or under natural objects already in place. This prepared 
sniper hide should provide sufficient room for movement without fear of 
detection, some protection from weather and overhead or direct fire, and a 
covered route to and from the hide. 




Figure 4-32. The Semipermanent Sniper Hide 

4-271. A semipermanent hide can be an enlargement of the standard one- or 
two-man fighting position with overhead cover. The sniper constructs this 
type of hide when in a defensive posture, since construction requires 
considerable time. It would be suitable when integrated into the perimeter 



4-73 



FM 3-05.222 



defense of a base camp, during static warfare, or during a stay-behind 
infiltration. It can be constructed as a standing or lying type of hide. 

4-272. The construction of loopholes requires care and practice to ensure 
that they afford an adequate view of the required fields of fire. The sniper 
should construct the loopholes so that they are wide at the back where he is 
and narrow in the front, but not so narrow that observation is restricted. 
Loopholes may be made of old coffee cans, old boots, or any other rubbish, 
provided that it is natural to the surroundings or that it can be properly and 
cleverly concealed. 

4-273. Loopholes may be holes in windows, shutters, roofs, walls, or fences, 
or they may be constructed by the sniper team. Loopholes must blend 
in with the surrounding area. Table 4-4 lists the semipermanent sniper 
hide characteristics. 

Table 4-4. Semipermanent Sniper Hide Advantages and Disadvantages 



Advantages 



Disadvantages 



Offers total freedom of movement inside the 
position. The team members can move about 
freely. They can stand, sit, or even lie down. 

Protects against direct and indirect fires. The 
sniper team should look for the same items as 
mentioned in the belly hide. 

Is completely concealed. Loopholes are the only 
part of the position that can be detected. They 
allow for the smallest exposure possible; yet, 
they still allow the sniper and observer to view 
the target area. The entrance and exit to the 
position must be covered to prevent light from 
entering and highlighting the loopholes. 
Loopholes that are not in use should be covered 
from the inside with a piece of canvas or suitable 
material. 

Is easily maintained for extended periods. This 
position allows the team to operate effectively for 
a longer period. 



Requires extra personnel and tools to construct. 
This position requires extensive work and more 
tools. Very seldom can a position like this be 
constructed near the enemy, but it should be 
constructed during darkness and be completed 
before dawn. 

Increases risk of detection. Using a position for 
several days or having teams relieve each other 
in a position always increases the risk of the 
position being detected. Snipers should never 
continue to fire from the same position. 



Construction Time: 4 to 6 hours (4 personnel). 
Occupation Time: 48 hours plus (relieved by other teams). 



4-74 



FM 3-05.222 



TREE OR STUMP HIDES 



4-274. Nature can provide these types of hides but they also require the 
sniper to do some heavy construction (Figure 4-33). Table 4-5 lists the tree or 
stump hide characteristics. 




Figure 4-33. Tree or Stump Sniper Hide 



Table 4-5. Tree or Stump IHicle Advantages, Disadvantages, and Construction 



Advantages Disadvantages 


• Can be rapidly occupied. 


• Takes time to construct. 


• The sniper team is protected from fire and 
sfirapnel. 


• The sniper team requires pioneer equipment for 
construction of the hide (picks, shovels, axes). 


• The sniper team has freedom of movement. 




• Provides comfort. 




Construction 


• Use trees that have a good, deep root such as oal<, chestnut, or hickory. During heavy winds these trees 
tend to remain steady better than a pine tree, which has surface roots and sways a bit in a breeze. 


• Use a large tree that is set back from the woodline. This location may limit the view but will provide better 
cover and concealment. 



4-75 



FM 3-05.222 



TYPE S OF HASTY SNI PE R H I DE S 

4-275. The sniper can also use different types of deliberate hides to increase 
his chances for mission success and maintain the sniper training objectives. 
The various positions are explained below. 

Enlarged Fire Trench Hides 

4-276. This hide is actually an enlarged fighting position. Table 4-6 lists the 
enlarged fire trench hide characteristics. 

Table 4-6. Enlarged Fire Trench Hide Advantages, Disadvantages, and Construction 



Advantages 



The sniper team is able to maintain a low 
silhouette. 

Simple to construct. 

Can be occupied for a moderate period of 
time with some degree of comfort. 



Disadvantages 



Is not easily entered into or exited from. 

The sniper team has no overhead cover when in 
firing position. 

The sniper team is exposed while firing or 
observing. 



Enlarge and repair the sides and the parapet. 
Camouflage the hide with a drop cloth. 



Sheii-Hoie Hides 



4-277. This sniper hide is a crater improved for kneeling, sitting, or 
prone firing positions (Figure 4-34). Table 4-7, page 4-77, lists the shell-hole 
hide characteristics. 




Y"^^^^^ 



Ground Line For Kneeling or Sitting ' ' For Prone (Elbow Rest) 

How to Improve Crater for Kneeling, Sitting, or Prone Firing Positions. 



Figure 4-34. The Shell-Hole Sniper Hide 



4-76 



FM 3-05.222 



Table 4-7.Shell-Hole Hide Advantages, Disadvantages, and Construction 



Advantages Disadvantages 


• Requires little digging. 


• Requires material to secure the sides. 

• Affords no drainage. 


Construction 


• Dig platforms for either the prone, the kneeling, or the sitting positions. 

• Reinforce the sides of the craters. 



HIDE SITE CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS 



4-278. A sniper mission always requires the team to occupy some type of 
position. These positions can range from a hasty position to a more 
permanent position. When choosing and constructing positions, the sniper 
team must use its imagination and ingenuity to reduce the time and difficulty 
of position construction. The team should always plan to build its position 
during limited visibility. 

4-279. Whether a sniper team will be in a position for a few minutes or a few 
days, the basic considerations in choosing a type of position remain the same 
(Table 4-8). 



Table 4-8. Hide Site Construction Considerations 




Type of terrain and soil. Digging and boring of 
tunnels can be very difficult in hard soil or in fine, 
loose sand. The team needs to take advantage 
of what the terrain offers (gullies, holes, hollow 
tree stumps, and so forth). 

Enemy location and capabilities. Enemy patrols 
in the area may be close enough to the position 
to hear any noises that may accidentally be 
made during any construction. The team also 
needs to consider the enemy's night vision and 
detection capabilities. 



Amount of time to be occupied. If the sniper 
team's mission requires it to be in position for a 
long time, the team must consider construction 
of a position that provides more survivability. 
This allows the team to operate more effectively 
for a longer time. 

Time needed for construction. The time needed 
to build a position must be a consideration, 
especially during the mission planning phase. 



Personnel and Equipment 



Equipment needed for construction. The team must plan the use of any extra equipment needed for 
construction (bow saws, picks, axes). 

Personnel needed for construction. Coordination must take place if the position requires more 
personnel to build it or a security element to secure the area during construction. 



4-77 



FM 3-05.222 



STEPS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SNIPER HIDE 

4-280. When the sniper team is en route to the objective area, it should mark 
all material that can be used for constructing a hide. The team should 
establish an ORP, reconnoiter the objective area, select a site, and mark the 
fields of fire and observation. After collecting additional material, the team 
returns to the sniper hide site under the cover of darkness and begins 
constructing the hide. Team personnel— 

• Post security. 

• Remove the topsoi I (observe construction discipline). 

• Dig a pit. Dispose of soil properly and reinforce the sides. Ensure the 
pit has— 

■ Loopholes. 

■ A bench rest. 

■ A bed. 

■ A drainage sump (if appropriate). 

• Construct an overhead cover. 

• Construct an entrance and exit by escape routes selected. 

• Camouflage the hide. 

• I nspect the hide for improper concealment (continuous). 

HIDE SITE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES 

4-281. The sniper can construct belly and semipermanent hide sites of stone, 
brick, wood, or turf. Regardless of material, he should ensure the following 
measures are taken to prevent enemy observation, provide adequate 
protection, and allow for sufficient fields of fire: 

• Frontal Protection. Regardless of material, every effort is made to 
bulletproof the front of the hide position. The most readily available 
material for frontal protection is the soil taken from the hide site 
excavation. It can be packed or bagged. While many exotic materials 
can be used, including Kevlar vests and armor plate, weight is always a 
consideration. Several dozen empty sandbags can be carried for the 
same weight as a Kevlar vest or a small piece of armor plate. 

• Pit. Hide construction begins with the pit since it protects the sniper 
team. All excavated dirt is removed (placed in sandbags, taken away on 
a poncho, and so forth) and hidden (plowed fields, under a log, or away 
from the hide site). 

• Overliead Cover. I n a semipermanent hide position, logs should be used 
as the base of the roof. The sniper team places a dust cover over the 
base (such as a poncho, layers of empty sandbags, or canvas), a layer 
of dirt. The team spreads another layer of dirt, and then adds 
camouflage. Due to the various materials, the roof is difficult to conceal 
if not countersunk. 



4-78 



FM 3-05.222 



Entrance. To prevent detection, the sniper team should construct an 
entrance door sturdy enough to bear a man's weight. The entrance 
must be closed while the loopholes are open. 

Loopholes. The construction of loopholes requires care and practice to 
ensure that they afford adequate fields of fire. These loopholes should 
have a large diameter (10 to 14 inches) in the interior of the position 
and taper down to a smaller diameter (4 to 8 inches) on the outside of 
the position. A position may have more than two sets of loopholes if 
needed to cover large areas. Foliage or other material that blends with 
or is natural to the surroundings must camouflage loopholes. The 
loopholes must be capable of being closed when the door is open. 

Approaches. It is vital that the natural appearance of the ground 
remains unaltered and camouflage blends with the surroundings. 
Remember, construction time is wasted if the enemy observes a team 
entering the hide; therefore, approaches must be concealed whenever 
possible. Teams should try to enter the hide during darkness, keeping 
movement around it to a minimum and adhering to trail discipline. In 
built-up areas, a secure and quiet approach is needed. Teams should 
avoid drawing attention to the mission and carefully plan movement. A 
possible ploy is to use a house search with sniper gear hidden among 
other gear. Sewers may be used for movement, also. 



WARNING 

When moving through sewers, teams must 
alert for booby traps and poisonous gases. 



be 



TOOLSAND MATERIALS NEEDED TO CONSTRUCT A SNIPER HIDE 

4-282. The tools and materials needed to build a sniper hide depend on the 
soil, the terrain, and the type of hide to be built. Figure 4-35 lists various 
items that the sniper team should consider during construction. 





» Entrenching tools. 


• Machetes. 




» Bayonets. 


• Chisels. 




» GP nets. 


• Saws (Hacksaws). 




» Ponchos. 


• Screwdrivers, pliers, garden tools. 




» Waterproof bags. 


• Garbage bags. 




► Rucksacks. 


• Wood glue. 




» Shovels. 


• Nails. 




» Axes and hatchets. 


• Chicken wire, newspapers, flour, water. 




» Hammers. 





Figure 4-35. Items Used to Construct the Sniper Hide 



4-79 



FM 3-05.222 



HIDE SITE ROUTINES 

4-283. Although the construction of positions may differ, the routines while 
in position are the same. The sniper should have a stable firing platform for 
his weapon and the observer needs a steady platform for the optics. When 
rotating observation duties, the sniper weapon should remain in place, and 
the optics are handed from one member to the other. Data books, observation 
logs, range cards, and the radio should be placed within the site where both 
members have easy access to them. The team must arrange a system of 
resting, eating, and making latrine calls. All latrine calls should be done 
during darkness, if possible. A hole should be dug to conceal any traces of 
latrine calls. 

SNIPER RANGE CARD, OBSERVATION LOG, AND MILITARY SKETCH 

4-284. The sniper team uses range cards, observation logs, and military 
sketches to enable it to rapidly engage targets. These items also enable the 
sniper to maintain a record of his employment during an operation. 



RANGE CARD 



4-285. The range card (Figure 4-36, page 4-81) represents the target area 
as seen from above with annotations indicating distances throughout the 
target area. It provides the sniper team with a quick-range reference and a 
means to record target locations since it has preprinted range rings on it. 
These cards can be divided into sectors by using dashed lines (Figure 4-37, 
page 4-82). This break provides the team members with a quick reference 
when locating targets. A field-expedient range card can be prepared on any 
paper the team has available. The sniper team position and distances to 
prominent objects and terrain features are drawn on the card. There is not 
a set maximum range on either range card, because the team may also label 
any indirect fire targets on its range card. Information contained on both 
range cards includes the— 

• Sniper's name and method of obtaining range. 

• Left and right limits of engageable area. 

• Major terrain features, roads, and structures. 

• Ranges, elevation, and windage needed at various distances. 

• Distances throughout the area. 

• Temperature and wind. (Cross out previous entry whenever 
temperature, wind direction, or wind velocity changes.) 

• Target reference points (azimuth, distance, and description). 

4-286. Relative locations of dominant objects and terrain features should be 
included. Examples include— 

• Houses. 

• Bridges. 



4-80 



FM 3-05.222 



Groves. 

Hills. 

Crossroads. 




METHOD ' 
RANGE EST. 



NAME 



SS6 vToVa/ Doe 



Djg /7-ruA/ 96 /rsro 



COOR. 




HOLDS 



•^/.s^J^/^hI p |-/.^ali>v.?i>l-Jc*(l -yx 



-5M \iZ.$t^-lSr^\'IJt^ O \(-/M,\*tS>, 



NO. 



TARGET 



LOCATION & TIME 



ACTION 



eef^T^j? secToQ Txrl B»id(>^ 



/?6 '^otM /h. ^"TAP S€c e 



Dgsi£,i\iATeD T^P I 



^fffxTj? jiffTSecroe vV/M /t/re^ /^n j^soM ^t rf-fo sec A 



pe:Sia,Nfiret> T^^A. 



t?iAnr .^sc rote r/sfis /m^n. 



f?& SeOM /)2. 317° J€C C 



ix^xiAt^f^reo TffP^ 



^/A^-r secTT>ie rz-yy /»***! A^txr^- /?& e^rS-M Az jfi^'j^ec c 



DEStctJ/f'eP T^-fi^ 



NiiL r^f 



/?d ii€-c>M i9i ^'^l secnts, 



/^bT€D 



Figure 4-36. Sample Range Card 

4-287. The sniper team will indicate the range to each object by estimating 
or measuring. All drawings on the range card are from the perspective of the 
sniper looking straight down on the observation area. 

4-288. The range card is a record of the sniper's area of responsibility. Its 
proper preparation and use provides a quick reference to key terrain features 
and targets. It also allows the sniper team to quickly acquire new targets that 
come into their area of observation. The sniper always uses the range card 
and the observation log in conjunction with each other. 



4-81 



FM 3-05.222 



MAG 
NORTH 



METHOD OF 
RANGE EST 

/nil. 



NAME ^^^ > ^^^'^ 



DTG 



COOR 
FFP 




TARGET 



LOCATION & TIME 



ACTION 



Figure 4-37. Range Card Divided Into Sectors 



OBSERVATION LOG 



4-289. The observation log (Figure 4-38, page 4-83) is a written, 
chronological record of all activities and events that take place in a sniper 
team's area (Appendix K). The log starts immediately upon infiltration. It is 
used with military sketches and range cards; this combination not only gives 
commanders and intelligence personnel information about the appearance of 
the area, but it also provides an accurate record of the activity in the area. 
Information in the observation log includes the— 

• Grid coordinates of the sniper team's position. 

• Observer's name. 

• Date and time of observation and visibility. 

• Sheet number and number of total sheets. 

• Series number, time, and grid coordinates of each event. 

• Events that have taken place. 

• Action taken. 



4-82 



FM 3-05.222 





















SNIPER'S OBSERVATION LOG SHEET 


OF SHEETS 




ORIGINATOR: 




DATE: 




TOUR OF DUTY: 


LOCATION: 




Do^. 


CTs/jA^/^. 


/^yTu^ 9^ 


{'7^UtJ9i=>-f'BJutJ9^ 


nspr /ofs^sss 




SERIAL 


TIME 


GRID COORDINATE 


EVENT 


ACTIONS OR REMARKS 


/ 


0300 


nsfixr io'/sasis 


Oceup/eo Posir/oh/ 


<?SSe/?l/J9r/OAr 




A 


<P340 


SffM£ 




emPTY 






3 


a^i^o 


:5/}fne 




r /PBSTBD 






^ 


05-30 


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Figure 4-38. Sample Observation Log 



4-290. The sniper log will always be used in conjunction with a military 
sketch. The sketch helps to serve as a pictorial reference to the written log. If 
the sniper team is relieved in place, a new sniper team can easily locate 
earlier sightings using these two documents as references. The observer's log 
is a ready means of recording enemy activity, and if properly maintained, it 
enables the sniper team to report all information required. 

4-291. Sniper observation logs will be filled out using the key word SALUTE 
for enemy activity and OAKOC for terrain. When using these key words to fill 
out the logs, the sniper should not use generalities; he should be very specific 
(for example, give the exact number of troops, the exact location, the 
dispersion location). 

• Thekey word SALUTE: 

S-Size. 

A - Activity. 

L - Location. 

U -Unit/Uniform. 

T -Time. 

E - Equipment. 



4-83 



FM 3-05.222 



The key word OAKOC: 

■ O - Observation and fields of fire. 

■ A - Avenues of approach. 

■ K - Key terrain. 

■ O - Obstacles. 

- C - Cover and concealment. 



MILITARY SKETCH 



4-292. The sniper uses a military sketch (Figure 4-39) to record information 
about a general area, terrain features, or man-made structures that are not 
shown on a map. These sketches providethe intelligence sections a detailed, on- 
the-ground view of an area or object that is otherwise unobtainable. These 
sketches not only let the viewer see the area in different perspectives but also 
provide detail such as type of fences, number of telephone wires, present depth 
of streams, and other pertinent data. There are two types of military sketches: 
road or area sketches and field sketches. The sniper should not include people 
in either of these sketches. 



MILITARY SKETCH 



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4-84 



FM 3-05.222 



Road or Area Sketch 



4-293. This sketch is a panoramic representation of an area or object drawn 
to scale as seen from the sniper team's perspective. It shows details about a 
specific area or a man-made structure (Figure 4-40). Information considered 
in a road or area sketch includes— 

• Grid coordinates of sniper team's position. 

• Magnetic azimuth through the center of sketch. 

• Sketch name and number. 

• Scale of sketch. 

• Remarks section. 

• Name and rank. 

• Date and time. 

• Weather. 



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Field Sketches 



Figure 4-40. Sample Road or Area Sketch 

4-294. A field sketch is a topographic representation of an area drawn to 
scale as seen from above. It provides the sniper team with a method for 
describing large areas while showing reliable distance and azimuths between 
major features. This type of sketch is useful in describing road systems, flow 



4-85 



FM 3-05.222 



of Streams and rivers, or locations of natural and man-made obstacles. The 
field sketch can also be used as an overlay on the range card. Information 
contained in a field sketch includes— 

• Grid coordinates of the sniper team's position. 

• Left and right limits with azimuths. 

• Rear reference with azimuth and distance. 

• Target reference points. 

• Sketch name and number. 

• Name and rank. 

• Date and time. 

• Weather and visibility. 

4-295. The field sketch serves to reinforce the observation log. A military 
sketch is either panoramic or topographic. 



PANORAMIC SKETCH 



4-296. The panoramic sketch is a picture of the terrain in elevation and 
perspective as seen from one point of observation (F igure 4-41). 



MILITARY SKETCH 



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Figure 4-41. Subsketch of Buildings in Figure 4-40 



4-86 



FM 3-05.222 



TOPOGRAPHIC SKETCH 



4-297. The topographic sketch is similar to a map or pictorial representation 
from an overhead perspective. It is generally less desirable than the 
panoramic sketch because it is difficult to relate this type of sketch to the 
observer's log. It is drawn in a fashion similar to the range card. Figure 4-42 
represents a topographic sketch or an improvised range card. 



MILITARY SKETCH 



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GUIDELINES FOR DRAWING SKETCHES 



4-298. As with all drawings, artistic skill is an asset, but satisfactory 
sketches can be drawn by anyone with practice. The sniper should use the 
following guidelines when drawing sketches: 

• \Nork from the whole to the part. First determine the boundaries of the 
sketch. Then sketch the larger objects such as hills, mountains, or 
outlines of large buildings. After drawing the large objects in the 
sketch, start drawing the smaller details. 

• Use common shapes to show common objects. Do not sketch each 
individual tree, hedgerow, or wood line exactly. Use common shapes 
to show these types of objects. Do not concentrate on the fine details 
unless they are of tactical importance. 



4-87 



FM 3-05.222 



Draw in perspective; use vanisliing points. Try to draw sketches in 
perspective. To do this, recognize the vanishing points of the area to be 
sketched. Parallel lines on the ground that are horizontal vanish at a 
point on the horizon. Parallel lines on the ground that slope downward 
away from the observer vanish at a point below the horizon. Parallel 
lines on the ground that slope upward, away from the observer, vanish 
at a point above the horizon. Parallel lines that recede to the right 
vanish on the right and those that recede to the left vanish on the left 
(Figure 4-43). 



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4-299. For the sniper team to thoroughly and effectively observe its area of 
responsibility, it must be aware of the slightest change in the area. These 
otherwise insignificant changes could be an indicator of targets or enemy 
activity that needs to be reported. By constructing a panoramic sketch, 
the team has a basis for comparing small changes in the surrounding terrain. 
Updating data permits the team to better report intelligence and complete 
its mission. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLESOF SKETCHING 

4-300. The sniper initiates the panoramic sketch only after the observer's log 
and range card have been initiated and after the sniper team has settled into 
theAO. 

4-301. The sniper studies the terrain with the naked eye first to get an 
overall impression of the area. After he obtains his overall impression, he 
uses binoculars to further study those areas that attracted his attention 
before the first mark is made on a sketch pad. 



4-88 



FM 3-05.222 



4-302. Too much detail is not desirable unless it is of tactical importance. If 
additional detail is required on a specific area, the sniper can make 
subdrawings to supplement the main drawing. 

Principles of Perspective and Proportionality 

4-303. Sketches are drawn to perspective whenever possible. To be in 
perspective, the sketcher must remember that the farther away an object is, 
the smaller it will appear in the drawing. Vertical lines will remain vertical 
throughout the drawing; however, a series of vertical lines (such as telephone 
poles or a picket fence) will diminish in height as they approach the horizon. 
Proportionality is representing a larger object as larger than a smaller object. 
This gives depth along with perspective. 

Using Delineation to Portray Objects or Features of the Landscape 

4-304. The sketcher forms a horizontal line with the horizontal plane at the 
height of his eye. This is known as the eye-level line and the initial control 
line. The skyline or the horizon and crests, roads, and rivers form other 
"control lines" of the sketch. These areas are drawn first to form the 
framework within which the details can be placed. The sketcher should 
represent features with a few, rather than many, lines. He should create the 
effect of distance by making lines in the foreground heavy and making 
distance lines lighter as the distance increases. He can use a light "hatching" 
to distinguish wooded areas, but the hatching should follow the natural lines 
of the object (Figure 4-44). 



B 





Figure 4-44. Use of Delineation to Portray the Landscape 



4-89 



FM 3-05.222 



Using Conventional Metliods to Portray Objects 

4-305. If possible, the sketcher should show the actual shape of all 
prominent features that may be readily selected as reference points. These 
features may be marked with an arrow and with a line to a description; 
for example, a prominent tree with a withered branch. The sketcher should 
also show— 

• Rivers and roads as two lines that diminish in width to the vanishing 
point as they recede. 

• Railroads in the foreground as a double line with small crosslines 
(which represent ties). The crosslines will distinguish them from roads. 
To portray railroads in the distance, a single line with vertical ticks to 
represent the telegraph poles is drawn. When rivers, roads, and 
railroads are all present in the same sketch, they may have to be 
labeled to show what they are. 

• Trees in outline only, unless a particular tree is to be used as a 
reference point. If a particular tree is to be used as a reference point, 
the tree must be drawn in more detail to show why it was picked. 

• Woods in the distance by outline only. If the woods are in the 
foreground, the tops of individual trees can bedrawn. 

• Churches in outline only, but it should be noted whether they have a 
tower or a spi re. 

• Towns and villages as definite rectangular shapes to denote houses. 
he also shows the locations of towers, factory chimneys, and 
prominent buildings in the sketch. Again, detail can be added in 
subdrawings or hatchings (Figure 4-45). 

• Cuts, fills, depressions, swamps, and marshes are shown by using the 
usual topographic symbols. 




Figure 4-45. Hatchings That Can Add Depth to Objects 



4-90 



FM 3-05.222 



Using a Legend to Label the Sketch 

4-306. The legend includes the title of the sketch, the date-time group, and 
the sketcher's signature. It also includes an explanation of the topographic 
symbols used in the sketch. 

KIM GAMES 

4-307. The name of the game comes from the book Kim by Rudyard Kipling. 
The story is about a young Indian boy who was trained to remember 
intelligence information during the British occupation of India. To assist 
some in remembering the name of the game, it has been misnamed— Keep in 
Mind (KIM). Sniper operations encompass a much larger scope than hiding in 
the woods, spotting targets of opportunity, and engaging them. The sniper 
must observe vast areas and accurately record any and all information. 
Because many situations occur suddenly and do not offer prolonged 
observation, snipers must learn to observe for short periods of time and 
extract the maximum amount of information from any situation. 

4-308. KIM games are a series of exercises that can help increase the 
sniper's abilities to both perceive reality and retain information. They can be 
conducted anywhere, in very little time, with a large return for the trainer's 
investment of effort and imagination. Although the various time limits of 
viewing, waiting, and recording the objects are often not reflected in tactical 
reality, KIM games are designed to exercise the mind through overload 
(much the same as weight training overloads the muscles). 

4-309. Advancement in KIM games is measured by shortening the viewing 
and recording times and lengthening the waiting time. Greater results can be 
realized by gradually adding additional elements to increase confusion and 
uncertainty. In the sniper's trade, the perception of reality often means 
penetrating the enemy's deception measures. These measures may include, 
but are not limited to— 

• Misdirection. 

• Disguise. 

• Exchange. 

4-310. There is a marked similarity between the above list and the principles 
of stage magic. J ust as knowing how a magician performs a trick takes the 
"magic" from it, knowing how one is being deceived negates the deception. 

THE BASIC GAME 

4-311. The instructor will require a table, a cover, and an assortment of 
objects. He selects ten objects and randomly places them on the table. He 
should not place the objects in orderly rows, since studies have shown that 
objects placed in rows make memorization easier. He then covers the objects. 
The instructor briefs the students on the following rules before each iteration: 

• No talking is allowed. 

• Objects may not be touched. 

• Students will not write until told to do so. 



4-91 



FM 3-05.222 



4-312. The students gather around the table. The instructor removes the 
cover, and the time for viewing begins. When the time is up, he replaces the 
cover, and students return to their seats. After a designated interval, the 
students begin to write their observations within a designated time limit. To 
aid in retaining and recording their observations, the following standardized 
categories are used throughout: 

• Size. 

• Shape 

• Color. 

• Condition. 

• What the object appears to be. 

4-313. It must be stressed that the above categories are not intended for use 
in a tactical setting. 



THE SAVELLI SHUFFLE 



4-314. A variation of the KIM game that trains the eyes to "look faster" and 
coordinates hand-to-eye movement is the Savelli Shuffle. Two individuals 
face each other approximately 5 meters apart. The first man has a bag 
containing a number of yellow rubber balls and a smaller number of red 
rubber balls. The second man has an empty bag. The first man reaches into 
his bag and picks out a ball, concealing it from the second man. The first man 
tosses the ball to the second man. Speed will depend on level of experience. 

4-315. The second man has a quick decision to make— catch yellow balls 
with the left hand and red balls with the right hand. The second man then 
places the caught balls into his bag. 

4-316. This process is repeated until the first man's bag is emptied. Positions 
of the first man and the second man are exchanged. Advancement in this 
exercise is measured by the speed at which the balls are thrown and the 
distance between men. 



INTEREST AND ATTENTION 



4-317. When learning to observe, team members must make a distinction 
between interest and attention. Interest is a sense of being involved in some 
process, actual or potential. Attention is a simple response to a stimulus, such 
as a loud noise. Attention without interest cannot be maintained for very 
long. During long periods of uneventful observation, attention must be 
maintained through interest. Deception at the individual level can bethought 
of as manipulation of interest. 



4-92 



Chapter 5 

Employment 

SF sniper employment is complex. When employed intelligently, 
skillfully, and with originality, the SF sniper will provide a payoff far 
greater than would be expected from the assets used. For this to happen, 
the planner must have more than a basic knowledge of the SWS. He must 
understand the capabilities and limitations of the sniper. However, 
sniping is an individual talent and skill that varies with each sniper. This 
trait compounds the planner's challenge, but he can minimize these 
variables with careful planning. The SF sniper, when properly trained 
and employed, can be one of the SO forces' most versatile weapons 
systems. See Appendix L for some specific tricks of the trade that a 
sniper must master to maintain employment proficiency. 



METHODS 

5-1. The sniper planner must apply methods of interdiction in relation to the 
necessary target and the desired effects against it. The employment of SF 
snipers generally falls into the following four categories. 

SURVEILLANCE AND RECONNAISSANCE 

5-2. Sniping, by nature of its execution (stealthful movement, infiltration, 
use of long-range optics, and limited-visibility operations), is closely related to 
reconnaissance and surveillance. The techniques a sniper uses to hunt a 
target are similar to those the scout uses to conduct surveillance— only the 
end results are different. Also, human intelligence (HUM! NT) collection is a 
secondary function to sniping. Operational planners should refrain from 
employing snipers in solely HUM I NT roles but should take advantage of the 
HUM I NT function when possible. Combining both functions would be 
analogous to using a long-range guard— the sniper provides needed 
information and can intercede if necessary. 

POINT INTERDICTION 

5-3. The sniper's goal is to interdict targets for the purpose of impeding, 
destroying, or preventing enemy influence in a particular area. A point 
interdiction is essentially hunting a specific target. The SF sniper can 
interdict both personnel and material point targets in support of SO missions. 
Such missions tend to be complex and may require difficult infiltration, 
precise navigation to the target, evasion of enemy forces, the broaching of 
sophisticated security systems, and external mission support systems (safe 
houses, special intelligence). Normally, the more complex the target or the 
more protected it is, the greater the degree of sophistication required to 
defeat it. For instance, a protected personnel target may require detailed 



5-1 



FM 3-05.222 



intelligence and a highly skilled sniper for successful interdiction. Point 
interdiction also includes firing situations like those encountered in 
counterterrorist situations. 



LONG-RANGE HARASSMENT 



5-4. Long-range harassment is not intended to be decisive; creating 
psychological fear in the enemy and restricting his freedom of action are the 
sniper's primary goals. The sniper has the greatest latitude of employment in 
harassment missions. He can often engage opportunity targets at his 
discretion but always within the constraints of the mission. This method may 
include harassing specific kinds of targets to disrupt key functions such as 
command and control (C2) procedures. In some situations, the sniper can 
afford to engage targets at extreme ranges and risk nonfatal or missed shots, 
which maximizes harassment by interdicting more targets. Snipers normally 
conduct harassment at extended ranges to take advantage of their ability to 
engage targets at distances beyond the enemy's small-arms fire. This practice 
normally means they will not engage targets closer than 400 meters— 100 
meters beyond the common effective-fire range of conventional small arms. 
The average range for harassing fire is 600 meters. 



SECURITY OPERATIONS 



PLANNING 



5-5. Snipers can provide long-range security to deny an enemy freedom of 
action in a particular area. The sniper security mission can taketheform of a 
series of mutually supporting sniper outposts or cordons. An example of 
security operations where snipers proved invaluable was during the USMC 
operations in Beirut, Lebanon. The Marine snipers were interwoven with 
traditional defenses and proved to be effective in long-range protection of 
local U.S. facilities and interests. Security and cordon missions normally 
entail static, defenselike operations. However, with the austere firepower of 
sniper teams and their inability to maneuver in defensive warfare, they are 
vulnerable to becoming decisively engaged. Therefore, security operations are 
best integrated into conventional security and reaction forces to help snipers 
increase their defensive capability. Without such support, snipers can easily 
be suppressed and maneuvered upon with fire and maneuver tactics. 



5-6. When employing snipers, the operational planner must consider many 
factors. Tactical planning considerations of the sniper include hide selection, 
deception plans, and movement techniques. However, the planner must 
consider sniper employment from an even higher level of operational 
perspective. He must realize that snipers are a unique weapon system and 
possess entirely different attributes from conventional forces, among which 
(the one most frequently misunderstood) is the sniper's firepower. Unlike 
conventional small-arms fire that emphasizes volume, the sniper's firepower 
emphasizes precision. Sniper fire is most effective when combined with a 
mind that can exploit long-range precision. A two-man sniper team can 
deliver only limited volumes of fire, and no matter how accurate, the volume 
seldom equals that of even the most austere military units. If employed 



5-2 



FM 3-05.222 



STANDOFF 



DECEPTION 



Operational 



incorrectly, the sniper easily becomes another soldier on the battlefield— 
except that he is handicapped with a slow-firing weapon. The sniper's unique 
employment considerations should be guided by the following factors. 



5-7. The planner should base employment around the sniper's ability to 
engage targets at extended ranges. The maximum effective range will vary 
with each sniper. However, planners can establish nominal engagement 
ranges based on the sniper's ability to group his shots into a specified area or 
shot group. This measurement can, in turn, be applied to specific targets. The 
sniper should be able to keep his fire within 2 MOA shot groups under 
simulated combat conditions. 

5-8. The application of group size is important for determining maximum 
standoff in relation to target size. For planning, SF snipers should be 
expected to provide instant incapacitation (nonreflexive impact) first-round 
shots on personnel to 200 meters; personnel interdiction with 90-percent 
probability to 600 meters on stationary targets; and 50-percent probability to 
800 meters. Engagement of more complicated targets, such as those moving 
or in adverse environmental conditions, depends on the individual sniper's 
skill and his weapon's capability. The sniper should be able to hit 100 percent 
of assigned moving targets at 200 meters and 90 percent at 300 meters. The 
sniper should also be able to hit 100 percent of short, 3-second, exposure 
targets at 200 meters and 90 percent at 300 meters. Sniper employment 
planning should also consider the probability of error against the risks 
incurred if the shot misses. Such analysis will help determine the minimum 
standoff range for a reliable chance of a hit on the target. 



5-9. The sniper's most critical tools are his deceptive talents. To planners, 
deception is also important for operational needs. The SF sniper may use a 
weapon from another country to duplicate using that weapon's characteristic 
signature (ballistic characteristics, cartridge case, bullets) for cover. He must 
consider both operational and tactical deception methods when conducting 
each mission. 



5-10. Planners may center operational deception on infiltrating the target 
area using a clandestine (concealed) sniper weapon. Operational deception 
may also require plausible deniability of the operation and lead the enemy to 
believe the target damage was the result of normal failure, accident, or some 
other form of sabotage. With such interdiction requirements, the sniper can 
use special weapons and munitions and aim for vulnerable points to 
purposely obtain such results. (Such targets include those that tend to burn, 
detonate, or self-destruct when shot.) However, this kind of deception is not 
possible with many targets and is especially difficult to conceal in personnel 
interdiction. Deception also means a sniper can seldom fire more than twice 
from any location as the sound of shots (even suppressed) is increasingly 
easier to locate with repetition. (This concept differs greatly from many media 
and war stories, where the sniper engages his enemy on a protracted basis 



5-3 



FM 3-05.222 



Tactical 



TIME 



from the same location— firing shot after shot with apparent impunity.) 
In reality, snipers locked in a decisive dual with enemy forces and firing 
defensively will normally lose as sniping seldom succeeds in such situations. 
Planners should refrain from employing snipers in missions that will not 
allow deception or concealment after firing. 



5-11. The sniper's use of tactical deception is often his only real security. 
Employment planners must consider security from operational aspects of the 
mission when using snipers. These include infiltration means, 
communications procedures, and methods of C2. These procedures are 
important because the sniper must remain covert before interdiction to 
ensure success. Normally, once the sniper fires, he is no longer covert and 
must rely on other plans to facilitate escape. Many environments may permit 
sniper employment, but few allow plausible denial for the sponsor or 
operation after interdiction. In other words, such covert operations may be 
easy to perform, but the risk of compromise, no matter how small, may 
overshadow the mission. Missions to collect information concerning another 
country's hostile intentions may themselves provoke serious repercussions if 
discovered. Moreover, using snipers will assuredly indicate an alternative 
motive to actually interdicting a target— which could compromise the mission 
even more. 



5-12. The sniper's mission normally requires more time than conventional 
operations. Because the sniper normally moves on foot with stealth, his only 
defense is that of remaining unseen. If the sniper does not have enough time 
to execute the mission, he may hurry and unnecessarily compromise the 
mission or fail to reach the target. 



TEAM EMPLOYMENT 



TERRAIN 



5-13. Teams provide limited security for self-protection and allow near- 
continuous operations, yet are small enough to allow concealment for execution. 
In practice, one sniper fires while the other observes. The sniper-observer 
identifies and selects targets, adjusts the sniper-firer to environmental factors, 
provides security, and helps correct missed shots. However, the greatest 
advantage is the sniper-observer's detachment from the firing process, leaving 
the sniper-firer to concentrate on the act of firing. In other words, firing does 
not complicate the sniper-observer's decision process— a task requiring total 
concentration. Mission needs may also require snipers to be part of a larger 
force or in multiple sniper teams to engage the same target. Both techniques of 
employment can enhance the sniper's effect; however, the basic sniper team 
should always be retained. Snipers will never be employed in elements smaller 
than a two-man team, larger elements of three or four men may be required 
depending upon mission, duration, visibility expected in the target area, and 
sizeof target area. 



5-14. Terrain features are extremely important to the sniper's mission. 
Some areas, such as those that are densely wooded, tightly com part men ted. 



5-4 



FM 3-05.222 



or heavily vegetated, are not suitable for sniper employment because they 
reduce the sniper's ability to employ the full standoff capability of his 
weapons system. The threat can quickly suppress snipers that engage targets 
inside their minimum standoff envelope (usually 400 meters). Moreover, 
restrictive terrain offers the threat cover and concealment that can mask his 
attack against the sniper. The sniper must always consider both maximum 
and minimum engagement ranges; he must never get so close to the target as 
to compromise the mission. 



INNOVATION 



5-15. A sniper's most important attribute is his ability to improvise. 
The operational planner must also be innovative in the planning process. 
The sniper is a weapon of opportunity, not one to be used as a matter of 
course. Planners must actively seek missions and opportunities to apply the 
sniper's unique attributes of long-range precision rifle fire and concealment. 
Often the sniper's greatest handicap is the planner's inability to fully use 
his potential because of the planner's lack of familiarity with the sniper's true 
role and capability. Planners should include the sniper team in the planning 
process. Multiple sniper teams can often suggest a better solution when 
planning from the bottom up. Staff officers with little practical sniper 
experience or lacking innovative thought will never be able to fully take 
advantage of the sni per's capabi I ities. 

ORGANIZATION 

5-16. Organizational grouping of snipers above the sniper-team level 
normally occurs through expedient pooling of sniper pairs into larger 
organizations. Such centralized grouping of sniper assets can prove beneficial 
to their employment for specific missions. In all cases, the sniper specialist 
within the unit should manage control of the snipers. Regardless of any 
provisional or temporary sniper grouping, sniper teams should not be split. 
They function best in the pairs in which they have trained, with all members 
being fully qualified snipers. 

5-17. The level at which sniping is organized and managed directly 
influences the ability of sniping to provide direct or indirect support to 
friendly operations. Centralized organization and management of sniping 
provides a great degree of flexibility regarding deployment. This flexibility 
permits snipers to be deployed to areas or locations where they will have the 
greatest influence on the enemy and provide the maximum support to 
friendly operations. 

5-18. The organization of sniper teams will magnify their effectiveness 
against the enemy. Sniping, like any other supporting arm, is an 
individual specialty that requires independent action to achieve its 
greatest potential effect on the enemy. Requiring special organization, 
snipers may be organized into teams, squads, sections, and platoons. 



SNIPERTEAM 



5-19. The base element of any sniper unit is that the team consists of two 
equally trained snipers and is assigned to the company. The company is the 



5-5 



FM 3-05.222 



lowest level at which sniping can be centralized and still maintain 
operational effectiveness. Sniper teams should not be attached to the tactical 
subunits of the company. However, a subunit, squad or platoon, may be 
attached to the sniper team as security or cover for a stay-behind type 
mission. When organized into a team, snipers are able to— 

• Provide mutual security. 

• Diminish stress. 

• Lengthen their duration of employment. 

• Aid in the engagement of targets more rapidly. 



SNIPER SQUAD 



5-20. A sniper squad is composed of three to four sniper teams and is located 
at battalion level. The organization of the sniper squad is as follows: 

• Squad leader. 

• Assistant squad leader. 

• T h ree sen i or sn i pers. 

• Threejunior snipers. 

• The sniper pairs include a senior sniper and a junior sniper. 

5-21. The mission of the sniper squad is to support the operations of the 
battalion. The squad may be broken and the separate teams attached to any 
company in the battalion. 



SNIPER SECTION 



5-22. The sniper section's mission is to directly or indirectly support the 
combat operations of brigade or regiment subordinate units. In direct 
support, sniper teams are attached to company or battalion headquarters 
elements as needed, and employment considerations are identical to those of 
company sniper teams. Indirect support gives the sniper teams assigned 
sectors of responsibility as part of the battalion fire plan. The sniper section is 
attached to the brigade regiment headquarters S-2 or S-3, and the section 
commander acts as the brigade sniper coordinator. The sniper section consists 
of a command element (section commander, assistant section leader), a 
support element (armorer, radio operator), and 8 to 10 operational two- 
man sniper teams (per team- senior sniper, junior sniper). 



SNIPER PLATOON 



5-23. The mission of a sniper platoon is to support division combat and 
intelligence operations independently or by attachment to division subunits. 
When attached, sniper squads should remain intact and should be attached 
no lower than battalion level. The sniper platoon is composed of a platoon 
leader, a platoon sergeant, a radiotelephone operator or driver, an armorer, 
and three sniper squads consisting of a squad leader and five two-man sniper 
teams. The sniper platoon falls under direct operational control of the 
division intelligence officer or indirect control through liaison with the sniper 
platoon leader. Sniper platoon operations may include deep penetration of the 
enemy rear areas, stay-behind operations, and rear-area protection. 



5-6 



FM 3-05.222 



COMMAND AND CONTROL 

5-24. C2 of snipers is accomplished using indirect and direct control 
procedures. These procedures complement the sniper's self-discipline in 
executing his assigned mission. The sniper team will often operate in 
situations where direct control methods will not be possible. Therefore, the 
sniper must execute his mission (within the parameters of the commander's 
intent) on personal initiative and determination. This reaction is a major 
reason (in the sniper-selection process) why personnel with motivation and 
self-determination are required as snipers. Without these personal traits, the 
sniper's decentralized execution allows total disregard for the mission and its 
completion. In other words, he can go out to perform a mission and merely 
stay out of sight until time to return. 

INDIRECT CONTROL OF SNIPERS 

5-25. Commanders can accomplish indirect control of snipers through a 
variety of methods, the simplest being rules of engagement (ROE) and fire 
control measures. Even with strict direct control (voice radio, wire) of sniper 
teams, commanders should establish ROE and fire control to maximize 
flexibility and prevent unnecessary engagements. The ROE will normally 
designate combatant forces and situations that will allow the sniper to 
engage the enemy. 

5-26. One significant problem with contemporary ROE is the restrictive 
measures used in peacetime operations. Often, such ROE will specify enemy 
personnel as only those presenting a direct threat to friendly forces or 
requiring verbal warning before engagement. The paradox is that a sniper's 
modus operandi is to engage targets that are not a direct threat to him 
(outside small-arms effective fire range) at the moment, but which later may 
be. It is extremely difficult for the sniper to stay within ROE because once the 
enemy gets within his minimum standoff, the conflict can become one of 
close-quarters battle and a 12-pound, scope-sighted sniper rifle is no match 
for an AK47 or M16 at close quarters— despite the fact that it may be a 
semiautomatic rifle. Therefore, ROE for the sniper must provide for his safety 
by adding security forces or by removing him from the operation. 

5-27. Fire control measures are just as important for the sniper as they are 
for indirect-fire weapons and aircraft. As with any long-range weapons 
system, positive target identification is difficult at extended ranges— even 
with the advanced optics the sniper will carry. Establishment of no-fire zones 
or times, fire coordination lines, and free-fire zones or times will help in 
sniper C2 by establishing guidelines for when and where he can fire. If 
positive target identification is required, then appropriate security measures 
are required to prevent decisive engagement to the sniper. 

DIRECT CONTROL OF SNIPERS 

5-28. Commanders can maintain direct control of SF snipers by using 
technical and nontechnical systems, including radio and wire 
communications. In some circumstances, direct control means may include 
commercial telephones or other nontraditional tactical forms of 
communications. The mission and the operational environment will 
determi ne the exact methods of control . 



5-7 



FM 3-05.222 



5-29. Nontechnical control of snipers involves using prearranged methods 
including rendezvous, message pickups and drops, and other clandestine 
methods of secure communications. In denied areas, or those with electronic 
interception capabilities, these methods may be the only secure techniques 
for communicating with the sniper teams. These systems, although often 
quite secure, tend to be slow, and execution is complex. 

5-30. Snipers can also use many forms of technical communications systems 
such as radio and wire. Both radio and wire offer near-instant message traffic 
and facilitate C2 with two-way communications. Snipers most often use 
radios as their method of communications because they are responsive and 
provide real-time control and reporting capabilities. Also, radio (voice, data 
burst, or satellites) provides the mobility that snipers require for their 
mobile-employment methodology. The major advantage to radio is its ability 
to transmit mission changes, updates, and intelligence in a timely manner. 
However, when properly arrayed, enemy direction-finding assets can 
determine the location of even the most focused and directional 
transmissions. To avoid detection, SO must use specialized communications 
techniques and procedures. Even then, the deployed teams will still have the 
problem of transmitting from their location to confirm messages or send data. 

5-31. The major drawback to radio communications is the transmitter's 
electronic signature. I n the sniper's operational area, enemy detection of any 
electronic signature can be just as damaging as reception of a message. Once 
the enemy is aware of the sniper's presence (through spurious transmissions), 
it becomes an academic problem to hunt him down. Even with successful 
evasion from threats (for example, scent- and visual-tracking dogs), the 
sniper team will be preoccupied with evasion and escape (E&E) instead of the 
target. Of course, this act can also be an objective— to divert enemy internal 
security forces to a rear-area sniper threat. 

5-32. Under all conditions, the sniper team must have a method for 
immediate recall. This method allows for immediate reaction forces to be 
available for the sniper. This factor is imperative in an unstable battlefield. 

5-33. Wire communications can provide protection from enemy deception, 
jamming, and interception. Static security operations, defensive positions, 
and extended surveillance posts are suitable for the use of wire 
communications. However, the sniper team must also calculate the 
disadvantages of wire, such as time to emplace, lack of mobility, and relative 
ease of compromise if found by the enemy. When possible, the team should 
back up wire communications by more flexible forms of control, such as radio. 

5-34. Certain environments (FID or CBT missions) may allow for more 
flexible communications techniques. For example, the use of commercial 
telephones may be more appropriate than traditional military 
communications. Also, many environments possess a low threat from actual 
message interception or direction-finding assets, which allows the sniper 
team more liberal use of the radio. However, planners would be wise to 
remember the time-tested proverb: Never underestimate your enemy. 



5-8 



FM 3-05.222 



COORDINATION 

5-35. There must be meticulous ccxardi nation with both supported and 
unsupported units that fall within the sniper team's AO. This coordination is 
the sniper coordinator's main focus; however, the sniper team must ensure 
that the coordination has been accomplished. Coordination with supported 
and unsupported units includes the following: 

Nature, duration, and extent of local and extended patrols. 

Friendly, direct, and indirect fire plans. 

Local security measures. 

Location and extent of obstacles and barrier plan. 

Rendezvous and linkup points. 

Passage and reentry of friendly lines. 

Unit mission and area of responsibility. 

Routes and limits of advance. 

Location and description of friendly units. 

Communication plan. 

5-36. Although it is important that the sniper team receives as much 
information as possible for mission success, the sniper coordinator must not 
tell the team so much that, if captured, the entire sector would be 
compromised. This objective demands that everyone involved— the sniper 
teams, the sniper coordinator, supported and unsupported units in the area of 
operations— communicate and remain "coordinated." The sniper coordinator 
will establish control measures to assist in the deployment of the teams. This 
will keep the teams and units from committing fratricide, while not 
compromising the units if the teams are captured. 

5-37. Once coordination begins, the team must establish control measures to 
protect the sniper and the supported and unsupported friendly units. Also, if 
the situation changes, there will be a recall capability to prevent the sniper 
team from unnecessary danger. The sniper team must also receive warning 
that friendly operations are in the area and it could be subjected to friendly 
fire. The team must have enough latitude to avoid engagement with the 
enemy by remaining mobile, elusive, and unpredictable. However, the team 
must understand that operational areas with lines of advance, exclusion 
areas, and no-fire zones are designed to protect him and friendlies and are 
not to be violated. 

SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS 

5-38. Sniping is a combat support activity. Snipers should augment only 
those units that have a specific need for it. Sniping provides either indirect or 
direct support. Deployed as human intelligence (HUM I NT) assets, snipers 
indirectly support friendly units and operations. There are two types of direct 
support. 



5-9 



FM 3-05.222 



Operational Control 

5-39. Snipers are under the operational control (OPCON) of the supported 
unit only for the duration of a specific operation. At the end of the mission, 
they return to the control of the parent unit. This practice is the optimal 
method of supporting operations, as it is flexible and efficient toward the unit 
to which the snipers are attached. 

Attachment 

5-40. For extended operations or distances, snipers may support a specific 
unit. This unit responds to all the sniper team's requirements for the 
duration of attachment. The sniping specialist or coordinator should also be 
attached to advise the unit on assignment of proper employment methods. If 
it is not possible to attach the sniper coordinator, then the senior and most 
experienced sniper on the attachment orders must assume the job as sniper 
coordinator for the period of attachment. The receiving unit must also 
understand the status of the sniper coordinator and the importance of his 
position. Normally, attachment for extended periods will include supply and 
logistics support to the sniper element from the unit of attachment. 

5-41. The support given to the unit and support received from the unit can 
also determine the planning, coordination, and control requirements. The 
four types of support given to a unit are as follows: 

• Offensive operational. 

• Defensive operational. 

• Retrograde operational. 

• Special operations. 

TARGET ANALYSIS 

5-42. There are two general classes of sniper targets— personnel and 
material. The sniper coordinator can further categorize these targets as 
having either tactical or strategic value. Tactical targets have local, short- 
term value to the current battle or situation. Tactical personnel targets are 
normally of enough significance to warrant the risk of detection when firing. 
Such targets include enemy snipers, key leaders, scouts, and crew-served 
weapons personnel. Tactical material targets are of particular importance to 
the current operation. 

5-43. Strategic personnel targets are not as well-defined as tactical 
personnel targets because of problems with the concept and definition of 
assassination. The definition of assassination versus the elimination of a 
military target is based on the end result. If the end result is military, then 
the target is classified as military ambush. However, if the end result is 
political in nature, then the target is classified as assassination and possibly 
illegal. This is a simplified definition of a complex issue and further 
discussion is beyond the scope of this manual. 

5-44. Strategic material targets consist of all types of objects of a military 
nature, including components or systems within a target (such as a turbine in 
an aircraft). The sniper must always consider critical ity, accessibility. 



5-10 



FM 3-05.222 



recuperability, vulnerability, effect, recognizability (CARVER) in evaluating 
the target. 

TARGET SYSTEMS AND CRITICAL NODES 

5-45. SF snipers should be directed at the enemy's C2 facilities and the 
critical nodes supporting them. Snipers can frequently regard targets as 
being in an interrelated system; that is, any one component may be essential 
to the target's entire operation. These interrelated and essential components 
are known as critical nodes. Critical C2 nodes are components, functions, or 
systems that support a military force's C2. These will differ for each target, 
but they will generally consist of the following: 

• Procedures. Snipers can easily interdict the procedures, routines, and 
habits the enemy uses to conduct operations. Of most significance, 
snipers can create fear in the enemy that will cause him to take extreme 
measures in security or to modify procedures to keep from being shot. 
The enemy may curtail certain functions, divert assets for security, or 
restrict movement in his own rear areas to prevent interdiction. 

• Personnel. Personnel targets are critical, depending on their 
importance or function. The target does not necessarily need to be a 
high-ranking officer but may be a lower-ranking person or a select 
group of people, such as a skill or occupational group, who are vital to 
the enemy's warfighting apparatus. 

• Equipment. Equipment is critical when the loss of it will impact the 
enemy's conduct of operations. Seldom will singular equipment targets be 
so critical as to impact the enemy in any significant fashion. However, 
targets or components that are not singularly critical may, collectively, be 
vital to the enemy. Common targets include objects common to all other 
similar targets or systems vulnerable to interdiction, such as a particular 
component (a radar antenna) which is common to many other radars. 
Interdicting only one antenna would have limited effect; it would merely 
be replaced. However, interdicting other radar components would 
significantly impair the enemy's logistics. 

• Facilities. These activities and complexes support the enemy's 
operations or C2 functions. I n the larger context, snipers are not suited 
for such interdiction. However, where possible, the sniper can focus on 
critical elements, such as C2 nodes or logistics capabilities of the larger 
facility (power generation systems or transportation equipment). 

• Communications. Communications nodes often are the most fragile 
components of C2 systems. Snipers can usually interdict these nodes 
because they are easy to recognize and frequently quite vulnerable. 
Attacking other targets, not critical in some fashion, serves no purpose 
in using SF snipers and only wastes resources without a definable 
objective. Target analysis helps determine which critical nodes to 
interdict and predict how effective the sniper will be. 



5-11 



FM 3-05.222 



CARVER PROCESS 



5-46. Target analysis includes selecting the appropriate method to use 
against a target, such as an aircraft, a strike force, or snipers. I n doing so, the 
planner can match the sniper's capabilities to the potential target. Sniper 
capabilities include using special weapons and performing covert operations. 

5-47. Attacking targets by sniper fire requires detailed planning and 
coordination; the sniper should not attack these targets indiscriminately. 
Interdiction must occur within the parameters of the assigned mission 
from higher headquarters to the stated results, maximizing the target's 
vulnerabilities and the priority of interdiction (on multiple targets 
or components). 

5-48. The target analysis system that snipers use is based on the acronym 
CARVER. The CARVER analysis process is a generic model for SO 
interdiction missions. It is also suitable for sniper interdiction, particularly 
during material interdiction planning, which is similar to interdiction with 
special munitions or demolitions. The sniper can apply sniper fire within the 
framework of the CARVER model to better determine if sniping would be the 
appropriate interdiction method and precisely how and where to apply it. 
Mission planners apply the CARVER analysis to sniper interdiction based on 
the foil owing criteria: 

• Criticality. A target is critical in relation to the impact its destruction 
would have on the enemy. The mission order will largely determine 
critical targets. However, within a target system there may be 
components that may be critical for the operation of the entire target. 
For example, a turbine is a critical component of a jet aircraft. 
The concept of attacking a critical component (using accurate fire) 
allows the sniper to engage a much greater variety of targets than 
commonly accepted. 

• Accessibility. This factor is based on how readily the target can be 
attacked. For the sniper, target accessibility includes getting through 
the target's security systems (security police or intrusion detectors) and 
knowing what the reaction will be to the sniper's stand-off interdiction. 
Accessibility for sniper interdiction is unique, because the sniper can 
frequently engage targets without violating security systems, and in 
turn, reduce the enemy's ability to detect the sniper before the 
interdiction. Again, the sniper must base accessibility on both 
maximum and minimum ranges. He must also be able to get off the 
target after he shoots. 

• R ecu per ability. The sniper measures recuperability of a target based on 
the time it takes the target to be repaired, replaced, bypassed, or 
substituted. Frequently, planners think only in terms of total 
destruction as opposed to a lesser degree of destruction. However, the 
same effect can be achieved by simply shutting down the target or 
destroying one vulnerable component. The advantage of interdiction 
short of total destruction is in the application of force; complete 
destruction normally requires a more elaborate force and more units. 
Also, the ability to control target destruction with precision fire can 
prevent unnecessary damage. It can limit adverse effects to systems 



5-12 



FM 3-05.222 



that the local populace may depend on for electrical power, food, or 
water. However, the planners must take into consideration repair time. 
If the target can be repaired in less time than the target window 
allows, the another destruction technique must be considered. 

• Vulnerability. A target (or component) is vulnerable to the sniper if he 
has the weapons and skill required to interdict the critical points that 
the target analysis has identified. The key to target vulnerability is 
identifying the weakest critical link in the target system and 
destroying it. The sniper must match the weapon to the target. 

• Effect. A wide range of interdiction effects are possible. Target effect is 
the desired result of attacking the target, including all possible 
implications— political, economic, and social effects of the interdiction. 
Occasionally, the planner must decide what is the desired effect. It may 
be the removal of key personnel, the psychological impact of the 
interdiction, or the threat of interdiction. Planners must always 
consider the balance of effect on the overall mission and the effect on 
the populace. When an adverse effect on the populace outweighs the 
effect on the mission, the sniper must reconsider the mission. 

• Recognizability. A target is recognizable if it can be effectively acquired 
by the sniper. A target may be well within the sniper's standoff range 
but cannot be effectively engaged because the target is masked or 
concealed. For example, the sniper's recognition of targets using night- 
vision equipment might be restricted because of the technological 
limitations of the device. Positive identification of targets, as well as 
small target components, is difficult given the characteristics of the 
phosphor screen in NVDs. Other factors complicating recognizability 
include the time of day, light conditions, terrain masking, 
environmental factors, and similar nontargets in the area. 

5-49. The fear of interdiction is evident in the German attempts to kill 
Winston Churchill in World War II, which forced him to remain hidden for 
some time. Conversely, John M. Collins' book. Green Berdis, SEALs, and 
SPETSNAZ, details the political implications of a DA mission to kill a figure 
such as Emperor Hirohitoof J apan, the "emperor-god," during World War II. 
Such action, Collins states, "would have had an adverse impact by rallying 
the J apanese people." A similar reaction was seen when the U.S. bombed 
Libya in 1986. During the raid, U.S. bombs seriously injured one of 
Colonel Mu'ammar Gadhafi's children and resulted in negative media and 
international backlash. (Despite Gadhafi's unscrupulous acts, endangering 
his family was unacceptable to the international public.) 

5-50. Material target interdiction by sniper fire is much more limited than it 
is with personnel targets. The SF sniper's abilities could increase by his 
choice of special weapons to interdict material targets, but he might still be 
limited by the relative vulnerability of the target. The greatest obstacle for 
successful interdiction of material targets rests primarily with the 
identification of the vulnerable nodes. The goal of the sniper's fire on these 
nodes is to be as effective as more powerful weapons— using precision fire at 
key points instead of brute force in the general area. 



5-13 



FM 3-05.222 



MISSION PLANNING 

5-51. Successful accomplishment of a sniper mission relates directly to the 
planning and preparation that takes place. Each mission requires the 
expertise of different people at each planning level. 

LEVELS OF PLANNING 

5-52. The two levels of mission planning are above-team level and team 
level. At above-team level the sniper employment officer (SEO) or sniper 
leader plans and coordinates the actions of more than one sniper team. The 
intent of this directive is to have several teams carry out coordinated or 
independent missions toward the same objective. At team level, the members 
of the sniper team will carry out the planning, preparation, and coordination 
for the mission. Therefore, warning orders are not necessary at this level, and 
the following sniper operation order (Figure 5-1, pages 5-14 through 5-16) 
itself is a mission planning tool. 



1. SITUATION 

a. Enemy forces. 

(1) Weather. Light data, precipitation, temperature, effect on the enemy and the 
sniper team. 

(2) Terrain. Terrain pattern, profile, soil type, vegetation, and fauna, effect on the 
enemy and the sni per team. 

(3) Enemy. Type unit(s), identification, training, and presence of countersnipers, 
significant activities, and effect on the sniper team. 

b. Friendly forces. Adjacent units, left, right, front, and rear. Since sniper teams are 
vulnerable to capture, they should not receive this information. Rather, they 
should receive information such as the location of free-fire and no-fire zones. 

2. MISSION 

Who, what, where, when. 

3. EXECUTION 

a. Commander's intent. This paragraph relates specifically what is to be 
accomplished, in a short, precise statement. It should include the commander's 
measure of success. 

b. Concept of the operation. This paragraph relates step-by-step how the mission will 
proceed. Breaking the mission down into phases works best. Specific tasks will be 
carried out in each phase, usually starting from preinfiltration toexfiltration and 
debriefing. 

c. Fire support. Normally, in a deep operation, fire support will not be available. 
However, in other situations, the assets may exist. 

d. Follow-on missions. This paragraph will outline any follow-on missions that may 
be needed. Once the primary mission is accomplished, the sniper team may be 
tasked to carry out another mission in theAO before exfiltration. This duty may 
consist of another sniper mission or a linkup with another team, unit, or 
indigenous persons as a means of exfiltration. 



Figure 5-1. Sniper Operation Order 



5-14 



FM 3-05.222 



e. Coordinating instructions. Consist of the following: 

(1) Actions at the objective. This paragraph contains specifically the duties of each 
member of the team and their rotation to include— 

(a) Security. 

(b) Selection and construction of the hide. 

(c) Removal of spoils. 

(d) Camouflageand fieldsof fire. 

(e) Observer's log, range card, and military sketch. 

(f) Placement of equipment in the hide. 

(g) Maintenance of weapons and equipment, 
(h) Observation rotation. 

(2) Movement techniques. This paragraph will cover the movement techniques, 
security at halts, and responsibilities during movement to and from the ORP 
and the hide and during the return trip. 

(3) Route. This paragraph covers the primary and alternate routes to and from 
the objective area. It may also include the fire support plan if it is not included 
in the fire support annex. 

(4) Departure and reentry of friendly positions. This information is normally used 
in the support of conventional forces, but it could be used when dealing with 
indigenous persons, for example, during a linkup. 

(5) Rally points and actions at rally points. I n some instances, these points can be 
used, but for a two-man element a rendezvous is much more advisable. For 
example, several rendezvous points en route should be preplanned with a 
specific time or period for linkup. These designations areset so that movement 
is constantly toward the objective, preventing the lead man from backtracking 
and wasting time. It is not advisable for a two-man team to attempt to use 

en route rally points. 

(6) Actions on enemy contact. This paragraph stresses minimal contact with 
the enemy. The team should avoid contact and not engage in a firefight. It 
is best to avoid contact, even in an ambush; evade as best as possible. The 
team should not attempt to throw smoke or lay down a base of fire. This 
action calls attention to the team's position and will cause the enemy to 
pursue with a much larger element. If an air attack occurs, hide. It is not 
possible for a two-man team to successfully engage an enemy aircraft. 

(7) Actions at danger areas. Avoid danger areas by moving around them, unless this 
is not possibleor time is critical. When moving across large open areas, stalk 
across; do not move in an upright posture. Linear danger areas are best crossed by 
havi ng both team members move across the area at the same ti me after an 
extended listening halt. This will avoid splitting the team in case of enemy contact 
and lower the risk of compromise while traversing the danger area. 

(8) Actions at halts. Security is critical even when taking a break and nobody is 
expected in the area. Stay alert. 



Figure 5-1. Sniper Operation Order (Continued) 



5-15 



FM 3-05.222 



(9) Rehearsals. If time is not available, at the minimum, always practice actions at 
the objective. During rehearsals, practice immediate action drills (IADs) and 
discuss actions at rally and rendezvous points. The team must know these 
points and the routes on the map. It is also important that the team rehearses 
any previously untrained actions. 

(10) I nspections. Team members should inspect their equipment. Use a checklist 
for equipment and ensure that everything works. The team should have the 
proper equipment and camouflage for the terrain and the environment that 
it will encounter. I nspections should be conducted prior to infiltration, after 
infiltration, and finally in theORP before occupying the FFP. 

(11) Debriefing. This paragraph covers who will attend the debriefing, where it will 
occur, and when it will take place. The observer's log and military sketches 
become useful information-gathering tools during the debriefing (Appendix M). 

(12) Priority intelligence requirements (PI R)/information requirements (I Rs). These 
requirements are given tothesniper team as information that should be 
gathered when the team is employed. 

(13) Annexes. This section contains specific maps and sketches showing items such 
as routes, the fire support plan, the tentative ORPs, and the hide sites. It will 
also include the evasion and recovery (E&R) plan, sunrise sunset overlay, and 
terrain profiles. 

4. SERVICE SUPPORT 

This paragraph covers, but is not limited to, administrative items such as— 

a. Rations. 

b. Arms and ammunition that each team member will carry. 

c. U niform and equipment that each team member will carry. 

d. Method of handling the dead and wounded. 

e. Prisoners and captured equipment. This paragraph is not likely to be used, unless 
the equipment can be carried, photographed, or sketched. 

f. Caches and mission support sites (M SSs). 

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL 

a. Frequencies and call signs. It is not necessary to list all the frequencies and call 
signs. You need only to refer to the current signal operating instructions (SOI). 

b. Pyrotechnics and signals, to include hand and arm signals. It is best to have a 
team SOP to which you can refer. Otherwise, you must list all the pyrotechnics 
and hand and arm signals. 

c. Challenge and password. The challenge and password will be necessary when 
linking up at rendezvous points and passing through friendly lines. 

d. Code words and reports. This refers to any contact made with higher headquarters 
or possibly a linkup with indigenous persons. 

e. Chain of command. 



Figure 5-1. Sniper Operation Order (Continued) 



5-16 



FM 3-05.222 



TERRAIN PROFILE 

5-53. A terrain profile is an exaggerated side view of a portion of the earth's 
surface between two points. The profile will determine if LOS is available. 
The sniper leader can use lineof sight to determine— 

• Defilade positions. 

• Dead space. 

• Potential direct-fire weapon positions. 

5-54. The sniper leader can construct a profile from any contoured map. Its 
construction requires the following steps: 

• Draw a line from where the profile begins to where it ends. 

• Find the highest and lowest value of the contour lines that cross or 
touch the profile line. Add one contour value above the highest and one 
below the lowest to take care of hills and valleys. 

• Select a piece of notebook paper with as many lines as contours on the 
profile line. The standard Army green pocket notebook or any paper 
with quarter-inch lines is ideal. If lined paper is not available, draw 
equally spaced lines on a blank sheet. 

• Number the top line with the highest value and the rest of the lines in 
sequence with the contour interval down to the lowest value. 

• Place the paper on the map with the lines parallel to the profile line. 

• From every point on the profile line where a contour line, a stream, an 
intermittent stream, or a body of water crosses or touches, drop a 
perpendicular line to the line having the same value. Where trees are 
present, add the height of the trees to the contour. 

• After all perpendicular lines are drawn and tick marks placed on the 
corresponding elevation line, draw a smooth line connecting the marks 
to form a horizontal view or profile of the terrain. (The profile drawn 
may be exaggerated. The space of lines on the notebook paper will 
determine the amount of exaggeration.) 

• Draw a straight line from the start point to the finish point on the 
profile. If the straight line intersects the curved profile, line of sight is 
not available. 

SUNRISE/SUNSET OVERLAY 

5-55. A sunrise/sunset overlay (SSO) is a graphic representation of the angle 
to the rising and setting sun and the objective. An SSO enables a team to 
plan a line of advance or tentative hide sites to take best advantage of the 
light. An SSO requires a table showing the true azimuth of the rising sun and 
the relative bearing of the setting sun for all months of the year. An SSO is 
constructed in the following manner: 

• Using the projected date of the mission and the latitude of the target, 
determine the true azimuth of the sunrise from Table 5-1, pages 5-19 
and 5-20. 

• Using a protractor and a straightedge, draw a line from the objective 
along the true azimuth. 



5-17 



FM 3-05.222 



• Subtract the true azimuth from 360 to find the sunset azimuth. 

• Using a protractor and a straightedge, draw another line from the 
objective along the sunset azimuth. 

• Convert each azimuth to a back azimuth and write it on the 
appropriate line. 

• Label the appropriate lines sunrise and sunset. 

• Write down the latitude and the date that was used to construct the 
overlay. 

SNIPER SUPPORT IN SPECIAL OPERATIONS MISSIONS 
AND COLLATERAL ACTIVITIES 

5-56. Special operations (SO) forces plan, conduct, and support activities in 
all operational environments. The following paragraphs explain how the SF 
sniper supports each mission and activity. 

CIVIL AFFAIRS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS 

5-57. The misuse of sniper interdiction can adversely affect Civil Affairs 
(CA) and civic action programs sponsored by friendly organizations. 
The sniper is a very efficient killer and given a target will go to extreme 
efforts to interdict it. Therefore, planners must temper the use of force with 
common sense and the future goals of the operation. It may be easier to 
eliminate threats than to negotiate, but in the long run, negotiations may 
open the door for settlement where sniping may close it or may set the stage 
for undesirable reactions. 

5-58. Planners must also consider the psychological operations (PSYOP) 
aspects of the mission, including both positive and negative impacts. The 
sniper can project not only accurate weapons fire but also tremendous 
psychological destruction. Such impact was given as rationale for the 
Vietnam My Lai massacre. There, in defense of their actions, some soldiers 
claimed that enemy sniper fire (and friendly casualties) over prolonged time 
drove them to commit the war crimes. On the other end of the spectrum, U.S. 
use of snipers can also cause adverse reaction on enemy forces. As at My Lai, 
the enemy may focus on innocent noncombatants and commit inappropriate 
reprisals in response to intense sniper pressure. This practice is especially 
true in UW and FID environments where U.S. SO forces may use local 
populations as guerrillas and security forces. 

5-59. The psychological impact of sniping has received little attention in the 
overall scheme of war. Historians often focus on the large weapons systems 
and overlook the stress and fear that sniping adds to the battlefield. Yet, this 
psychological impact can ruin the fiber and morale of an entire army; for 
example, in World War I, the sniper's bullet was often feared far more than 
many other ways of dying. 

5-60. The U.S. military has only recently recognized the psychological 
impact of sustained combat, although the sniper has always contributed as 
much to fear as he has to fighting. Operational planners may consider this 
PSYOP capability when planning sniper missions, especially when using 
PSYOP in UW where it plays a vital role. 



5-18 



FM 3-05.222 





Table 5-1 


. Find 


Ing Direction From the Rising or Setting 


Sun 








Date 


Angle to North From the Rising or Setting Sun (level terrain) 

Latitude 
0° 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° 45° 50° 55° 60° 


January 


1 
6 


113 
112 


113 
113 


113 
113 


114 
113 


115 
114 


116 
115 


117 
116 


118 
118 


121 
120 


124 
123 


127 
127 


155 
132 


141 
140 


11 
16 


112 
111 


112 
111 


112 
111 


113 
112 


113 
112 


114 
113 


115 
114 


117 
116 


119 
118 


122 
120 


125 
124 


130 
129 


138 
136 


21 
26 


110 
109 


110 
109 


110 
109 


111 
109 


111 
110 


112 
111 


113 
112 


115 
113 


117 
115 


119 
117 


122 
120 


127 
124 


133 
130 


February 


1 
6 


107 
106 


107 
106 


108 
106 


108 
106 


108 
107 


109 
107 


110 
108 


111 
109 


113 
111 


115 
113 


117 
115 


121 
118 


126 
123 


11 
16 


104 
103 


104 
103 


105 
103 


105 
103 


105 
103 


106 
104 


107 
105 


108 
106 


100 
107 


110 
108 


112 
110 


116 
112 


120 
116 


21 
26 


101 
99 


101 
99 


101 
99 


101 
99 


101 
100 


102 
100 


102 
100 


103 
101 


104 
102 


105 
103 


107 
104 


109 
106 


112 
108 


March 


1 
6 


98 
96 


98 
96 


98 
96 


98 
96 


99 
96 


99 
97 


99 
97 


100 
97 


100 
98 


101 
98 


102 
99 


104 
100 


106 
102 


11 
16 


94 
92 


94 
92 


94 
92 


94 
92 


94 
92 


94 
92 


95 
92 


95 
92 


95 
93 


96 
93 


96 
93 


97 
93 


98 
94 


21 
26 


90 
88 


90 
88 


90 
88 


90 
88 


90 
88 


90 
88 


90 
88 


90 
88 


90 
87 


90 
87 


90 
87 


90 
87 


90 
96 


April 


1 
6 


86 
84 


86 
84 


86 
84 


86 
83 


85 
83 


85 
83 


85 
83 


85 
82 


84 
82 


84 

81 


83 
80 


82 
79 


81 

77 


11 
16 


82 
80 


82 
80 


82 
80 


82 
80 


81 

79 


81 
70 


81 
78 


80 
78 


80 

77 


79 
76 


77 
74 


76 
72 


74 
70 


21 
26 


78 

77 


78 
77 


78 
76 


78 
76 


78 
76 


77 
75 


76 
75 


76 
74 


75 
72 


73 
71 


72 
69 


69 
66 


66 
63 


May 


1 
6 


75 
74 


75 
74 


75 
73 


74 
73 


74 
73 


73 
72 


73 
71 


72 
70 


70 
68 


69 
67 


66 
64 


63 
61 


59 
56 


11 
16 


72 
71 


72 
71 


72 
71 


72 
70 


71 
70 


70 
69 


69 
68 


68 
67 


67 
65 


64 
63 


62 
60 


58 
55 


52 
49 


21 
26 


70 
69 


70 
69 


70 
69 


69 
68 


69 
68 


68 
67 


67 
66 


65 
64 


63 
62 


61 
60 


58 
56 


53 
51 


47 
44 


June 


1 
6 


68 
67 


68 
67 


68 
67 


67 
67 


66 
66 


66 
65 


64 
64 


63 
62 


61 
60 


58 
59 


54 
53 


49 
48 


40 
40 


11 
16 


67 
67 


67 
67 


67 
67 


66 
66 


66 
65 


64 
64 


63 
63 


62 
62 


59 
59 


56 
56 


53 
53 


47 
47 


39 
39 


21 
26 


67 
67 


67 
67 


67 
67 


66 
66 


66 
65 


64 
64 


63 
63 


62 
62 


59 
59 


56 
56 


53 
53 


47 
47 


39 
39 


NOTES 1 : When the sun is rising, the angle is reckoned from east to north. When the sun is setting, the 
angle is reckoned from the west to north. 
2: This chart is for the Northern Hemisphere. 



5-19 



FM 3-05.222 



Table 5-1 


.Find 


ng Direction From the Rising or Setting 


Sun (Conti 


nued) 






Date 


Angle to North From the Rising or Setting Sun (level terrain) 

Latitude 
0° 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° 45° 50° 55° 60° 


July 


1 
6 


67 
67 


67 
67 


67 
67 


66 
66 


65 
66 


64 
65 


63 
64 


62 
62 


59 
60 


56 
57 


53 
53 


47 
48 


39 
40 


11 
16 


68 
69 


68 
68 


68 
68 


67 
68 


66 
67 


65 
66 


64 
65 


63 
64 


61 
62 


58 
59 


54 
55 


49 
50 


41 
43 


21 
26 


69 
70 


69 
70 


69 
70 


69 
70 


68 
69 


67 
68 


66 
67 


65 
66 


63 

64 


60 
62 


57 
59 


52 
54 


45 
48 


August 


1 
6 


72 
73 


72 
73 


72 
73 


71 
73 


71 
72 


70 
71 


69 
71 


68 
69 


66 
68 


64 
68 


61 
63 


57 
60 


51 
55 


11 
16 


75 
76 


75 
76 


74 
76 


74 
76 


74 
75 


73 
75 


72 
74 


71 
73 


70 
72 


68 
70 


66 
68 


63 
65 


58 
61 


21 
26 


78 
79 


78 
79 


77 
79 


77 
79 


77 
79 


76 
78 


76 
78 


75 
77 


74 
76 


72 
75 


71 
73 


68 

71 


65 
68 


September 


1 
6 


82 
83 


82 
83 


82 
83 


81 
83 


81 
83 


81 
83 


80 
82 


80 
82 


79 
81 


78 
81 


77 
80 


75 
78 


73 
77 


11 
16 


85 
87 


85 
87 


85 
87 


85 
87 


85 
87 


85 
87 


85 
87 


84 
86 


84 
86 


83 
86 


83 
85 


82 
85 


81 
84 


21 
26 


89 
91 


89 
91 


89 
91 


89 
91 


89 
91 


89 
91 


89 
91 


89 
91 


89 
91 


89 
91 


88 
92 


88 
92 


88 
92 


October 


1 
6 


93 
95 


93 
95 


93 
95 


93 
95 


93 
95 


93 
96 


93 
96 


94 
96 


94 
97 


94 
97 


95 
98 


95 
98 


96 
100 


11 
16 


97 
99 


97 
99 


97 
99 


97 
99 


97 
99 


98 
100 


98 
100 


99 
101 


99 

101 


100 
102 


101 
104 


102 
105 


104 
108 


21 
26 


101 
102 


101 
102 


101 
193 


101 
103 


101 
103 


102 
104 


102 
104 


103 
105 


104 
106 


105 
108 


107 
109 


109 
112 


112 
115 


November 


1 
6 


104 
106 


104 
106 


105 
106 


105 
107 


105 
107 


106 
108 


107 
109 


108 
110 


109 
111 


110 
113 


113 
115 


116 
119 


120 
123 


11 
16 


107 
109 


107 
109 


108 
109 


108 
109 


108 
110 


109 
111 


110 
112 


111 
113 


113 
115 


115 
117 


117 
120 


121 
124 


126 
130 


21 
26 


110 
111 


110 
111 


110 
111 


111 
112 


111 
112 


112 
113 


113 
114 


114 
116 


116 
118 


119 
120 


122 
124 


126 
128 


133 
135 


December 


1 
6 


112 
112 


112 
112 


112 
113 


113 
113 


113 
114 


114 
115 


115 
116 


117 
118 


119 
120 


122 
123 


125 
126 


130 
132 


138 
140 


11 
16 


113 
113 


113 
113 


113 
113 


114 
114 


115 
115 


116 
116 


117 
117 


118 
118 


121 
121 


124 
124 


127 
127 


133 
133 


141 
141 


21 
26 


113 
113 


113 
113 


113 
113 


114 
114 


115 
115 


116 
116 


117 
117 


118 
118 


121 
121 


124 
124 


127 
127 


133 
133 


141 
141 


NOTES 1 : When the sun is rising, the angle is reckoned from east to north. When the sun is setting, the 
angle is reckoned from the west to north. 
2: This chart is for the Northern Hemisphere. 



5-20 



FM 3-05.222 



UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE OPERATIONS 



Buildup 



5-61. In a UW environment, the SF sniper provides an additional capability 
to the resistance force. The primary mission of the resistance force is to 
support conventional forces during times of war. Therefore, the SF sniper 
must know conventional sniper tactics as well as unconventional techniques 
to effectively train a U .S.-sponsored resistance force. During peacetime, 
mobile training teams (MTTs) can train foreign military or paramilitary 
forces. I n times of war, the training takes place during the organization and 
training phaseof the resistance force after linkup. 

5-62. The importance of a sniper in UW cannot be measured only by the 
number of casualties he inflicts upon the enemy. Realization of the sniper's 
presence instills fear in enemy troops and influences their decisions and 
actions. Selective and discriminate target interdiction not only instills fear in 
the enemy, but can lead to general confusion and relocation of significant 
enemy strengths to counter such activity. 

5-63. In UW, the SF sniper can perform as a fighter and a trainer. Not only 
can he teach sniper skills to the force he is training; he can act as a direct 
action asset when needed. The sniper's ancillary skills in camouflage, 
stalking, surveillance, and deception are also useful in theUW environments. 
The impact of these talents is magnified when the sniper acts as a trainer. By 
training others he is, in effect, performing interdiction much more efficiently 
than he could alone. 

5-64. UW or guerrilla warfare (GW) consists of three major phases: 
buildup, consolidation, and linkup. Snipers will play an important role in all 
three phases. 



5-65. During initial contact and buildup, SF snipers will mainly train the 
indigenous force snipers and then act as sniper coordinators. 

5-66. During the buildup, snipers are extremely effective when used in the 
harassing and sniper ambush role. By using the snipers' ability to deliver 
long-range precision rifle fire, the UW force can accomplish the following 
objectives all at once: 

• Be able to strike at the enemy forces while minimizing their 
own exposure. 

• Deny the comfort of a secure area to the enemy. 

• Build UW force morale with successes while minimizing the amount of 
UW force exposure. 

• Since the fires are discriminatory, maintain a positive effect on the 
civilian population, as civilian casualties are minimized. This also 
reinforces in the civilians' minds the inability of government forces to 
control that part of the countryside. 

5-67. However, it is very important that the snipers go after targets with a 
military objective only. The line between sniper ambush and assassination at 
this point can be unclear. The sniper must remember that an ambush is for 
military gain, while an assassination is for political gain. Assassination, 



5-21 



FM 3-05.222 



under any guise, is illegal due to Executive Order 12333, Part II, paragraph 
2-11, dated 4 December 1981. 

5-68. During the end of the buildup and before the consolidation phase, the 
UW snipers will be used the same as strike operations snipers; that is, in 
support of small raids and ambushes. As the size of the U W force grows, so 
will the size of the missions that are similar to strike missions. 



Consolidation 



Linicup 



5-69. During consolidation, as the U W force becomes larger, the role of the 
sniper reverts to that of the conventional sniper. The same missions, tactics, 
and employment principles apply. 



5-70. During and after linkup, the snipers will mainly act as part of the 
security force and rear area protection (RAP) force. The U W force snipers will 
be particularly suited for this role. They have spent their time in that area 
and should know most, if not all, of the main areas that could support the 
enemy during infiltration and rear area attacks. 

5-71. During the initial contact phase of a resistance movement, sniper 
employment will normally be limited to supporting small-unit operations and 
will include such actions as— 

• H arassment of Enemy Personnel. When performed at ranges greater 
than 500 meters, harassment serves to lower the enemy's morale and 
inhibit his freedom of movement. 

• Infiltration. Before an attack, snipers may infiltrate enemy units' 
positions and establish themselves in the enemy's rear area. During the 
attack, the infiltrated snipers engage specific targets of opportunity to 
divert the enemy's attention from the attacking units and to disrupt his 
freedom of movement in his rear areas. 

• Interdiction. The snipers will delay or interdict reinforcing elements to 
a target and deny the enemy use of an area or routes by any means. 

• Multiple Team, Area Sniper Ambush. This type of ambush involves 
multiple sniper teams operating together to engage targets by timed or 
simultaneous fire. Each sniper will fire a fixed number of rounds, and 
the ambush will end when either the targets have been successfully 
engaged or the predetermined number of shots have been fired. 
Planning considerations must include how the ambush is to be 
initiated, how the snipers will communicate with each other, and what 
methods the sni pers wi 1 1 use to engage the targets. 

• Security and Surveillance. Snipers are employed to gather information 
or to confirm existing intelligence by long-term surveillance of a target 
site. They may also be used to provide early warning of impending 
counterattacks. Snipers will normally establish a hide position to 
conduct their surveillance. 

• Offensive Operations. During the advanced stages of the combat phase 
of a resistance movement, snipers may be used to detect and engage 
long-range targets that could impede the progress of the offensive 



5-22 



FM 3-05.222 



element. The teams must be ready to assume the defensive role 
immediately after the offensive operation. 

• Defensive Operations. Snipers are best used in defensive operations 
outside the forward line of troops (PLOT) to provide early warning of 
enemy approach, disorganize his attack, and cause him to deploy early. 
Snipers may also be used to delay the enemy's advance by interdicting 
enemy movements using a series of interlocking delay positions, thus 
allowing the friendly forces to withdraw. 

FOREIGN INTERNAL DEFENSE OPERATIONS 

5-72. The primary role of SF snipers in FID is that of a teacher. During the 
passive FID role, SF snipers will be in-country for training and advising only 
and will not have an active role. During active FID, the SF snipers could find 
themselves in both a trainer's role and an active role. In either case, passive 
or active, the primary tactics will be that of conventional warfare— offense, 
defense, and withdrawal. 

5-73. During active FID, the SF sniper will conduct counterguerrilla 
operations, sniper cordons and periphery observation posts (OPs), sniper 
ambushes, urban surveillance, and civil disorders. 

5-74. Sniper participation in RAP is the main line of attack in accomplishing 
counterguerrilla operations. Snipers can enhance the protective measures 
surrounding sensitive facilities or installations by setting up observation 
posts along routes of access, acting as part of a reaction force when the rear 
area has been penetrated or patrolling the area (as members of established 
security patrols). They can then operate in a stay-behind role once the 
security patrol has moved on. I n RAP operations, the sniper— 

• Protects critical installations and sites. 

• Covers gaps between units to avoid infiltration. 

• Prevents removal of obstacles. 

• Tracks enemy patrols known to have penetrated into the rear area. 

5-75. The sniper's ancillary skills in camouflage, stalking, surveillance, and 
deception are also useful in the FID environment. The impact of these talents is 
magnified when the sniper acts as a trainer. By training others he is, in effect, 
performing interdiction much more efficiently than he could alone. Appendix N 
provides a samplesniper range complex (SRC) for the trainer's use. 

SNIPER ELEMENT ORGANIZATION IN UWAND FID 

5-76. In a UW or FID role, the sniper elements organize above-team-level 
size with elements under the control of the commander and the S-2. 
Depending upon the availability of trained personnel, the sniper elements 
should organize as a squad at battalion level (10 men or 5 teams) and as a 
section at regimental or brigade level. A sniper coordinator is required at 
regimental level and desirableat battalion level. Heshould be assigned to the 
S-2/G-2 staff for intelligence purposes. However, he must work closely with 
the S-3/G-3 staff for planning purposes. The sniper coordinator should be a 
sniper-qualified senior NCO, warrant officer, or officer who is well versed in 
mission planning. He must also be strong enough to ensure that the sniper 



5-23 



FM 3-05.222 



teams are not improperly deployed. All other members of the squads, the 
platoon, and the platoon headquarters element must be sniper-qualified. 



DIRECT ACTION OPERATIONS 



5-77. DA operations are short-duration strikes and other small-scale 
offensive actions conducted by SOF to seize, destroy, or inflict damage on a 
specified target. When employed in DA missions, snipers will perform one or 
more of the foil owing four functions. 



Harassment 



5-78. Snipers use deliberate harassment to impede, destroy, or prevent 
movement of enemy units. The degree of harassment depends on the amount 
of time and planning put into the operation. Harassment is best suited for 
protracted or unconventional operations. During such operations sniper 
casualties will be high, and provisions for their replacement must be included 
in the harassment plan. 

Multiple Team, Area Sniper Ambush 

5-79. The "sniper ambush" is when multiple sniper teams operate together 
to engage targets by timed or simultaneous fire. Each sniper fires a fixed 
number of rounds; the ambush ends either after target engagement or after 
all shots are fired. The planners for each ambush should always consider how 
the ambush will start, how the snipers will communicate with each other, and 
how they wi 1 1 engage the targets i n the ki 1 1 zone. 



Sniper Cordon 



Interdiction 



5-80. A sniper cordon is a series of outposts surrounding a specific area. A 
sniper cordon can prevent the enemy from entering or leaving a target 
location. Snipers may operate in cordon operations by being integrated into 
the overall fire plan as a supporting force or in cordon areas as independent 
elements. Snipers should be used during cordon operations to maximize their 
precision long-range fire capabilities. Due to the snipers' limited volume of 
fire and reliance on stealth, they possess little capability to become decisively 
engaged during such operations. Once the snipers have been located, they 
may be suppressed by fire and maneuver or indirect fire. Therefore, the 
snipers' ability to hold or cordon an area will be directly commensurate to the 
enemy force encountered and the support from friendly units. 



5-81. Interdiction is preventing or hindering enemy use of an area or route 
by any means. When deployed for interdiction, the snipers can restrain 
dismounted avenues of approach. Their ability to interdict vehicular traffic is 
limited to harassment unless armed with large-caliber SWSs. Snipers can 
deploy with vehicular interdiction elements to harass the enemy when it is 
forced to dismount. They can also cause armor vehicles to "button up," 
making them more vulnerableto antitank weapons. 



5-24 



FM 3-05.222 



THE STRIKE FORCE OF DA OPERATIONS 

5-82. The size of the strike force depends on the mission, location of the 
target, and enemy situation. Planners tailor the strike force in size and 
capability to perform a specific mission. It can be a small team to interdict a 
personnel target or a larger force to destroy a large facility or plant. 
Regardless of size, most strike operations consist of command, security, 
support, and assault elements. Snipers can provide support to any of these 
elements depending on the objectives and needs of the commander. The 
requirements for the SF sniper in strike operations may include the elements 
discussed below. 

Command Element 

5-83. This element forms the primary command post and normally consists 
of the strike force commander and, as a minimum, his S-2/S-3 and fire 
support element controllers. The sniper coordinator also works with the 
command element. The snipers assigned to the command element are formed 
by the expedient pooling of strike force snipers. They are under the control of 
the sniping specialist. Regardless of their origin, pooled snipers stay in their 
original teams. Under the command element, snipers will be able to conduct 
reconnaissance and DA missions supporting the entire strike force or 
multiple missions supporting one or more strike force elements throughout 
the operation. Examples of these missions may include— 

• Reconnoitering theORPs, routes, or exfiltration sites. 

• Reconnoitering and observing the objective (once action is initiated, 
covert OP snipers may perform a DA function in support of the 
strike force). 

• Establishing a reserve to intervene or reinforce elements with precision 
rifle fire. 

• Screening danger areas and vulnerable flanks or sealing off the 
enemy rear. 

Security Element 

5-84. Snipers may operate in conjunction with a larger security force or 
independently in support of the security mission. When sniper teams work 
with a larger security force, they should not collocate with crew-served 
weapons. This step will ensure that sniper fire is not suppressed by enemy 
fire directed at the crew-served weapons. The element will determine sniper 
employment by the scope of the operation and personnel constraints. The 
security element's missions include— 

• Securing rallying points. 

• Providing early warning of enemy approach. 

• Blocking avenues of approach into the objective area. 

• Preventing enemy escape. 

• Acting as left, right, and rear security elements for the strike force. 

5-85. In smaller operations, the security element could consists entirely of 
snipers. This would reduce personnel requirements. In larger operations, a 



5-25 



FM 3-05.222 



larger, more flexible (antiarmor, demolitions) security force would be 
necessary, and snipers would serve to complement this security element's 
capabilities. For example, armored threats require augmentation by 
appropriate antiarmor weapons. Snipers can provide accurate long-range 
suppressive fire to separate infantry from their armored units and to force 
tanks to button up, which will hinder their ability to detect the launch of 
wire-guided missiles. The sniper team can employ large-bore sniper weapons 
to help delay and interdict light material targets. 

5-86. Snipers performing security missions in DA operations are well suited 
to perform successive or simultaneous missions. They also provide early 
warning of delaying and harassing reaction forces. Reaction forces located 
some distance from the objective will approach using vehicles or aircraft. The 
mobility assets of the reaction force can be dedicated to that mission and can 
subsequently present an actual threat to the strike force. Snipers may 
operate as part of the security force to interdict or harass reaction force 
avenues of approach or landing zones (if known or obvious). I n addition to the 
main role of security, the snipers may also— 

• Report information before an assault. 

• Support the assault force by fire (caution must be used here). 

• Assist in sealing the objective during the assault. 

• Maintain contact after the assault. 

• Act as a rear guard during the withdrawal of the assault force. 

Support Element 

5-87. This element of the strike force must be capable of placing accurate 
supporting fire on the objective. It must deliver a sufficient volume of fire to 
suppress the objective and provide cover to the assault element. It also 
provides fire support to cover the withdrawal of the assault element from 
the objective. 

5-88. Snipers in the support element provide discriminate fire in support of 
the assault force. The sniper's optics facilitate positive target identification 
and acquisition, which allows him to fire in close proximity to friendly forces 
with reduced risk of fratricide. This practice is opposed to more traditional 
automatic or indirect supporting fire that must terminate or shift as friendly 
forces approach the target area (referred to as "lift and shift"). At night, 
friendly troops can wear distinctive markings such as reflective tapes 
or infrared devices (visible to the sniper's night-vision equipment) to 
aid identification. 

5-89. When assigned to the support element, snipers should organize into 
four-man sniper teams (two pairs working together). There are several 
reasons for this type of organization. First, the sniper team leader can better 
control the snipers' rate and control of supporting fire. Second, sniper 
elements centrally located can better redeploy to critical locations to delay 
pursuing forces. Third, limited vantage points from which to deliver precision 
rifle fire may exist. Concentrating snipers at these vantage points may be the 
only effective way to maximize their capabilities of long-range precision rifle 



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FM 3-05.222 



fire. Again, as in the support role, snipers slnould not be collocated with crew- 
served weapon systems. 

5-90. When snipers are assigned to the support element, their mission 
should be specific. The effectiveness of sniper fire is not in the volume, but 
the precision with which it is delivered. Sniper missions include— 

• Disrupting C2 by engaging officers or NCOs directing the defense. 

• Suppressing guards and enemy security forces. 

• Providing precision covering force to the assault element. 

• Precision reduction of hard points. 

• Delaying pursuing forces after withdrawal. 

• Maintaining contact with displaced enemy forces after the attack. 

• Observing for enemy counterattacks or continued harassment of the 
enemy to disorganize any counterattack efforts. 

5-91. One advantage of snipers in the support element is that they do not 
have to lift and shift as crew-served weapons do once the assault element is 
on the objective. The snipers can continue to support through precision 
rifle fire. 



Assault E lement 



5-92. Snipers seldom operate with the assault element, mainly because of 
the need for rapid movement combined with suppressive fire. This type of 
maneuver seldom allows for the snipers' deliberate (sedentary) firing process. 
In addition, the assault element often participates in close-quarter battle- 
nullifying the snipers' standoff capability. However, snipers can support the 
element when C2 would be better effected or in circumstances where they can 
enhance the element's mission. They may provide cover fire when the assault 
element must pass through an area that is dead space from other supporting 
elements. However, the snipers would then support the assault element's 
movement to the objective and not be an actual part of it. They may also 
provide support by using aerial platforms (Appendix O). 

ENEMY CONSIDERATIONS DURING 
DIRECT ACTION OPERATIONS 

5-93. The type and number of enemy security forces likely to be manning 
the target or available for reaction must be considered in the plan. These 
forces may be static, foot-mobile, vehicle-mounted, or airmobile. 

Enemy Security Forces 

5-94. Mission planners will generally position armored vehicles on the 
perimeter; light vehicles will normally remain in a vehicle park. Armored 
vehicles are likely to become centers of resistance, around which defenders 
will concentrate during the action. This position will present the snipers with 
a high density of targets, particularly officers and NCOs who will tend to use 
static-armored vehicles as rally points. The lack of vehicular mobility on the 
part of the strike force renders them vulnerable to a mobile threat. I n such 
circumstances, snipers should be delegated the task of interdicting routes of 



5-27 



FM 3-05.222 



access to vehicle parks. Drivers of light vehicles are the primary targets; 
track or tank commanders are the prime armored-vehicle targets. 

On-Site Defensive Positions 

5-95. DA targets deep within enemy lines will generally have less protection 
and a lower defensive posture than those located close to the main battle 
area. Target site defenses can be either hasty or permanent. 

5-96. Hasty defensive positions provide less protection to defending 
personnel than prepared ones. Strike force snipers are able to engage such 
positions at a greater distance with more effectiveness due to the limited 
protection to the targets. Snipers should consider any object or location at the 
target site that affords protection to the enemy (for example, behind light 
vehicles or in buildings) as a hasty defensive position. 

5-97. Permanent defensive positions consist of bunkers, sandbagged fighting 
positions, or prepared buildings. Such targets present unique circumstances 
to the snipers. These well -protected targets, which often have narrow firing 
ports and are mutually supportive, make engagement difficult and require 
the snipers to move closer to the targets than normal. As the range to the 
targets decreases, the probability of detection and engagement from the 
enemy forces i ncreases. 

Enemy Reaction Force 

5-98. Strike force snipers functioning in a support capacity, or as part of the 
strike force security element, will primarily target the enemy reaction force. 

SPECIAL RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS 

5-99. The SF sniper offers some advantages to SR missions. He is well 
trained in surveillance and his ability to interdict material targets at extended 
range is often complementary to follow-on SR missions. If interdiction of C2 
systems is the goal of the follow-on mission, then snipers can carry significant 
potential destruction in the form of large-bore sniper rifles. 

5-100. Snipers make extensive use of fixed and roving surveillance to 
acquire targets or assess their vulnerabilities. They will normally establish a 
hide position to conduct their surveillance. Once hidden, they will continue 
noting detailed information in their observation log. The log will serve as a 
record of events and assist in mission debriefing. The snipers will report all 
PIR and IRs as required. 

5-101. Because of their mission-essential equipment, snipers are ideally 
suited to perform reconnaissance in conjunction with their primary DA 
mission. They can obtain information about the activity and resources of an 
enemy or potential enemy and secure data concerning the meteorological, 
hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area. 

5-102. Snipers may need to reconnoiter enemy positions that are of specific 
interest to supported units. Information gathered by snipers includes, but is 
not limited to the locations of— 

• FDCs. 

• Crew-served weapons. 



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FM 3-05.222 



• Tactical operations centers (TOCs). 

• Gaps in enemy wire. 

• Listening posts (LPs) and OPs. 

• Gaps between enemy units and positions. 

• Infiltration routes. 

5-103. Snipers may also infiltrate through enemy positions in support of 
offensive operations or to harass enemy rear areas. Once sniper teams have 
infiltrated enemy positions, their tasks may be to report information on— 

• Troop strength and movements. 

• Concentrations and reserve locations. 

• OPs and weapons locations. 

• Command, control, and communications facilities. 

COUNTERTERRORISM OPERATIONS 

5-104. The primary mission of SOF in counterterrorism (CT) is to apply 
specialized capabilities to preclude, preempt, and resolve terrorist incidents 
abroad. Snipers provide three primary functions in CT operations. They— 

• Deliver discriminate fire to interdict hostile targets. 

• Cover the entry teams into the objective area with rifle fire. 

• Provide the CT force commander with his most accurate target 
intelligence. 

5-105. In the last case, the commander will normally position the sniper in 
an ideal position to observe the enemy. Most frequently, this position will be 
the commander's only view of the target. 

5-106. Counterterrorism operations require extensive training and 
coordination. Most important, the sniper teams must know the plans and 
actions of the entry teams to avoid possible injury to friendly personnel, and 
they must fire when told to do so. Failure to engage and neutralize a target 
can have devastating consequences, similar to what occurred in the 1972 
Olympic games in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. Snipers did not 
neutralize their terrorist targets on command. The result was that the 
terrorists were free to execute the hostages. To compound the problem, the 
snipers were so confused that they shot and killed several of their own men. 
Of course, overzealous snipers can create results similar to what occurred in 
Los Angeles, California. Police snipers shot and killed a bank president who 
was indicating a gunman by pointing his finger. The overanxious police 
sniper thought the man was pointing a gun and shot him. Obviously, the line 
between shoot and do not shoot is thin and can be stretched thinner by haste 
or indecisiveness. 

5-107. Part of the solution to these problems lies in the selection and 
training process. During the selection process, an individual's mind is the one 
variable that a psychologist cannot effectively measure. In fact, oftentimes 
psychologists cannot agree on what traits to look for in a sniper. How does 
one pick a man to deliberately kill another man who presents no immediate 
threat to him personally? Unfortunately, the real test of a sniper comes only 



5-29 



FM 3-05.222 



when it is time to pull the trigger. Only then will the sniper's reliability 
definitely be known. 

5-108. Another problem that seems to manifest itself in CT scenarios is the 
Stockholm Syndrome. This type of reaction occurs when the sniper is unable 
to shoot a person who has become familiar to him. The syndrome manifests 
itself when the sniper has conducted constant surveillance of his target and 
becomes so familiar with the target's actions, habits, and mannerisms that 
the target becomes more human, almost well acquainted— too familiar to 
shoot. On the other hand, some reports have indicated the opposite to be true; 
some snipers hope to have the opportunity to shoot someone from some 
twisted, personal motivation. Perhaps this happened in Los Angeles. 
Nevertheless, these psychological extremes— eager or reluctant firers— are 
inappropriate to the sniper's function; the sniper must be somewhere in 
between. 

COMBAT SEARCH AND RESCUE 

5-109. In CSAR operations, the sniper's role is extremely limited because the 
mission is to rescue and not to interdict. However, the sniper can provide 
traditional long-range security and early warning to rescue forces. His ability 
to operate in denied areas can greatly assist the rescue forces by providing 
accurate information regarding the rescue. The sniper can infiltrate before 
the rescue and conduct surveillance of the rescue area unnoticed. The U.S. 
Air Force is considering using snipers with their pararescue units (in place of 
machine guns) to provide long-range security during rescue operations. This 
method would give them the benefit of selectively interdicting threat targets 
while not endangering innocent bystanders. 

COUNTERSNIPER 

5-110. A sniper team is the best asset available to a commander for a 
countersniper operation. The team plans and coordinates the operation to 
eliminate the enemy sniper threat. A countersniper operation occurs between 
two highly trained elements— the sniper team and the enemy sniper— each 
knowing the capabilities and limits of the other. 

5-111. A sniper team's first task is to determine if there is a sniper threat. If 
so, it then identifies information that may be gained from the unit in the 
operations area, such as— 

• Enemy soldiers in special camouflage uniforms. 

• Enemy soldiers with weapons in cases or drag bags, which includes: 

- Rifles of unusual configuration 

■ Long-barrel rifles. 

■ M ou nted tel escopes. 

■ Bolt-action rifles. 

• Single-shot fire at key personnel (commanders, platoon leaders, senior 
NCOS, or weapons crews). 

• Lack or reduction of enemy patrols during single-shot fires. 



5-30 



FM 3-05.222 



• Light reflecting from optical lenses. 

• Reconnaissance patrols reporting of small groups of enemy (one to 
three men) by visual sighting or tracking. 

• Discovery of single, expended casings (usually of rifle calibers 
7.62x54R, 7.62NM, 300WM, 338 Lapua) 

5-112. The sniper team next determines the best method to eliminate the 
enemy sniper. It— 

• Gathers information, which includes: 

■ Times of day precision fire occurs. 

■ Locations where enemy sniper fire was encountered. 

■ Locations of enemy sniper sightings. 

■ Material evidence of enemy snipers such as empty brass casings 
or equipment. 

• Determines patterns. 

5-113. The sniper team evaluates the information to detect the enemy's 
established patterns or routines. It conducts a map reconnaissance, studies 
aerial photos, or carries out a ground reconnaissance to determine travel 
patterns. The sniper must picture himself in the enemy's position and ask, 
"How would I accomplish this mission?" 

5-114. Once a pattern or routine is detected, the sniper team determines the 
best location and time to engage the enemy sniper. It also requests— 

• Coordinating routes and preplanned fires (direct and indirect). 

• Additional preplotted targets (fire support). 

• Infantry support to canalize or ambush the sniper. 

• Additional sniper teams for mutual supporting fire. 

• Baiting of likely engagement areas to deceive the enemy sniper into 
commitment by firing. 

• All elements be in place 12 hours before the expected engagement time. 

5-115. During a countersniper operation, the team must ignore battle activity 
and concentrate on one objective— the enemy sniper. When an enemy sniper is 
operating in a unit's area, the sniper team ensures that the unit uses the 
following passive countermeasures to defend against enemy sniper fire: 

• Do not establish routines— for example, consistent meal times, 
ammunition resupply, assembly area procedures, or day-to-day 
activities that have developed into a routine. 

• Conduct all meetings, briefings, or gatherings of personnel under cover 
or during limited visibility. 

• Cover or conceal equipment. 

• Remove rank from helmets and collars. Do not salute officers. Leaders 
should not use authoritative mannerisms. 



5-31 



FM 3-05.222 



• I ncrease OPs and use other methods to increase the unit's observation 
capabilities. All information should be consolidated at the S-2 for 
analysis and logged-in regardless of insignificance. 

• Brief patrols on what to look for, such as single, expended rounds or 
different camouflage materials. 

• Do not display awareness of the enemy's presence at anytime. 

• Be aware that some of the enemy snipers may be women. Patrols and 
OPs must not be misled when sighting a woman with a mounted 
telescope on her rifle. She is a deadly opponent. 

• Be aware of resupply operations by women and children into suspected 
or possible sniper locations. Watch for movement and scheduled 
patterns. 

CONVENTIONAL OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS 

5-116. Snipers can add deception to the battlefield and provide economy-of- 
force to allow the conventional force commander to focus combat power 
elsewhere. Commanders must also think of sniper operations in unilateral 
terms. The effect of snipers on a scale of ones and twos is small. However, 
when employed in coordinated actions on a broad front, their effect can be 
substantial, not only throughout the battlefield but also before, during, and 
after the battle. They can provide support to conventional units in the 
following critical phases of offensive operations: 

PREOFFENSIVE MISSIONS 

5-117. Any missions before offensive operations will primarily be in the deep 
battle area to gather information on the enemy's disposition. Snipers can help 
collect this information and interdict selected targets, if necessary. If the 
objective is to divert enemy assets from the main effort, then snipers can 
imitate the actions that the Russian partisans conducted against the 
Germans in World War II. The result of such actions can impair logistics 
operations and demoralize enemy soldiers in their own rear areas. The 
preoffensive missions are generally HUMI NT-oriented. However, the sniper 
can perform the following DA functions as a natural consequence of his 
proximity to the enemy as a HUMI NT asset. 



Reconnoitering 



5-118. The sniper's tasks can vary with each reconnoitering mission. Some of 
his functions are to— 

• Gather (real-time) information on enemy dispositions, terrain, 
and weather. 

• Penetrate enemy security zones in an effort to determine the extent 
and nature of enemy deception efforts. 

• Confirm or deny existing intelligence as requested by the commander 
or S-2. 

• Locate securable routes or axes of advance. 



5-32 



FM 3-05.222 



Harassment 



Infiltration 



Locate enemy reserve forces and the possible routes they could use to 
rei nforce the objective. 

Establish or modify preplanned fires of indirect weapons to more 
effectively reduce TOCs, FDCs, crew-served weapons, hard points, 
avenues of approach, and retreat. 

Locate enemy security measures, such as mines, obstacles, or barriers. 



5-119. This function serves to lower the enemy's morale and inhibit his 
freedom of movement within his own lines. It takes the feeling of a secure 
area away from the enemy and inhibits his ability to rest his troops. The 
sniper generally performs this type of harassment at ranges greater than 
500 meters. 



5-120. Before an attack, snipers infiltrate the gaps between enemy units and 
positions and establish themselves in the enemy's rear area. During the 
attack the infiltrated snipers will engage specific targets and targets of 
opportunity both on the main line of resistance and in the rear area. This 
method diverts the enemy's attention from the attacking units and disrupts 
the freedom of movement in its own rear areas. Specific targets engaged by 
infiltrating snipers include— 

• Enemy snipers. 

• Command, control, and communications facilities and personnel. 

• Crew-served weapons personnel. 

• Artillery and forward air controllers. 

• D i smou nted reserve forces. 



• Military policemen. 

• Wire repair and resupply parties. 



MISSIONS DURING THE OFFENSE 



5-121. Sniping during the offensive is DA-oriented. Snipers are attached to 
friendly units to provide immediate direct support by means of precision rifle 
fire. The main function of attached snipers will be the suppression of enemy 
crew-served weapons, enemy snipers, and C2 personnel. Snipers can also 
support the offensive by interdicting follow-on or reserve forces (such as 
second-echelon combat forces or logistics). Conventional snipers, assigned to 
their parent units, can also interdict key targets in the main battle area. Also, 
attached snipers can be used to screen the flanks of advancing units, cover 
dead space from supporting crew-served weapons, and engage specific 
selected targets of the defending enemy units. Snipers maintain pressure on 
the retreating forces to prevent assembly and reconsolidation. The sniper will 
pursue retreating forces until he reaches his limit of advance. Then he will 
prepare for postoffensive operations. 



5-33 



FM 3-05.222 



POSTOFFENSIVE MISSIONS 



Interdiction 



Security 



5-122. Snipers' postoffensive role begins during the consolidation of the 
objective. Snipers are deployed forward of the consolidating unit's OP or LP 
line. The snipers will observe for enemy assembly for counterattack and 
either harass with direct fire or call for indirect fire. Once the enemy begins 
movement to the line of departure, the sniper will interdict the advance of 
dismounted counterattacking forces or button up advancing armor. This 
interdiction will give the antitank weapons a better chance of success and 
survival. When sufficient numbers of snipers are available, hasty sniper 
ambushes are established to interdict patrols, probing elements, and enemy 
sniper teams that normally precede a counterattack. Snipers can also use 
these ambushes to harass the displaced enemy to prevent him from 
establishing a base to counterattack. Oneof the primary jobs of the sniper is 
to get the enemy to deploy early in the attack formation. This will cost the 
enemy positive control of his attack formation. 



5-123. In the interdiction mission, snipers push out beyond the range of 
friendly support in an effort to preinfiltrate reestablished first-echelon 
defenses, infiltrate second-echelon defenses, or engage counterattacking 
forces from the rear. They will interdict lines of communication in the 
enemy's rear areas and force him to commit more troops to the rear areas and 
weaken his forward lines. This can also cause the enemy to reinforce the 
wrong areas before the next attack. 



5-124. Because of their ability to remain undetected in close proximity to the 
enemy, snipers can maintain contact with displaced enemy forces. During 
consolidation, snipers range ahead of the main LP or OP line, determine the 
enemy's whereabouts, and continue to harass until the attack is resumed. 
Forward deployment also permits snipers to provide early warning of 
impending counterattacks. 



Counter sniping 



5-125. Displaced enemy forces will often result in individuals or small 
groups getting cut off from their parent units. Oftentimes snipers will stay 
behind to disrupt the attacker's consolidation efforts. As these threats are 
small, snipers can track down and eliminate stay-behinds and isolated 
pockets of resistance. At the very least, snipers can suppress them until 
suitable forces can be spared to deal with them. 

RESERVE MISSIONS 

5-126. In a reserve role, snipers can give support where needed. They can 
reinforce success or react to enemy incursions. They can also provide stopgap 
measures until the commander can rally forces that are more appropriate. 
Snipers can maintain security in their own rear areas by using stealth and 
unconventional skills to seek out enemy forces. Their main support roles are 
as follows: 

• Reinforcement involves attaching themselves directly to the unit 
engaged and adding their fires to those of the unit. 



5-34 



FM 3-05.222 



• Intervention enables the sniper to outflank the local resistance and 
suppress it with precision rifle fire. 

5-127. Snipers may also conduct a dismounted movement to contact by 
deploying before the movement. Once deployed, they will move along the 
route to reconnoiter the route and select sniper hide positions to secure the 
route for the moving element. Depending on the number of snipers available, 
it is possible to secure a corridor over 1,500 meters at the widest (depending 
on the terrain) and as deep as permitted by the number of sniper teams and 
terrain. During reconnaissance and combat patrols, snipers may function as 
part of the security or support elements. 

CONVENTIONAL DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS 

5-128. The SF sniper's support to conventional defensive operations is 
similar to offensive operations. He can lend support anywhere on the 
battlefield including deep, rear, and main battle areas. However, 
conventional snipers normally operate in the main battle area in concert with 
their parent units— making SF sniper support seldom necessary in this area. 
TheSF sniper's most important role is in the deep battle area. The rear battle 
area is also an area of employment, providing a rear-area threat exists. 

5-129. Sniper operations in the deep battle area can be used to keep enemy 
efforts off-balance and directed toward rear area protection. The more enemy 
assets the sniper eliminates from the deep battle area, the fewer forces 
the enemy will have to execute attacks against the main effort. The sniper 
can also provide information on enemy strengths, location of reserves, 
and intentions. 

SNIPER INTERDICTION 

5-130. J ust as in offensive operations, SOF units using snipers should deploy 
on a broad front to disrupt the enemy's order of battle. The main goal is to 
disrupt follow-on forces in the deep battle area. Snipers can assist in 
interdicting the enemy's soft underbelly— his unarmored logistics columns, 
fragile C2 nodes, and critical military weapons such as missiles and fire 
control equipment. 

5-131. Defensive operations that could involve the sniper are— 

• Area defense. 

• P er i meter defense. 

• Security forces. 

• Reverse slope defense. 

• Defense of built-up or fortified positions. 

• River line defense. 

• Mobile defense. 

• Economy-of -force. 

• Withdrawal operations. 

5-132. Threat doctrine calls for simultaneous attacks at critical nodes 
located in U.S. rear areas. The sniper is ideally suited to locate and interdict 



5-35 



FM 3-05.222 



the threat of enemy SO units that conduct such operations. The sniper uses 
the following methods to achieve these objectives: 



Harassment 



Delay 



5-133. Snipers operate best in defensive operations beyond the PLOT to 
provide early warning of the approaching enemy, disorganize his attack, and 
cause him to deploy early. If armored vehicles are being used, it will cause 
the vehicle commanders to button up early. Snipers should closely integrate 
in thesecurity force while performing this mission. 

5-134. Snipers can also work directly into the PLOT defensive positions or 
assume their positions after withdrawal of the security fire. Snipers in 
defense of the PLOT should operate similarly to the crew-served weapons. 
Snipers can obtain optimum results by maximizing their standoff range tothe 
targets, positioning on lucrative avenues of approach, and engaging targets of 
opportunity. Sniper positions should not be emplaced near obvious indirect 
fire targets. No matter how well concealed a hide is, if it is in the bursting 
radius of an indirect fire weapon, it can be compromised and destroyed. 

5-135. The use of skilled marksmen will enhance the overall combat 
effectiveness of the defensive positions. Skilled marksmen are not 
necessarily snipers. They are simply skilled rifle shots who, for whatever 
reason, have neither the inclination nor the background skill to be 
successful snipers. However, they do possess the ability to engage targets 
at long ranges. When equipped with special weapons, such as caliber .50 
or high-powered target rifles, they are particularly useful for conducting 
long-range harassment. 



5-136. When friendly forces need to withdraw from contact with the enemy, 
snipers can delay and impede the enemy's advance. They deploy throughout 
the withdrawing unit's sector. By using a series of interlocking delay 
positions, a handful of snipers can interdict dismounted avenues of approach 
and severely impede advancing enemy forces. They can use successive delay 
positions to permit the withdrawing forces to reassemble and establish new 
defensive positions. Sniper elements must remain mobile to avoid decisive 
engagement with the attacking enemy. They can operate during the 
withdrawal to cover obstacles with precision rifle fire and thus increase the 
effectiveness of the obstacles. They can also be the stay-behind element and 
attack the enemy forces' rear area and supply columns. 



Rear Area Protection 



5-137. In this mission, snipers can enhance the protective measures 
surrounding sensitive facilities or installations. They can strengthen these 
measures by either establishing OPs along routes of access, acting as a 
reaction force to rear area penetrations, or by patrolling. Snipers will not 
normally patrol by themselves but as members of established security patrols. 

5-138. The role of sniping in security operations is that of extending the 
depth and scope of the security effort. Specific roles include— 

• Protecting critical installations, sites, or projects from infiltration. 



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FM 3-05.222 



• Dominating the gaps between units to prevent infiltration by enemy 
combat elements or patrols. 

• Preventing the removal or breaching of obstacles. 

• Tracking enemy patrols known to have penetrated into the rear area. 

SNIPER SUPPORT TO DEFENSIVE HUMINT COLLECTION 

5-139. Using snipers in defensive operations provides a variety of means to 
maintain constant offensive pressure on the enemy. Sniping in the defense is 
dependent on the collection and use of information. When the snipers collect 
information for their personal use, it is known as targeting. Information 
collected for organizational use is but an element of the total HUMINT 
collection effort of the snipers' unit. OPs are the snipers' primary means of 
collecting information in the defense. I n the role of the observers, the snipers 
establish a series of OPs that dominate their sector. These OPs are of two 
types— overt and covert. 

Overt Observation Post 

5-140. This OP is not overt in that its location or function is known to the 
enemy, but that the snipers may engage high-priority targets from it. While 
firing from the OP may not necessarily reveal its exact location, it will 
certainly reveal the snipers' presence and the fact that such a location exists. 

Covert Observation Post 

5-141. The sniper uses this OP because it offers a commanding view of 
enemy positions. These posts should remain unknown to the enemy and 
should never be fired from, regardless of the temptation to do so. The 
information that the sniper collects from a well-sited covert OP is far more 
valuable than any targets that may appear. 

CIVIL DISTURBANCE ASSISTANCE 

5-142. The U.S. Army provides military assistance to civil authorities in civil 
disturbances when it is requested or directed lAW prevailing laws. When 
such assistance is requested, the military forces assist local authorities in the 
restoration and maintenance of law and order. 

5-143. Military assistance is considered as a last resort. When committed, 
involvement is to the degree justified by the circumstances to restore law and 
order with a minimum loss of life and property. When using force, the guiding 
principleshould be minimum force consistent with mission accomplishment. 

5-144. The sniper team's precision fire and observation abilities give 
authorities a way to detect and eliminate criminal threats with low risk to 
innocent personnel. The use of sniper teams in civil disorders must be 
planned and controlled. They may be an important factor in the control and 
elimination of weapons fire directed against riot control authorities. Snipers 
functioning in this role must operate under strict ROE. However the team 
must never allow itself to be overrun. The team should always plan its 
multiple covert positions. 



5-37 



FM 3-05.222 



CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN VIOLENCE 

5-145. Crowd behavior during a civil disturbance is essentially emotional 
and without reason. The feelings and the momentum generated have a 
tendency to make the whole group act like its worst members. Skillful 
agitators or subversive elements exploit these psychological factors during 
these disorders. Regardless of the reason for violence, the results may consist 
of indiscriminate looting and burning or open and violent attacks on officials, 
buildings, and innocent passersby. Rioters may set fire to buildings and 
vehicles to— 

• Block the advance of troops. 

• Create confusion and diversion. 

• Achieve goals of property destruction, looting, and sniping. 

5-146. In addition, organized rioters or agitators may use sniper fire to cause 
government forces to overreact. 

SNIPER SUPPORT DURING CIVIL DISTURBANCES 

5-147. The sniper team uses planning factors to estimate the amount of 
time, coordination, and effort that it will take to support local authorities, 
when faced with an enemy sniper threat or any type of civil disturbance such 
as a riot. For the team's mission to run smoothly and be a success, all 
participants should consider the following factors. 

Briefings 

5-148. Sniper teams must receive a detailed briefing on the areas and 
routes within the riot area. Representatives of local authorities should be 
assigned to the sniper teams for protection and communications with local 
indigenous personnel. 

Adequate Personnel 

5-149. The civil authorities should have sufficient sniper teams to provide 
maximum versatility to the riot control personnel. Sniper teams should also 
have at least one reaction team assigned to them. This capability will permit 
the team to direct a reaction team to a troublemaker for apprehension 
without the requirement to fire a weapon. These teams should consist of both 
military and local authority personnel. 

Observation Areas and Fields of Fire 

5-150. Observation areas and fields of fire are clearly defined by streets and 
highways. However, surveillance and detection are complicated by the 
numerous rooftops, windows, and doorways from which hostile fire may be 
directed. Sniper teams take maximum advantage of dominant buildings or 
rooftops to maintain continuous observation of a riot scene. Mutually 
supporting teams cover blind spots or dead space within the area. Sniper 
teams must place themselves at various heights to give them view into the 
different multistoried buildings. 



5-38 



FM 3-05.222 



Cover and Concealment 

5-151. Built-up areas offer excellent cover and concealment for both the 
rioters and the sniper teams. 

Avenues of Approach 

5-152. The best avenues of approach to a riot scene, or to points of 
observation and firing positions, are through building interiors. Movement 
through streets may be difficult and easily detected by rioters. Sniper teams 
should also consider underground passages such as cableways. 



Operations 



5-153. Sniper teams should operate in each established area. The teams 
remain at a sufficient distance from control troops to keep from getting 
involved in direct riot actions. 



Firing Positions 



Camouflage 



5-154. The firing position should provide the maximum stability, because 
precision fire is used to wound and not to kill. A stray shot that wounds or 
kills a woman, child, or unarmed rioter may only inflame an already riotous 
situation. When firing from a window, the sniper team should fire, if possible, 
from a supported position in the back of the room. The distance will muffle 
the muzzle blast and keep the muzzle flash from being noticed. If the sniper 
shows his rifle or part of his body, it may invite fire from weapons-equipped 
rioting personnel. When possible, he should use a silencer on his sniper rifle. 



5-155. Sniper teams should dress in drab or blending clothing to prevent 
identification or observation. However, snipers must wear an identifying 
mark so as not to be engaged by friendly forces. 

Civil Authorities 

5-156. Since civil authorities are in charge, snipers maintain a direct line of 
communications (LOG) with the civilian who permits or directs snipers to 
engage. Civil authorities also determine the caliber of weapon as well as the 
type of ammunition. However, usually anything within 300 meters is engaged 
with 5.56-mm ammunition unless special penetration capability is required. 

Sniper Team Control 

5-157. A key toeffectivesniper team useiscontrol. When directed toengagein 
countersniping activities, the sniper team's actions must be swift and precise. 
The sniper leader must maintain positive control over theteams at all times. 

Rules of E ngagement 

5-158. When countersniping is required, the sniper team should direct its 
precision fire to wound rather than to kill, if possible, unless in direct defense 
of human life. 



5-39 



FM 3-05.222 



• 



5-159. Snipers employed to counteract sniper fire from a street disorder 
require quick and decisive action. When directed to support the control forces 
during a street disorder, the sniper team- 
Deploys to rooftops or vantage points providing observation and fields 
of fire into the riot area. 

I nstitutes communications with the commander. 
Begins observation immediately and continues it. 
Relays information continuously to the commander. 
Conducts countersniping actions as directed. 



5-160. During civil disorders, rioters may seize control of buildings for the 
purpose of using the vantage points of rooftops or windows from which to 
direct hostile sniper fire on riot control forces. The sniper team may have to 
provide covering fire to allow the searching or clearing team to approach and 
clear the building. On the other hand, the sniper may have to use precision 
fire to engage the hostile sniper if the hostile sniping is directed at control 
authorities in mob control actions. 

5-161. Upon identifying or locating a riotous sniper who is directing fire at 
fire-fighting personnel, the sniper immediately reacts to reduce the hostile 
sniper fire. He directs this countersniper fire with accuracy to kill. 

5-162. Civil authorities must try to quickly control looting because it may 
also lead to more serious acts of murder and arson, often against innocent 
nonpartici pants. The sniper team's employment to assist in looting control is 
mainly for observation, communication, and to act as a covering force should 
the looters fire upon the control forces. When control forces are fired upon, 
the sniper team immediately engages the riotous sniper to facilitate 
apprehension by the control forces. 

5-163. The sniper team's role in support of riot control forces is equally 
important during the hours of darkness. Optical equipment, to include NVDs, 
allows the sniper team to provide prolonged night observation. Therefore, the 
team can sufficiently accompany patrol forces, man observation posts and 
roadblocks, or cover control troops during mob control activities. 

5-164. Use of snipers during civil disturbances can become a source of 
greater agitation among the rioters. Civil authorities should publicly remove 
compromised snipers while leaving the other snipers in place. In many 
instances this removal will embolden the agitators and permit rapid 
identification for quick apprehension by control personnel. I n the same vein, 
firers may become more relaxed and show themselves for easier identification 
by the posted countersnipers. 



5-40 



Chapter 6 

Sniper Operations in Urban Terrain 

Snipers are extremely effective in urban terrain. Tlieir long-range 
precision fire can engage targets at a distance; their advanced optics can 
discriminate individual point targets to save innocent bystanders or 
protect property; and their observation skills can offer superior 
intelligence-collection capabilities. In an urban environment, the sniper is 
both a casualty producer and an intimidating psychological weapon. 



URBAN TERRAIN 

6-1. Urban terrain consists mainly of man-made structures. Buildings are 
the main components of urban terrain. They provide cover and concealment, 
limit fields of fire and observation, and impair movement. Thick-walled 
buildings provide excellent protection from hostile fire. 

6-2. Urban streets are generally avenues of approach. However, forces 
moving along streets are often channalized by buildings and terrain that offer 
minimal off-road maneuver space. Obstacles on streets prove difficult to 
bypass, due to these restrictive avenues of approach. 

6-3. Underground systems found in some urban areas are easily overlooked 
but can be important to the outcome of operations. They include subways, 
sewers, cellars, and utility systems. 

6-4. Civilians will be present in urban operations, often in great numbers. 
Concern for the safety of noncombatants may restrict fire and limit maneuver 
options available to the commander. 

CATEGORIES OF URBAN TERRAIN 

6-5. The world is largely urban in terms of population concentration. 
Commanders categorize urban terrain as large cities, towns and small cities, 
villages, and strip areas. 

Large Cities (population greater than 100,000) 

6-6. I n Europe, other than theformer Soviet Union, there are approximately 
410 cities with a population of more than 100,000. Large cities frequently 
form the core of a larger, densely populated urban complex consisting of the 
city, its suburban areas, and small towns. Such complexes have the 
appearance of a single large and continuous city containing millions of people 
and occupying vast areas of land. 



6-1 



FM 3-05.222 



Towns and Small Cities (population of 3,000 to 100,000) 

6-7. These areas are mostly located along major lines of communications and 
situated in river valleys. Similar to larger cities, these areas are continuing 
to expand and will eventually form new concentrations or merge with 
existing ones. 

Villages (population of less than 3,000) 

6-8. In most cases, villages are agriculturally oriented and usually exist 
among the more open cultivated areas. 



Strip Areas 



6-9. These built-up areas generally form connecting links between villages 
and towns. These areas also exist among LOCs leading to larger complexes. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF URBAN TERRAIN 

6-10. Within the city, urban terrain differs based on size, location, and 
history. The areas within the city are generally categorized as follows: 

• Industrial Areas and Residential Sprawl. Residential areas consist of 
some houses or small dwellings with yards, gardens, trees, and fences. 
Street patterns are normally rectangular or curving. Industrial areas 
consist of one- to three-story buildings of low, flat-roofed factories or 
warehouses, generally located on or along major rail and highway 
routes. I n both regions, there are many open areas. 

• Core Periphery. The core periphery consists of narrow streets 
(12 to 20 meters wide) with continuous fronts of brick and heavy- 
walled concrete buildings. The height of the buildings is generally 
uniform, two to three stories in small towns and five to ten stories 
in large cities. 

• City Cores and Outlying High-Rise Areas. Typical city cores of today 
are made of high-rise buildings that vary greatly in height and allow 
for more open space between buildings. Outlying high-rise areas are 
dominated by this open-construction style to a greater degree than city 
cores. Generally, streets form a rectangular pattern. 

• Commercial Ribbons. These are rows of stores, shops, or boutiques 
built along either side of major streets through the built-up areas. 
Generally, these streets are 25 meters wide or wider. The buildings are 
uniformly two to three stories tall. 

NATURE OF URBAN COMBAT 

6-11. Urban combat usually occurs when a city is between two natural 
obstacles and it cannot be bypassed, the seizure of the city contributes to the 
attainment of an overall objective, or political or humanitarian concerns 
require the seizure or retention of the city. 

6-12. I n the city, the ranges of observation and fields of fire are reduced by 
the structures as well as the smoke and dust of combat. Targets will generally 
be seen briefly at ranges of 200 meters or less. 



6-2 



FM 3-05.222 



6-13. Units fighting in urban areas often become isolated by an enemy. 
Therefore, snipers must have the skill, initiative, and courage to operate 
effectively while isolated from their unit. Combat in more up-to-date nations 
can no longer avoid urban areas; therefore, snipers must train and be 
psychologically prepared for the demands of urban combat. 

6-14. The defender will generally have the advantage over the attacker 
in urban combat. The defender occupies strong positions, whereas the 
attacker must expose himself to advance. Also, the greatly reduced LOS 
ranges, built-in obstacles, and compartmented terrain require the 
commitment of more troops for a given frontage. Troop density may be 
three to five times greater for both attacker and defender in urban 
combat than in natural environments. 

6-15. Density of structures degrades radio communications. This factor, 
combined with limited observation, makes control of forces difficult. The well- 
established defender will probably use wire communications to enhance 
control, thus adding to his advantage. 

6-16. Soldiers may encounter a greater degree of stress during urban 

combat. Continual close combat, intense pressure, high casualties, the 

fleeting nature of targets, and fire from an unseen enemy may produce 
increased psychological strain and physical fatigue. 

6-17. Commanders may have to restrict their use of weapons and tactics to 
minimize collateral damage. This restriction may be necessary to preserve a 
nation's cultural heritage and gain the support of the population. In such 
cases, snipers are ideally suited to deliver discriminatory fire against 
selected targets. 

6-18. Attacks will generally limit artillery fires to the direct fire mode. Units 
use this method to avoid reducing the city to rubble. Direct fire causes few 
casualties and tends to enhance the defender's fortifications and concealment. 
It also restricts the attacker's avenues of approach. 

6-19. Forces engaged in urban fighting use large quantities of munitions. 
Units committed to urban combat must also have special equipment, such as 
grappling hooks, ropes, snaplinks, construction materials, axes, sandbags, 
and ladders. 

6-20. Urban combat historically has presented chances for looting. Looting 
can break down discipline, reduce alertness, increase vulnerability, and delay 
the progress of the unit. It also alienates the civilian population. 

EVALUATING URBAN TERRAIN 

6-21. When the sniper evaluates urban terrain, he should consider the 
foil owing factors: 

• Observation and Fields of Fire Buildings on the edge of a city provide 
better fields of fire than buildings in the interior. In the city, tall 
buildings with numerous windows often provide the best fields of fire, 
especially if the buildings have spaces between them. However, the 
sniper should never choose the outermost buildings as they are usually 
subjected to the greater amount of fire and preparatory bombardment. 



6-3 



FM 3-05.222 



• Avenues of Approach. The best way to gain entry into a building is from 
the top. Therefore, the most important avenue of approach to look for is 
one that quickly leads to the top (fire escapes, drainpipes, or adjacent 
buildings). Personnel must protect these when the sniper is in the 
defense and allow him use when required. 

• Ke/ Control Points. The key points in a building are entrances, hallways, 
and stairs; troops that control these areas control the building. 

• Obstacles. Doors and fire barriers are common in commercial 
buildings. They become obstacles if they are shut and secured. 
Furniture and appliances can also be obstacles in a building. Snipers 
can also use barbed wire effectively inside a building because it 
further restricts movement. 

• Cover and Concealment Buildings with brick walls and few, narrow 
windows provide the best balance between cover and concealment and 
fields of fire. Roofs provide little protection; snipers usually have better 
protection in the lower stories than directly under the roof. (An exception 
to this rule is the parking garage.) Floor layouts with many small rooms 
provide more protection than floor layouts with larger rooms. 

• Intra-City Distribution of Building Types. The sniper can generally 
determine the layout of a city by the distribution of the buildings 
within the city. Types and layout are as follows: 

■ Mass construction buildings (older apartments and hotels) are the most 
common structures in old city cores and older built-up areas (two- 
thirds of the total area). They are usually constructed of bricks or 
cement block. 

■ Frame and heavy clad, steel and concrete-framed, as well light clad, 
glass, multistory buildings are found in the core area— a city's most 
valuable land— where, as centers of economic and political power they 
have potentially high military significance. 

■ Open spaces (for example, parks, athletic fields, and golf courses) 
account for about 15 percent of an average city's area. M ost of this area 
is suitable for airmobile operations. 

■ Frame and light clad, wood, and cosmetic brick structures dominate 
residential sprawl areas. 

• Environmental Considerations. Environmental factors will influence 
the effectiveness of the sniper. He should closely evaluate these factors 
during the selection and preparation of the urban sniper hide site. 

6-22. Population density will affect the ease of movement to and from the 
hide as well as the ability of the team to remain undetected. The sniper must 
also consider the safety of the local civilian population. Dependent upon the 
type of operation, eliminating civilian collateral damage may bean overriding 
factor for measuring success. In urban areas, the sniper team must be 
prepared to deal with pet animals. If these pets pose a threat to the sniper 
team (detection or actual attack), it may be necessary to eliminate or silence 
the pets. Snipers should be aware of the possible consequences if these 
animals should suddenly disappear. 



6-4 



FM 3-05.222 



6-23. The media, in the form of international news television and radio 
commentators, will probably be present in some strength in all future 
conflicts. Their presence may compromise or negate the effectiveness of the 
snipers' mission and must be a consideration. 

6-24. Glass or windows can cause problems for the sniper. Depending on the 
mission, the sniper may be able to remove the glass during hide construction. 
If not, he must devise a method of emergency glass removal. 

6-25. Natural and artificial lighting will impact on the effectiveness of 
standoff optics and NVDs. All lights in the hide should be off and secured or 
deactivated to avoid inadvertent activation. 

6-26. Ambient noise levels may aid in the occupation and construction of the 
hide. It could also provide a desirable time window for the snipers to engage 
targets. In urban areas, most noise levels will go in cycles from high levels 
during the day to low levels at night. 

LINE-OF-SIGHT FACTORS 

6-27. Streets serving areas composed mostly of one type of building normally 
have a common pattern. Street widths are grouped into three major classes: 

• Narrow (7 to 15 meters)— such places as medieval sections of 
European cities. 

• Medium (15 to 25 meters)— newer, planned sections of most cities. 

• Wide (25 to 50 meters)— areas where buildings are located along broad 
boulevards or set far apart on large parcels of land. 

6-28. When a street is narrow, observing or firing into windows of a building 
across the street can be difficult because an observer must look along the 
building rather than into the windows. When the street is wide, the observer 
has a better chance to look and fire into and out of the window openings. 

6-29. The same limitation on LOS occurs when looking up or down 
tall buildings. 

SOURCES OF INFORMATION IN URBAN TERRAIN 

6-30. Operations in urban terrain require detailed intelligence. Snipers 
should have the following materialsfor planning operations: 

• Maps and Aerial Photos. Although tactical maps do not show man- 
made objects in enough detail for tactical operations in urban terrain, 
they do show the details of terrain adjacent to urban areas. The sniper 
should supplement tactical maps with both vertical and oblique aerial 
photos. From the aerial photos, the sniper should construct plan view 
sketches to locate the best LOS positions. 

• Civil Government and Local Military Information. The sniper can 
obtain considerable current information on practically all details of a 
city from civil governments and local military forces. Items include: 

■ Large-scale city maps. 

■ Diagrams of underground sewer, utility, transport, and miscellaneous 
systems. 



6-5 



FM 3-05.222 



■ Key public buildings and rosters of key personnel. 

■ Size and density of the population. 

■ Police and security capabilities. 

■ Civil defense, air raid shelters, and firefighting capabilities. 

■ Utility systems, medical facilities, and mass communications facilities. 

CAMOUFLAGE TECHNIQUES FOR URBAN TERRAIN 

6-31. To survive in urban combat, the sniper must supplement cover and 
concealment with camouflage. He must study the surroundings in the area to 
properly camouflage himself. He must make the firing positions look like the 
surrounding terrain. For instance, if there is no damage to buildings, he will 
not make loopholes for firing and will use only the materials needed. Any 
excess material can reveal his position. For example, if defending the city 
park, the sniper will use the entire park for resources; he will not denude a 
small area near the position for camouflage material. 

6-32. Buildings provide numerous concealed positions. Thick masonry, 
stone, or brick walls offer excellent protection from direct fire and provide 
concealed routes. If the tactical situation permits, the sniper will inspect 
positions from the enemy's viewpoint. He will conduct routine checks to see if 
the camouflage remains material-looking and actually conceals the position. 
He should not remove his shirt because exposed skin reflects light and could 
attract the enemy's attention. 

6-33. When using urban camouflage techniques, the sniper must consider 
the following: 

• Use of Shadows. Buildings in urban areas throw sharp shadows. The 
sniper can use the shadow to aid in concealment during movement. He 
will avoid lighted areas around windows and loopholes. A lace curtain 
or a piece of cheesecloth provides additional concealment to snipers in 
interiors of rooms, if curtains are common in the area. 

• Color and Texture. The need to break up the silhouette of helmets and 
individual equipment exists in urban areas as elsewhere. However, 
burlap or canvas strips are a more effective camouflage garnish than 
foliage. Predominant colors are normally browns, tans, and sometimes 
grays, rather than greens; but the sniper should evaluate each 
camouflage location separately. 

• Dust In weapons emplacements, the sniper should use a wet blanket, 
canvas, or type of cloth to keep dust from rising when the weapons 
are fired. 

• Background. Snipers must pay attention to the background to ensure 
that they are not silhouetted or skylined, but rather blend into their 
surroundings. Use of a neutral drop cloth to his rear will help the 
sniper blend with his background. 

• Common Camouflage Errors. To defeat enemy urban camouflage, the 
sniper should look for errors such as tracks or other evidence of 
activity, shine or shadows, unnatural or peculiar colors or textures. 



6-6 



FM 3-05.222 



muzzle flash smoke or dust, unnatural sounds and smells, and finally, 
movements. Things to remember when camouflaging include— 

■ Use dummy positions to distract the enemy and make him reveal his 
position by firing. 

■ Usetheterrain and alter camouflage habits to suit the surroundings. 

■ Do not forget deceptive camouflage of buildings. 

■ Continue to improve positions. Reinforce fighting positions with 
sandbags or other shrapnel and blast absorbing material. 

■ Do not upset the natural look of the area. 

■ Do not make positions obvious by clearing away too much debris for 
fields of fire. 

■ Choose firing ports in inconspicuous spots when available. 

INFILTRATION AND EXFILTRATiON IN URBAN TERRAIN 

6-34. A sniper can more easily infiltrate into the outskirts of a town because 
the outskirts are usually not strongly defended. Its defenders may only have 
a series of antitank positions, security elements on the principal approach, or 
positions blocking the approaches to key features in the town. The strong 
points and reserves are deeper in the city. 

6-35. As part of a larger force, the sniper moves by stealth on secondary 
streets using cover and concealment of back alleys and buildings. These 
moves enable him to assist in seizing key terrain features and isolating 
enemy positions, thus aiding following units' entry into the urban area. 
Sniper teams may also infiltrate into the city after the initial force has seized 
a foothold and move into their respective sniper positions. 

6-36. Snipers may use mortar and artillery fire to attract the enemy's 
attention and cover the sound of infiltrating troops. They should infiltrate 
when visibility is poor; chances of success are greater if there are no civilians 
in the area. Snipers may also infiltrate into a city (as part of a larger force) 
during an airborne or airmobile operation. 

6-37. During exfiltration, snipers must be extremely careful to avoid 
detection. As in infiltration, snipers must use stealth and all available cover 
and concealment when leaving their positions. Snipers should always try to 
exfiltrate during darkness. 

MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES IN URBAN TERRAIN 

6-38. Movement in urban areas is one of the first fundamental skills that a 
sniper must master. He must practice movement techniques until they 
become second nature. To minimize exposure to enemy fire, the urban sniper 
must move so that he— 

• Does not silhouette himself, but keeps low at all times. 

• Avoids open areas (streets, alleys, parks). 

• Selects the next covered position before moving. 

• Conceals movement by using buildings, rubble, foliage, smoke, or 
limited visibility. 



6-7 



FM 3-05.222 



• Advances rapidly from one position to another, but not so rapidly that 
he creates dust clouds or noise that will help the enemy locate him. 

• Does not mask his covering fire. 

• Remains alert, ready for the unexpected. 

6-39. Specific movement techniques used frequently in urban operations 
must be learned by all snipers. They are— 

• Crossing a Wall. After the sniper has reconnoitered the other side, he 
quickly rolls over the wall, keeping a low silhouette. The speed and the 
low silhouette will deny the enemy a good target. 

• Moving Around a Corner. Corners are dangerous. The sniper must 
observe the area around the corner before he moves beyond the corner. 
The most common mistake that a sniper makes at a corner is allowing 
his weapon to extend beyond the corner, exposing his position 
(flagging). Also, a sniper should not show his head at the height that an 
enemy soldier would expect to see it. When using the correct technique 
for looking around a corner, the sniper lies flat on the ground and does 
not extend his weapon beyond the corner of the building. He exposes 
his head or a hand-held mirror (at ground level) only enough to permit 
observation around the corner. 

• Moving Past Windows. When using the correct technique for passing a 
window, the sniper stays below the window level, taking care not to 
silhouette himself in the window. He hugs the side of the building. An 
enemy gunner inside the building would have to expose himself to fire 
from another position if he wished to engage the sniper. 

• Moving Past Basement Windows. When using the correct procedure of 
negotiating a basement window, the sniper stays close to the wall of the 
building and steps or jumps over the window without exposing his legs. 

• Using Doorways. The sniper should not use doorways as entrances or 
exits. If he must use a doorway as an exit, he should move quickly 
through it to his next covered position, staying as low as possible to 
avoid silhouetting himself. 

• Moving Parallel to a Building. At times, it may not be possible to use 
interiors of buildings for a route of advance. To correctly move along 
the outside of a building, the sniper moves along the side of the 
building, staying in the shadows, presenting a low silhouette, and 
moves deliberately to his next position. He must plan one position 
ahead of his next position. This will prevent getting into a dead-end 
position with nowhere to go. 

• Crossing Open Areas. Snipers should avoid open areas such as streets, 
alleys, and parks whenever possible. However, they can be crossed 
safely if the sniper applies certain fundamentals. Even using the 
correct method for crossing, the sniper may employ a distraction or 
limited visibility to conceal his movement. He crosses the open area at 
the shortest distance between two points. 

6-40. Before moving from one position to another, a sniper should make a 
visual reconnaissance and select the position that will give him the best cover 



6-8 



FM 3-05.222 



and concealment. At the same time, he should select the route that he will 
take to that position. 

NOTE: The sniper team should not move together when crossing from one 
building to another or across an open area. 

BUILDING ENTRYTECHNIQUES 

6-41. When entering a building, a sniper may be required to enter by means 
other than through doorways or reach top levels of buildings by means other 
than stairs. 

6-42. The sniper team can use various means, such as ladders, drainpipes, 
vines, helicopters, or the roofs and windows of adjoining buildings, to reach 
the top floor or roof of a building. Additional aids and methods to reach 
higher levels include— 

• The two-man lift, supported and unsupported; the two-man lift with 
heels raised; the one-man lift; the two-man pull; and individual 
climbing techniques. These techniques are more commonly used to gain 
entry into areas at lower levels. 

• Ladders or grappling hooks with knotted ropes. By attaching 
a grappling hook to the end of a scaling rope, a sniper can scale 
a wall, swing from one building to another, or gain entry to an 
upstairs window. 

• Rappelling. The sniper can use this combat technique to descend from 
the roof of a tall building toother levels or to a window. 

SNIPER SUPPORT IN URBAN OPERATIONS 

6-43. A sniper should be given general areas (buildings or a group of 
buildings) in which to position himself, but he selects the best positions for 
engagements. Sniper positions should cover obstacles, roofs, gaps in the final 
protective fires, and dead space. The sniper also selects numerous secondary 
and supplementary positions to cover his areas of responsibility. He should 
think three-dimensional ly. 

6-44. The sniper determines his engagement priorities by the relative 
importance of the targets to the effective operations of the enemy. The 
following are normally sniper targets: 

• Enemy snipers. 

• Key leaders. 

• Tank commanders. 

• Direct fire-support weapons crewmen. 

• Crew-served weapons personnel. 



6-9 



FM 3-05.222 



• Forward observers. 

• Radiotelephone operators. 

• Protected equipment. 

6-45. The characteristics of built-up areas and the nature of urban warfare 
impact on both the effectiveness of the SWS and how the sniper can use it. 
The sniper must consider the following basic factors during urban operations: 

• Relative Location oftheShooter and theTargd:. Both the target and the 
shooter may be inside or outside of buildings, or either one may be 
inside a building while the other is outside. 

• Structural Configuration of Buildings. The basic classes of structures 
encountered in a built-up area can generally be classified as concrete, 
masonry, or wooden. However, any one building may include a 
combination of these materials. All buildings offer concealment, 
although the degree of protection varies with the material used. 

• Firing Ranges and Angles. Engagement ranges may vary from 
distances of less than 100 meters up to the maximum effective range of 
a sniper system. Depression and elevation limits may create dead 
space. Target engagement from oblique angles, either vertical or 
horizontal, demands increased marksmanship skills. Urban areas often 
limit snipers to firing down or across streets, but open spaces of urban 
areas permit engagements at long ranges. 

• Visibility Limitations. Added to the weather conditions that limit 
visibility are the urban factors of target masking and increased dead 
space caused by buildings and rubble. Observation through smoke, 
dust, and concealment offered by shaded areas, rubble, and man-made 
structures influence visibility. 

DURING AN ATTACK IN URBAN TERRAIN 

6-46. Snipers employed during the attack of a built-up area are usually 
divided into three phases: 

• Phase I should allow snipers to isolatethe battle area by seizing terrain 
features that dominate the avenues of approach. Snipers deliver long- 
range precision fire at targets of opportunity. 

• Phase 1 1 consists of the advance to the built-up area and seizure of a 
foothold on its edge. It is during this period that snipers displace 
forward and assume their initial position from which to support 
continuation of the attack. 

• Phase III consists of the advance through the built-up area I AW the 
plan of attack. Sniper teams should operate in each zone of action, 
moving with and supporting the infantry units. They should operate at 
a sufficient distance from the riflemen to keep from getting involved in 
firefights but close enough to kill more distant targets that threaten 
the advance. Some sniper teams can operate independently of the 
infantry on missions of search for targets of opportunity, particularly 
the search for enemy snipers. 



6-10 



FM 3-05.222 



6-47. Snipers that are in a defensive posture should place themselves in 
buildings that offer the best long-range fields of fire and all-around 
observation. They are assigned various missions, such as— 

• Providing countersniper fire. 

• Firingat targets of opportunity. 

• Denying the enemy access to certain areas or avenues of approach. 

• Providing fire support over barricades and obstacles. 

• Observing the flank and rear areas. 

• Supporting counterattacks. 

• Preventing enemy observation. 

INTERNAL SECURITY OPERATIONS 

6-48. Commanders can use snipers in internal security operations during 
urban guerrilla warfare and hostage situations. The following paragraphs 
explain each situation. 

Urban Guerrilla Warfare 

6-49. I n this type of environment, the sniper dominates the AO by delivery 
of selective, aimed fire against specific targets as authorized by local 
commanders. Usually this authorization comes when targets are about to 
employ firearms or other lethal weapons against the peacekeeping force or 
innocent civilians. The sniper's other role, almost equally as important as his 
primary role, is the gathering and reporting of intelligence. Within the above 
roles, some specific tasks that may be assigned include— 

• When authorized by local commanders, engaging dissidents or urban 
guerrillas who are involved in hijacking, kidnapping, or holding 
hostages. 

• Engaging urban guerrilla snipers as opportunity targets or as part of a 
deliberate clearance operation. 

• Covertly occupying concealed positions to observe selected areas. 

• Recording and reporting all suspicious activities in the area 
of observations. 

• Assisting in coordinating the activities of other elements by taking 
advantage of hidden observation posts. 

• Providing protection for other elements of the peacekeeping force, 
including firemen and repair crews. 

6-50. In urban guerrilla operations, there are several limiting factors that 
snipers would not encounter in unconventional warfare. Some of these 
limitations follow: 

• There is no forward edge of the battle area (F E B A) and therefore no "no 
man's land" in which to operate. Snipers can therefore expect to 
operate in entirely hostile surroundings in most circumstances. 

• The enemy is hidden from or perfectly camouflaged among the 
everyday populace that surrounds the sniper. The guerrilla force 
usually uses an identifying clothing code each day to distinguish 



6-11 



FM 3-05.222 



themselves from civilians. This code is a PI R each day. The sooner the 
sniper can begin to distinguish this code, the easier his job will be. 

• In areas where confrontation between peacekeeping forces and the 
urban guerrillas takes place, the guerrilla dominates the ground 
entirely from the point of view of continued presence and observation. 
He knows every yard of ground; it is ground of his own choosing. 
Anything approximating a conventional stalk to and occupation of a 
hide is doomed to failure. 

• Although the sniper is not subject to the same difficult conditions as he 
is in conventional war, he is subject to other pressures. These include 
not only legal and political restraints but also requirements to kill or 
wound without the motivational stimulus normally associated with 
the battlefield. 

• In conventional war, the sniper normally needs no clearance to fire 
his shot. In urban guerrilla warfare, the sniper must make every 
effort possible to determine the need to open fire, and that doing so 
constitutes reasonable or minimum force under the circumstances. 

Hostage Situations 

6-51. Snipers and commanding officers must appreciate that even a well- 
placed shot may not always result in the instantaneous incapacitation of a 
terrorist. Even the best sniper, armed with the best weapon and bullet 
combination, cannot guarantee the desired results. Even an instantly fatal 
shot may not prevent the death of a hostage when muscle spasms in the 
terrorist's body trigger his weapon. As a rule then, the commander should use a 
sniper only when all other means of solving a hostage situation have been 
exhausted. 

6-52. Accuracy Requirements. The sniper must consider the size of the 
target in a hostage situation. The head is the only place on the human body 
where a bullet strike can cause instantaneous death. (Generally, the normal 
human being will live 8 to 10 seconds after being shot directly in the heart.) 
The entire head of a man is a relatively large target, measuring 
approximately 7 inches wide and 10 inches high. But the area where a bullet 
strike can cause instantaneous death is a much smaller target. The portion of 
the brain that controls all motor reflex actions is the medulla. When viewed 
at eye level, it is located directly behind the eyes, runs generally from ear lobe 
to ear lobe, and is roughly 2 inches wide. In reality then, the size of the 
sniper's target is 2 inches, not 7 inches. The easiest way for the sniper to view 
this area under all circumstances is to visualize a 2-inch ball (the medulla) 
directly in the middle of the 7-inch ball (the head). 

6-53. Application of the windage and elevation rule makes it clear that the 
average sniper cannot and should not attempt to deliver an instantly killing 
head shot beyond 200 meters. To ask him to do so requires him to do 
something that the rifle and ammunition combination available to him will 
not do. 



6-12 



FM 3-05.222 



6-54. Position Selection. Generally, the selection of a firing position for a 
hostage situation is not much different from selecting a firing position for any 
other form of combat. The same guidelines and rules apply. The terrain and 
situation will dictate the choice of firing positions. 

6-55. Although the commander should use the sniper only as a last resort, 
he should place the sniper into position as early as possible. Early positioning 
will enable him to precisely estimate his ranges, positively identify both 
the hostages and the terrorists, and select alternate firing positions for use if 
the situation should change. He is also the main HUM I NT asset to the 
command element. 



Command and Control 



6-56. Once the commander decides to use the sniper, all C2 of his actions 
should pass to the sniper team leader. At no time should the sniper receive 
the command to fire from someone not in command. When he receives 
clearance to fire, then he and the sniper team leader alone will decide 
exactly when. 

6-57. If the commander uses more than one sniper team to engage one or 
more targets, it is imperative that the same ROE apply to all teams. 
However, it will be necessary for snipers to communicate with each other. 
The most reliable method is to establish a "land line" or TA-312 telephone 
loop much like a gun loop used in artillery battery firing positions. This loop 
enables all teams to communicate with all the others without confusion about 
frequencies or radio procedures. 



SNIPERAMBUSH IN URBAN TERRAIN 



6-58. In cases where intelligence is forthcoming that a target will be in a 
specific place at a specific time, a sniper ambush is frequently a better 
alternative than a more cumbersome cordon operation. 

6-59. Close reconnaissance is easier than in normal operations. The 
sniper can carry it out as part of a normal patrol without raising any 
undue suspicion. The principal difficulty is getting the ambush party to 
its hide undetected. To place snipers in positions that are undetected will 
require some form of deception plan. The team leader often forms a 
routine search operation in at least platoon strength. During the course of 
the search, the snipers position themselves in their hide. They remain in 
position when the remainder of the force withdraws. This tactic is 
especially effective when carried out at night. 

6-60. Once in position, the snipers must be able to remain for lengthy 
periods in the closest proximity to the enemy and their sympathizers. Their 
security is tenuous at best. Most urban OPs have "dead spots." This trait, 
combined with the fact that special ambush positions are frequently out of 
direct observation by other friendly forces, makes them highly susceptible to 
attack, especially from guerrillas armed with explosives. The uncertainty 
about being observed on entry is a constant worry to the snipers. This feeling 
can and does have a most disquieting effect on the sniper and underlines the 
need for highly trained men of stable character. 



6-13 



FM 3-05.222 



6-61. If the ambush position cannot be directly supported from a permanent 
position, the commander must place a "backup" force on immediate notice to 
extract the snipers after the ambush or in case of compromise. Commanders 
normally assume that during the ambush the snipers cannot make their exit 
without assistance. They will be surrounded by large, extremely hostile 
crowds. Consequently, backup forces must not only be nearby but also be 
sufficient in size to handle the extraction of the snipers. 

URBAN HIDES 

6-62. A sniper team's success or failure greatly depends on each sniper's 
ability to place accurate fire on the enemy with the least possible exposure to 
enemy fire. Consequently, the sniper must constantly seek firing positions 
and use them properly when he finds them. Positions in urban terrain are 
quite different from positions in the field. The sniper team can normally 
choose from inside attics to street-level positions in basements. This type of 
terrain is ideal for a sniper and can provide the team a means of stopping an 
enemy's advance through its area of responsibility. However, one important 
fact for the team to remember is that in this type of terrain the enemy will 
use every asset it has to detect and eliminate them. The following paragraphs 
explain the two categories of urban hide positions. 



HASTY HIDE 



6-63. The sniper normally occupies a hasty hide in the attack or the early 
stages of the defense. This position allows the sniper to place fire upon the 
enemy while using available cover to gain protection from enemy fire. There 
are some common hasty firing positions in a built-up area and techniques for 
occupying them are as follows: 

• Firing From Corners of Buildings. The corner of a building, used 
properly, provides cover for a hasty firing position. A sniper must be 
capable of firing his weapon from either shoulder to minimize body 
exposure to the enemy. A common mistake when firing around corners 
is firing from the standing position. The sniper exposes himself at the 
height the enemy would expect a target to appear and risks exposing 
the entire length of his body as a target. 

• Firing From Bdhind Walls. When firing from behind a wall, the sniper 
should attempt to fire around cover rather than over it. 

• Firing From Windows. In a built-up area windows provide readily 
accessible firing ports. However, the sniper must not allow his 
weapon to protrude beyond the window. It is an obvious sign of the 
firer's position, especially at night when the muzzle flash can easily 
be seen. A sniper should position himself as far into the room as 
possible to prevent the muzzle flash from being seen. He should fire 
from a supported position (table and sandbag) low enough to avoid 
silhouetting himself. He should use room shadow during darkness 
and leave blinds or shades drawn to a maximum to avoid being 
seen. The sniper must be careful when firing to prevent the drapes 
or curtains from moving due to the muzzle blast. He can do this by 



6-14 



FM 3-05.222 



tacking them down or using sufficient standoff. He should also use 
drop clothes behind himself to cut down on silhouetting. 

Firing From an Unprepared Loopliole. The sniper may fire through a 
hole torn in the wall, thus avoiding the windows. He should stay as far 
from the loophole as possible so the muzzle does not protrude beyond 
the wall, thus concealing the muzzle flash. If the hole is natural 
damage, he should ensure that it is not the only hole in the building. If 
the sniper constructs it, then the hole must blend with the building or 
he should construct multiple holes. There are several openings in a 
building that naturally occur and the sniper can enlarge or use them. 

Firing From thePeal< of a Roof. This position provides a vantage point 
for snipers that increases their field of vision and the ranges at 
which they can engage targets. A chimney, a smokestack, or any other 
object protruding from the roof of a building can reduce the size of 
the target exposed, and the sniper should use it. However, his head 
and weapon breaks the clean line of a rooftop and this position is a 
"last choice" position. 

Firing Wlien No Cover Is Available. When no cover is available, 
target exposure can be reduced by firing from the prone position, 
firing from shadows, presenting no silhouette against buildings or 
skyline, and using tall grass, weeds, or shrubbery for concealment 
if available. 



PREPARED HIDE 



6-64. A prepared hide is one built or improved to allow the sniper to engage 
a particular area, avenue of approach, or enemy position while reducing his 
exposure to return fire. Common sense and imagination are the sniper team's 
only limitation in the construction of urban hides. The sniper must follow 
several principles in urban and field environments. In urban environments, 
the sniper must still avoid silhouetting, consider reflections and light 
refraction, and be sure to minimize muzzle blast effects on dust, curtains, and 
other surroundings. The team constructs and occupies one of the following 
positions or a variation thereof: 

• Chimney Hide. The sniper can use a chimney or any other structure 
that protrudes through the roof as a base to build his sniper position. 
Part of the roofing material is removed to allow the sniper to fire 
around the chimney while standing inside the building on beams or a 
platform with only his head and shoulders above the roof (behind the 
chimney). He should use sandbags on the sides of the position to 
protect his flanks. 

• Roof Hide. When preparing a sniper position on a roof that has no 
protruding structure to provide protection, the sniper should prepare 
his position underneath on the enemy side of the roof (Figure 6-1, 
page 6-16). He should remove a small piece of roofing material to allow 
him to engage targets in his sector. He then reinforces the position with 
sandbags and prepares it so that the only sign that a position exists is 
the missing piece of roofing material. The sniper should also remove 
other pieces of roofing to deceive the enemy as to the true sniper 



6-15 



FM 3-05.222 



position. The sniper should not be visible from outside the building. 
Care must betaken to hide the muzzle flash from outside the building. 




Figure 6-1. Roof Hide 

Room Hide. I n a room hide, the sniper team uses an existing room and 
fires through a window or loophole (Figure 6-2). It can use existing 
furniture, such as desks or tables to establish weapon support. When 
selecting a position, teams must notice both front and back window 
positions. To avoid silhouetting, they may need to use a backdrop, such 
as a dark-colored blanket, canvas, carpet, and a screen. Screens 
(common screening material) are important since they allow the sniper 
teams maximum observation and deny observation by the enemy. They 
must not remove curtains; however, they can open windows or remove 
single panes of glass. Remember, teams can randomly remove panes in 
other windows so the position is not obvious. 




Figure 6-2. Internal View of a Room Hide 



6-16 



FM 3-05.222 



Crawl Space Hide The sniper team builds this position into the space 
between floors in multistory buildings (Figure 6-3). Loopholes are 
difficult to construct, but a damaged building helps considerably. 
Escape routes can be holes knocked into the floor or ceiling. Carpet or 
furniture placed over escape holes or replaced ceiling tiles will conceal 
them until needed. 



Enter/Exit 





1 ., 1 


II 


' 1 








V. : 


I 


Mil ) rt 


II Ml HIP 



X 



CDI] 



'Crawl Space 




^ = 



mtDtS 



Figure 6-3. Crawl Space Hide 

PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTING AND OCCUPYING SNIPER FIRING POSITIONS 

6-65. U pon receiving a mission, the sniper team locates the target area and 
then determines the best location for a tentative position by using various 
sources of information. The team ensures the position provides optimum 
balance between the following principles: 

• Avoid obvious sniper positions. 

• Make maximum use of available cover and concealment. 

• Carefully select a new firing position before leaving an old one. 

• Avoid setting a pattern. The sniper should fire from both barricaded 
and unbarricaded windows. 

• Never subject the sniper position to traffic of other personnel, 
regardless of how well the sniper is hidden. Traffic invites observation 
and the sniper may be detected by optical devices. He should also be 
aware of backlighting that might silhouette him to the enemy. 

• Abandon a position from which two or three misses have been fired; 
detection is almost certain. 



6-17 



FM 3-05.222 



Operate from separate positions. In built-up areas, it is desirable that 
sniper teams operate from separate positions. Detection of two teams in 
close proximity is very probable, considering the number of positions 
from which the enemy may be observing. The snipers should position 
themselves where they can provide mutual support. 

Select alternate positions as well as supplementary positions to engage 
targets in any direction. 

Always plan the escape route ahead of time. 

Minimizethecombustibility of selected positions (fi reproofing). 

Select a secure and quiet approach route. This route should, if possible, 
be free of garbage cans, crumbling walls, barking dogs, and other 
impediments. 

Select a secure entry and exit point. The more obvious and easily 
accessible entry and exit points are not necessarily the best, as their 
constant use during subsequent relief of sniper teams may more readily 
lead to compromise. 

Pick good arcs of observation. Restricted arcs are inevitable, but the 
greater the arc, the better. 

Ensure the least impedance of communications equipment. 

Consider all aspects of security. 

Try to pick positions of comfort. This rule is important but should be 
the lowest priority. Uncomfortable observation and firing positions can 
be maintained only for short periods. If there is no adequate relief 
from observation, hides can rarely remain effective for more than a 
few hours. 

Never return to a sniper position that the sniper has fired from, no 
matter how good it is. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN HIDES 



6-66. The overriding requirement of a hide is that it must dominate its area 
of responsibility and provide maximum observation of the target area. 

6-67. When selecting a suitable location, there is always a tendency to go for 
height. I n an urban operation, this can be a mistake. The greater the height 
attained, the more the sniper has to look out over an area and away from his 
immediate surroundings. For example, if a hide were established on the tenth 
floor of an apartment building to see a road beneath, the sniper would have to 
lean out of the window, which does little for security. The sniper should get 
only close enough to provide observation and fire without compromise. The 
sniper should stay at the second and third floor levels unless his area of 
interest is on a higher floor in another building. He would then want to be 
slightly above that floor if possible 

6-68. The locations of incidents that the sniper might have to deal with are 
largely unpredictable, but the ranges are usually relatively short. 
Consequently, a hide must cover its immediate surroundings, as well as 
middle and far distances. In residential areas, this goal is rarely possible, as 
hides are forced off ground floor levels by passing pedestrians. However, it is 



6-18 



FM 3-05.222 



not advisable to go above the second floor because to go higher greatly 
increases the dead space in front of the hide. This practice is not a cardinal 
rule, however. Local conditions, such as being on a bus route, may force the 
sniper to go higher to avoid direct observation by passengers. 

6-69. I n view of this weakness in local defense of urban hides, the principle 
of mutual support between hides assumes even greater importance and is one 
reason why coordination and planning must take place at battalion level. 

CONSTRUCTING AN URBAN POSITION 

6-70. Positions in urban terrain are quite different from in the field. When 
the sniper team must construct an urban position, it should consider the 
foil owing factors: 

• Use a backdrop to minimize detection from the outside of the structure. 

• Position the weapon to ensure adequate observation and engagement 
of the target area and mark the vertical and horizontal limits 
of observation. 

• If adequate time and materials are available, hang drop cloths to limit 
the possibility of observation from the outside of the structure. Cut 
loopholes in the drop cloth fabric to allow observation of the target area. 

• Always be aware of the outside appearance of the structure. Firing 
through loopholes in barricaded windows is preferred, but the team 
must also barricade all other windows. 

• Build loopholes in other windows to provide more than one firing 
position. When building loopholes, the team should make them 
different shapes (not perfect squares or circles). Dummy loopholes also 
confuse the enemy. 

• Establish positions in attics. The team removes the shingles and cuts 
out loopholes in the roof; however, they must make sure there are 
other shingles missing from the roof so that the firing position loophole 
is not obvious. 

• Do not locate the position against contrasting background or in 
prominent buildings that automatically draw attention. The team must 
stay in the shadows while moving, observing, and engaging targets. 
AVOID obvious locations. 

• Never fire close to a loophole. The team must always back away from 
the hole as far as possible to hide the muzzle flash and to muffle the 
sound of the weapon when it fires. 

• Locate positions in a different room than the one the loophole is in by 
making a hole through a wall to connect the two and fire from inside 
the far room. Thus, the sniper is forming a "double baffle" with his 
loopholes by constructing two loopholes in succession. This method will 
further reduce his muzzle flash and blast and improve his concealment 
from enemy observation. 

• Do not fire continually from one position. 



6-19 



FM 3-05.222 



NOTE: These factors are why the sniper should construct more than one 
position if time and the situation permit. When constructing other positions, 
the team should make sure it can observe the target area. Sniper team 
positions should never be used by any personnel other than a sniper team. 

POSSIBLE HIDE AND OBSERVATION POST LOCATIONS 

6-71. Common sense and imagination are the sniper team's only limitation 
in determining urban hide or OP locations. Below are just a few options that 
the team can use to maximize cover and meet mission requirements: 

• Old Derelict Buildings. The team should pay special attention to the 
possibility of encountering booby traps. One proven method of detecting 
guerrilla booby traps is to notice if the locals (especially children) move 
in and about the building freely. 

• Occupied Houses. After carefully observing the inhabitants' daily 
routine, snipers can move into occupied homes and establish hides or 
OPs in basements and attics. This method was used very successfully 
by the British in Northern I reland. However, these locations cannot be 
occupied for extended periods due to the strict noise discipline required. 

• Shops. 

• Schools and Churches. When using these buildings, the snipers risk 
possible damage to what might already be strained public relations. 
They should not use these positions if they are still active buildings in 
the community. 

• Factories, Sheds, and Garages. 

• Basements and Between Floors In Buildings. It is possible for the 
sniper team to locate itself in these positions, although there may be no 
window or readily usable firing port available. These locations require 
the sniper to remove bricks or stones without leaving any noticeable 
evidence outside the building. The sniper should try to locate those 
crawl spaces that already vent to the outside. 

• R ural Areas From Which Urban Areas Can BeObserved. 

MANNING THE SNIPER HIDES AND OBSERVATION POSTS 

6-72. Before moving into the hide or OP, the snipers must have the 
following information: 

• The exact nature of the mission (observe, fire). 

• The length of stay. 

• The local situation. 

• Procedure and timing for entry. 

• Emergency recall code and procedures 

• Emergency evacuation procedures. 

• Radio procedures. 



6-20 



FM 3-05.222 



• Movement of any friendly troops. 

• Procedure and timing for exit. 

• Any special equipment needed. 

6-73. The well-tried and understood principle of remaining back from 
windows and other apertures when in buildings has a marked effect on the 
manning of hides or OPs. The field of view from the back of a room through a 
window is limited. To enable a worthwhile area to be covered, two or even 
three men may have to observe at one ti me from different parts of the room. 

SNIPERTECHNIQUESIN URBAN HIDES 

6-74. Although the construction of hide positions may differ, the techniques 
or routines while in position are the same. Sniper teams use the technique 
best suited for the urban position. These may indudeany of the following: 

• The second floor of a building is usually the best location for the 
position. It presents minimal dead space but provides the team more 
protection since passersby cannot easily spot it. 

• Normally, a window is the best viewing aperture or loophole. 

■ If the window is dirty, do not clean it for better viewing. 

■ If curtains are prevalent in the area, do not remove those in the 
position. Lace or net-type curtains can be seen through from the inside, 
but they are difficult to see through from the outside. 

■ If strong winds blow the curtains open, staple, tack, or weigh them 
down. However, do the same with all other curtains in open windows 
or the nonmovement of thecurtains will attract attention. 

■ Firing a round through a curtain has little effect on accuracy; however, 
ensure the muzzle is far enough away to avoid muzzle blast. 

■ When area routine indicates open curtains, follow suit. Set up well 
away from the viewing aperture; however, ensure effective coverage of 
the assigned target area, or place a secondary drop cloth behind the 
open curtain where it would not be noticeable. With the sniper 
sandwiched between the two drop cloths, his movement and activities 
will be more difficult to observe with open curtains. 

• Firing through glass should be avoided since more than one shot may 
be required. The copper jacket of the M118 round is usually stripped as 
the round passes through the glass. However, the mass of the core will 
continue and should stay on target for approximately 5 feet after 
penetrating standard house pane glass. The sniper should consider the 
following variables when shooting through glass: 

■ Type and thickness of glass (tempered or safety glass reacts much 
differently from pane glass). 

■ Distance of weapon to glass. 

■ Type of weapon and ammunition. 



6-21 



FM 3-05.222 



■ Distance of glass to target. 

■ Angle of bullet path to glass; if possible, he should fire at a 90-degree 
angleto the glass. 

• If firing through glass, the team should also consider the 
following options: 

■ Break or open several windows throughout the position before 
occupation. This can be done during the reconnaissance phase of the 
operation; however, avoid drawing attention to the area. 

■ Remove or replace panes of glass with plastic sheeting of the heat- 
shrink type. The sheeting will not disrupt the bullet but will deceive 
the enemy into believing that the glass isstill in place. 

• Other loopholes or viewing apertures are nearly unlimited, such as— 

■ Battle damage. 

■ Drilled holes (hand drill). 

■ Brick removal. 

■ Loose boards or derelict houses. 

• Positions can also beset up in attics or between the ceiling and roof: 

■ Gable ends close to the eaves (shadow adding to concealment). 

■ Battledamagetogablesor roof. 

■ Loose or removed tiles, shingles, or slates. 

■ Skylights. 

• The sniper makes sure the bullet clears the loophole. The muzzle must 
be far enough from the loophole and the rifle boresighted to ensure the 
bullet's path is not in line with the bottom of the loophole. The observer 
and sniper must clear the muzzle before firing. 

• Front drops, usually netting, may have to be changed (if the situation 
permits) from dark to light colors at beginning morning nautical 
twilight or ending evening nautical twilight due to sunlight or lack of 
sunlight into the position. 

• If the site is not multi roomed, partitions can be made by hanging 
blankets or nets to separate the operating area from the rest and 
administrative areas. 

• If sandbags are required, the team can fill and carry them inside of 
rucksacks, or fill them in the basement, depending on the situation or 
location of the position site. 

• There should always be a planned escape route that leads to the ORP. 
When forced to vacate the position, the team meets the reaction force at 
the ORP. Normally, the team will not be able to leave from the same 
point at which it gained access; therefore, a separate escape point may 
be required in emergencies. The team must consider windows (other 
than the viewing apertures), anchored ropes to climb down the 
building, or a small, preset explosive charge situation on a wall or floor 
for access into adjoining rooms, buildings, or the outside. 



6-22 



FM 3-05.222 



• The type of uniform or camouflage that the team will wear is dictated 
by the tactical situation, the rules of engagement, the team's mission, 
and the AO. The following applies: 

■ Most often, the normal BDU and required equipment are worn. 

■ Urban-camouflaged uniforms can be made or purchased. Urban areas 
vary greatly in color (mostly gray [cinder block]; red [brick]; white 
[marble]; dark gray [granite]; or stucco, clay, or wood). Regardless of 
area color, uniforms should include angular-lined patterns. 

■ When necessary, most woodland-patterned BDUs can be worn inside 
out, as they are a green-gray color underneath. 

■ Soft-soled shoes or boots are the preferred footwear in the urban 
environment. 

■ The team can reduce its visual profile during movement by using 
nonstandard uniforms or a mixture of civilian clothes as part of a 
deliberate deception plan. With theater approval, civilian clothing can 
be worn (native or host country populace). 

■ Tradesmen's or construction workers' uniforms and accessories can aid 
in the deception plan. 

WEAPONS CHARACTERISTICS IN URBAN TERRAIN 

6-75. The characteristics of built-up areas and the nature of urban 
warfare influence the effectiveness of sniper systems and how they may be 
employed. The sniper must consider the following basic factors during all 
urban operations: 

STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION OF BUILDINGS 

6-76. The basic classes of structures encountered in a built-up area can 
generally be classified as concrete, masonry, or wooden. However, any one 
building may include a combination of these materials. All buildings offer 
concealment, although the degree of protection varies with the material used. 
The 7.62- x 51-mm NATO ball cartridge will penetrate at 200 meters— 

• F ifty i nches of pi newood boards. 

• Ten inches of loose sand. 

• Three inches of concrete. 

GLASS PENETRATION 

6-77. If the situation should require firing through glass, the sniper 
should know— 

• When the M118 ammunition penetrates glass, in most cases, the 
copper jacket is stripped of its lead core and the core fragments. These 
fragments will injure or kill should they hit either the hostage or the 
terrorist. The fragments show no standard pattern, but randomly fly in 
a cone-shaped pattern, much like shot from a shotgun. Even when the 
glass is angled to as much as 45 degrees, the lead core will not show 
minimum signs of deflection up to approximately 5 feet past the point 
of impact with standard house pane glass. 



6-23 



FM 3-05.222 



• When the bullet impacts with the glass, the glass will shatter and 
explode back into the room. The angle of the bullet impact with the 
glass has no bearing on the direction of the shattered glass. The 
shattered glass will always fly perpendicular to the pane of the glass. 

6-78. The U.S. Secret Service tested the efficiency of Federal 168 grain 
Sierra hollow-point boattail ammunition on several types of glass and found 
that— 

• Targets placed up to 20 feet behind the glass were neutralized when 
the weapon was fired from 100 meters away, from a 0- to 45-degree 
angle of deflection. 

NOTE: These results do not fit with the tests run by the Marine Corps, 
U.S. Army, or the FBI. Their tests showed a deviation that was 
acceptable to 5 or 7 feet. 

• Glass fragmentation formed a cone-shaped hazard area 10 feet deep 
and 6 feet in diameter; the axis of which is perpendicular to the line 
and angle of fire. 

• The jacket separated from the round but both jacket and round 
maintained an integrated trajectory. 

ENGAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 

6-79. Engaging targets not only requires the sniper to determine specific 
variables, but also to betrained and proficient in the methods below. 

SIMULTANEOUS SHOOTING 

6-80. Shooting simultaneously by command fire with another sniper is a 
very important skill to develop and requires much practice. The senior man 
in the command post (CP) will usually give this command. He may delegate 
the actual firing decision to the assault element team leader, so that the 
sniper fire may be better coordinated with the rescue effort. The actual 
command "standby, (pause) ready, ready, fire" must be given clearly, without 
emotion, or tonal change. Procedure is as follows: 

• Team leader requests, "sniper status." 

• Snipers respond by numbers on availability of targets, "one on," 'Two 
ON," 'Three off," "four on." 

• Team leader will respond with "standby," or "hold," depending on 
availability of targets. 

• If assault is a go, the command "ready, ready fire" is given." All 
snipers with targets will shoot simultaneously. (This action should 
sound as one shot.) 

• Or the team leader may indicate specific snipers to fire. 

• Alert commands should be repeated twice, "ready, ready, fire." 

• After shooting the sniper will acknowledge, "shot out." He will then 
confirm results. 

6-81. Reactive targets give a positive visual indication of simultaneous 
impact and should be used whenever possiblefor this exercise. 



6-24 



FM 3-05.222 



COUNTDOWN SYSTEM 

6-82. During a multiple action engagement or a sniper-initiated assault, a 
countdown technique will be used. The CP or team leader gives a verbal 
countdown as follows: 

Standby 

(Pause) 

5- 

4- 

3- 

2- Snipers fire. 

1- Blast from grenades or breaching charge. 

6-83. If glass must be shattered to provide the primary sniper a clear shot at 
his target, it is best if the support sniper also aims his "window breaking" 
bullet at the target. This way, the sniper team has two projectiles aimed at 
the target, increasing the likelihood of a hit. 



6-25 



Appendix A 

Weights, Measures, and 
Conversion Tables 



Tables A-1 through A-5, pages A-1 and A-2, show metric units and their 
U.S. equivalents. Tables A-6 through A-15, pages A-2 through A-5, are 
conversion tables. 

Table A-1. Linear lUleasure 



Unit 


Other Metric Equivalent 


U.S. Equivalent 


1 centimeter 


10 millimeters 


0.39 inch 


1 decimeter 


10 centimeters 


3.94 inches 


1 meter 


10 decimeters 


39.37 inches 


1 decameter 


10 meters 


32.8 feet 


1 Inectometer 


10 decameters 


328.08 feet 


1 kilometer 


10 hectometers 


3,280.8 feet 


Table A-2. Liquid Measure 


Unit 


Other Metric Equivalent 


U.S. Equivalent 


1 centiliter 


10 milliliters 


0.34 fluid ounce 


1 deciliter 


10 centiliters 


3.38 fluid ounces 


1 liter 


10 deciliters 


33.81 fluid ounces 


1 decaliter 


10 liters 


2.64 gallons 


1 hectoliter 


10 deciliters 


26.42 gallons 


1 kiloliter 


10 hectoliters 


264.18 gallons 


Table A-3. Weight 


Unit 


Other Metric Equivalent 


U.S. Equivalent 


1 centigram 


10 milligrams 


0.1 5 grain 


1 decigram 


10 centigrams 


1.54 grains 


1 gram 


10 decigrams 


0.035 ounce 


1 decagram 


10 grams 


0.35 ounce 


1 hectogram 


10 decigrams 


3.52 ounces 


1 kilogram 


10 hectograms 


2.2 pounds 


1 quintal 


100 kilograms 


220.46 pounds 


1 metric ton 


10 quintals 


1.1 short tons 



A-1 



FM 3-05.222 



Table A-4. Square Measure 



Unit 


Other Metric Equivalent 


U.S. Equivalent 


1 square centimeter 


100 square millimeters 


0.155 square inch 


1 square decimeter 


1 00 square centimeters 


15.5 square inches 


1 square meter (centaur) 


1 00 square decimeters 


10.76 square feet 


1 square decameter (are) 


100 square meters 


1 ,076.4 square feet 


1 square Inectometer (liectare) 


1 00 square decameters 


2.47 acres 


1 square kilometer 


100 square hectometers 


0.386 square mile 


Table A-5. Cubic Measure 


Unit 


Other Metric Equivalent 


U.S. Equivalent 


1 cubic centimeter 


1 ,000 cubic millimeters 


0.06 cubic inch 


1 cubic decimeter 


1 ,000 cubic centimeters 


61.02 cubic inches 


1 cubic meter 


1,000 cubic decimeters 


35.31 cubic feet 


Table A-6. Temperature 


Convert From 


Convert To 


Falirenlieit 


Celsius 
Subtract 32, multiply by 5, and divide by 9 


Celsius 


Fahrenheit 
Multiply by 9, divide by 5, and add 32 


Table 


A-7. Approximate Conversion Factors 


To Change 


To 


Multiply By 


To Change 


To 


Multiply By 


Inches 


Centimeters 


2.540 


Ounce-inches 


Newton- 
meters 


0.007062 


Feet 


Meters 


0.305 


Centimeters 


Inches 


3.94 


Yards 


Meters 


0.914 


Meters 


Feet 


3.280 


Miles 


Kilometers 


1.609 


Meters 


Yards 


1.094 


Square inches 


Square 
centimeters 


6.451 


Kilometers 


Miles 


0.621 


Square feet 


Square meters 


0.093 


Square 
centimeters 


Square inches 


0.155 


Square yards 


Square meters 


0.836 


Square meters 


Square feet 


10.76 


Square miles 


Square 
kilometers 


2.590 


Square meters 


Square yards 


1.196 


Acres 


Square 
hectometers 


0.405 


Square 
kilometers 


Square miles 


0.386 



A-2 



FM 3-05.222 





Table A-7. Approximate Conversion Factors (Continued) 




To Change 


To 


Multiply By 


To Change 


To 


Multiply By 


Cubic feet 


Cubic meters 


0.028 


Square 
hectometers 


Acres 


2.471 


Cubic yards 


Cubic meters 


0.765 


Cubic meters 


Cubic feet 


35.315 


Fluid ounces 


Millimeters 


29.573 


Cubic meters 


Cubic yards 


1.308 


Pints 


Liters 


0.473 


Millimeters 


Fluid ounces 


0.034 


Quarts 


Liters 


0.946 


Liters 


Pints 


2.113 


Gallons 


Liters 


3.785 


Liters 


Quarts 


1.057 


Ounces 


Grams 


28.349 


Liters 


Gallons 


0.264 


Pounds 


Kilograms 


0.454 


Grams 


Qunces 


0.035 


Short tons 


Metric tons 


0.907 


Kilograms 


Pounds 


2.205 


Pounds-feet 


Newton- 
meters 


1.356 


Metric tons 


Short tons 


1.102 


Pounds-inches 


Newton- 
meters 


0.11296 


Nautical Miles 


Kilometers 


1.852 



Table A-8. Area 



To Change 


To 


Multiply By 


To Change 


To 


Multiply By 


Square 
millimeters 


Square inches 


0.00155 


Square inches 


Square 
millimeters 


645.16 


Square 
centimeters 


Square inches 


9.155 


Square inches 


Square 
centimeters 


6.452 


Square meters 


Square inches 


1,550 


Square inches 


Square meters 


0.00065 


Square meters 


Square feet 


10.764 


Square feet 


Square meters 


0.093 


Square meters 


Square yards 


1.196 


Square yards 


Square meters 


0.836 


Square 
kilometers 


Square miles 


0.386 


Square miles 


Square 
kilometers 


2.59 



Table A-9. Volume 



To Change 



To 



Multiply By 



To Change 



To 



Multiply By 



Cubic 
centimeters 



Cubic inches 



0.061 



Cubic inches 



Cubic 
centimeters 



16.39 



Cubic meters 



Cubic feet 



35.31 



Cubic feet 



Cubic meters 



0.028 



Cubic meters 



Cubic yards 



1.308 



Cubic yards 



Cubic meters 



0.765 



Liters 



Cubic inches 



61.02 



Cubic inches 



Liters 



0.016 



Liters 



Cubic feet 



0.035 



Cubic feet 



Liters 



28.32 



A-3 



FM 3-05.222 



Table A-10. Capacity 



To Change 


To 


Multiply By 


To Change 


To 


Multiply By 


Milliliters 


Fluid drams 


0.271 


Fluid drams 


Milliliters 


3.697 


Milliliters 


Fluid ounces 


0.034 


Fluid ounces 


Milliliters 


29.57 


Liters 


Fluid ounces 


33.81 


Fluid ounces 


Liters 


0.030 


Liters 


Pints 


2.113 


Pints 


Liters 


0.473 


Liters 


Quarts 


1.057 


Quarts 


Liters 


0.946 


Liters 


Gallons 


0.264 


Liters 


Gallons 


3.785 


Table A-11. Statute Miles to Kilometers and Nautical Miles 


Statute Miles 


Kilometers 


Nautical Miles 


Statute Miles 


Kilometers 


Nautical Miles 


1 


1.61 


0.869 


60 


96.60 


52.14 


2 


3.22 


1.74 


70 


112.70 


60.83 


3 


4.83 


2.61 


80 


128.80 


69.52 


4 


6.44 


3.48 


90 


144.90 


78.21 


5 


8.05 


4.35 


100 


161.00 


86.92 


6 


9.66 


5.21 


200 


322.00 


173.80 


7 


11.27 


6.08 


300 


483.00 


260.70 


8 


12.88 


6.95 


400 


644.00 


347.60 


9 


14.49 


7.82 


500 


805.00 


434.50 


10 


16.10 


8.69 


600 


966.00 


521 .40 


20 


32.20 


17.38 


700 


1127.00 


608.30 


30 


48.30 


26.07 


800 


1288.00 


695.20 


40 


64.40 


34.76 


900 


1449.00 


782.10 


50 


80.50 


43.45 


1000 


1610.00 


869.00 


Table A-12. Nautical Miles to Kilometers and Statute Miles 


Nautical Miles 


Kilometers 


Statute Miles 


Nautical Miles 


Kilometers 


Statute Miles 


1 


1.85 


1.15 


60 


111.00 


69.00 


2 


3.70 


2.30 


70 


129.50 


80.50 


3 


5.55 


3.45 


80 


148.00 


92.00 


4 


7.40 


4.60 


90 


166.50 


103.50 


5 


9.25 


5.75 


100 


185.00 


115.00 


6 


11.10 


6.90 


200 


370.00 


230.00 


7 


12.95 


8.05 


300 


555.00 


345.00 


8 


14.80 


9.20 


400 


740.00 


460.00 


9 


16.65 


10.35 


500 


925.00 


575.00 


10 


18.50 


11.50 


600 


1110.00 


690.00 


20 


37.00 


23.00 


700 


1295.00 


805.00 


30 


55.50 


34.50 


800 


1480.00 


920.00 


40 


74.00 


46.00 


900 


1665.00 


1033.00 


50 


92.50 


57.50 


1000 


1850.00 


1150.00 



A-4 



FM 3-05.222 





Table A-13. Kilometers to Statute and Nautical Miles 




Kilometers 


Statute Miles 


Nautical Miles 


Kilometers 


Statute Miles 


Nautical Miles 


1 


0.62 


0.54 


60 


37.28 


32.38 


2 


1.24 


1.08 


70 


43.50 


37.77 


3 


1.86 


1.62 


80 


49.71 


43.17 


4 


2.49 


2.16 


90 


55.93 


48.56 


5 


3.111 


2.70 


100 


62.14 


53.96 


6 


3.73 


3.24 


200 


124.28 


107.92 


7 


4.35 


3.78 


300 


186.42 


161.88 


8 


4.97 


4.32 


400 


248.56 


215.84 


9 


5.59 


4.86 


500 


310.70 


269.80 


10 


6.21 


5.40 


600 


372.84 


323.76 


20 


12.43 


10.79 


700 


434.98 


377.72 


30 


18.64 


16.19 


800 


497.12 


431.68 


40 


24.86 


21.58 


900 


559.26 


485.64 


50 


31.07 


26.98 


1000 


621 .40 


539.60 


Table A-14. Yards to Meters 


Yards 


Meters 


Yards 


Meters 


Yards 


Meters 


100 


91 


1000 


914 


1900 


1737 


200 


183 


1100 


1006 


2000 


1828 


300 


274 


1200 


1097 


3000 


2742 


400 


366 


1300 


1189 


4000 


3656 


500 


457 


1400 


1280 


5000 


4570 


600 


549 


1500 


1372 


6000 


5484 


700 


640 


1600 


1463 


7000 


6398 


800 


732 


1700 


1554 


8000 


7212 


900 


823 


1800 


1646 


9000 


8226 


Table A-15. Meters to Yards 


Meters 


Yards 


Meters 


Yards 


Meters 


Yards 


100 


109 


1000 


1094 


1900 


2078 


200 


219 


1100 


1203 


2000 


2188 


300 


328 


1200 


1312 


3000 


3282 


400 


437 


1300 


1422 


4000 


4376 


500 


547 


1400 


1531 


5000 


5470 


600 


656 


1500 


1640 


6000 


6564 


700 


766 


1600 


1750 


7000 


7658 


800 


875 


1700 


1860 


8000 


8752 


900 


984 


1800 


1969 


9000 


9846 



A-5 



Appendix B 

Mission-Essential Tasks List 

SPECIAL OPERATIONS TARGET INTERDICTION COURSE 

MOS 18— SKILL LEVEL 3 
CRITICAL INDIVIDUAL TASKS 

Subject Area 1: Special Operations Target Interdiction 
Tasic No. Title 

331-202-4200 Detect Targets Based on Target I ndicators 

331-202-4201 Produce a Panoramic Sketch 

331-202-4202 Prepare a Sniper's Observation Log 

331-202-4204 Prepare a Sniper IMission Operation Order 

331-202-4205 Conduct Training of Special Operations Snipers 

331-202-4206 Employ the Methods Used for I ndicating Targets 

331-202-4208 Determine Sniper Assessment and Selection 

Procedures 
331-202-4209 Determinethe Capabilities and Roles of Special 

Operations Snipers 
331-202-4214 Observe an Arc of Observation 

331-202-4215 Perform Selected Special Operations Sniper/ 

Observer Team Functions/Tasks in Support of 

Special Operations Forces Mission/Combat 

Operations 
Subject Area 2: Sniper Weapon System 
331-202-4210 Maintain Personal and Team Optical Equipment 

331-202-4211 Mount a Night Vision Device on the Sniper 

Weapon System 
331-202-4212 Maintain the Sniper Weapon System 

331-202-4213 Prepare the Sniper Weapon System for 

Infiltration 

Subject Area 3: Ballistics 

331-202-4220 Determine Distance With the Unaided Eye 

331-202-4221 Determine Distance With Mechanical and/or 

Optical Aids 

331-202-4222 Engage Targets Applying Sniper System Ballistic 

Theory 

331-202-4223 Apply Sight Corrections to Compensate for Wind 

and Meteorological Conditions 



B-1 



FM 3-05.222 



331-202-4224 Determi ne the Poi nt of I mpact on the Target by 

Reading the Bullet Trace 

Subject Area 4: Tracking 

331-202-4231 E mploy the Observation Techniques/Categories 

Needed to Enhance the Recall of Details 

331-919-0161 Evade DogA/isual Tracker Teams 

331-919-0162 Demonstrate Visual Tracking Techniques 

Subject Area 5: Concealment 

331-202-4203 Select a Line of Advance 

331-202-4230 Employ Stealth Movement Methods 

331-202-4232 Conceal Yourself and Your Equipment 

331-202-4233 Construct a Ghillie Suit 

331-202-4234 Construct Sniping H ides 

331-202-4235 Camouflage Yourself and Your Equipment 

Subject Area 6: Marksmanship 

331-202-4240 Employ the Four Fundamentals of Shooting 

331-202-4241 Employ Supported Shooting Positions 

331-202-4242 Adjust the I ron and Telescopic Sights for the M 24 

Sniper Weapon System 

331-202-4243 Engage Stationary Targets With the Sniper 

Weapon System 

331-202-4244 Engage Moving Targets With the Sniper Weapon 

System 

331-202-4245 E ngage Snap Targets With the Sniper Weapon 

System 

331-202-4246 Zero the Sniper Weapon System 

331-202-4247 Prepare a Sniper's Range Card 

331-202-4248 Engage Targets Using the Night Vision Device on 

the Sniper Weapon System 

331-202-4249 Engage Targets During Time of Limited Visibility 

With the Telescopic Sight 

331-202-4250 Engage Targets With Selected U.S., Foreign, 

Special Purpose, and Obsolete Sniper Weapon 
Systems 

331-202-4251 Zero a Night Vision Device on a Sniper Weapon 

System During Daylight 

331-202-4252 Engage Targets at the Maximum Effective Range 

of the Sniper Weapon System 

331-202-4253 Demonstrate Planning Considerations for 

Operations on U rban Terrain 



B-2 



FM 3-05.222 



331-202-4254 



Engage Targets Over Uneven Ground With the 
Sniper Weapon System 



Task No. 

7-5-1825 
7-5-1869 
7-5-1871 
7-5-1872 
7-5-1809 



COLLECTIVE TASKS 

Title 

IMove Tactically (Sniper) 
Select/Engage Targets (Sniper) 
Select/Occupy Firing Position (Sniper) 
Estimate Range (Sniper) 
Debrief (Sniper) 



ELEMENT: Sniper Team 

TASK: Move Tactically (7-5-1825) (FM 7-8, TC 23-10) 
ITERATION: 12 3 

COMMANDER/LEADER ASSESSMENT: 



M 



U 



(Circle) 
(Circle) 



CONDITIONS: The sniper team is given a mission to move with a security element. Both 
friendly and opposi ng forces units have indirect fire and combat air support (CAS) available. 

TASK STANDARDS: 

1. The sniper team moves undetected. 

2. The sniper team moves tactically based on METT-TC. 

3. The sniper team complies with all graphic control measures. 

4. The sniper team moves along the route specified in the order. 

5. The sniper team arrives at the destination specified in the order. 

6. The sniper team arrives at the specified time. 

7. The sniper team sustains no casualties. 



TASK STEPS AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES 


GO 


NO-GO 


*-i-1 . The sniper team leader selects the movement routes that— 

a. Avoid known opposing force (OPFOR) positions and obstacles. 

b. Offer cover and concealment. 

c. Take advantage of difficult terrain, swamp, and dense woods. 

d. Avoid natural lines of drift. 

e. Avoid trails, roads, footpaths, or built-up or populated areas unless 
required by the mission. 

2. The sniper team uses the proper movement techniques: sniper low 
crawl, medium crawl, high crawl, hand-and-knee crawl, and walk. 

a. The observer is the point man; the sniper follows. 

b. The observer's sector is from 9 o'clock to 3 o'clock; the sniper's 
sector is from 3 o'clock to 9 o'clock. 







B-3 



FM 3-05.222 



c. The observer and the sniper must maintain visual contact even when 
lying on the ground. 

d. The interval between the observer and the sniper is not more than 20 
meters. 

e. The sniper reacts to the point man's actions. 

f. The sniper and the point man cross danger areas. (See T&EO 7-3/4- 
1028, Cross Danger Area, ARTEP 7-8-MTP, Mission Training Plan 
for Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad). 

The sniper team maintains operations security. 

a. Moves slowly and cautiously. 

b. Uses camouflage. 

c. Avoids making sounds. 

The sniper team maintains proper communication procedures. 

a. Maintains radio listening silence. 

b. Uses visual signals. 



TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK 


ITERATION 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


M 


TOTAL 


TOTAL TASK STEPS EVALUATED 
















TOTAL TASK STEPS "GO" 

















"*" indicates a leader task step. 
"+" indicates a critical task step. 

OPFOR TASK: Engage Sniper Team 
STANDARDS: 

1. The OPFOR detects the moving sniper team. 

2. The OPFOR delays the team beyond its allotted time (leader evaluation). 

3. The OPFOR prevents the team from moving to its assigned destination or along its 
prescribed route (leader evaluation). 

4. The OPFOR inflicts one casualty on the sniper team. 



B-4 



FM 3-05.222 



ELEMENT: Sniper Team 

TASK: Engage Targets (7-5-1869) (TC 23-10) 
ITERATION: 1 2 

COMMANDER/LEADER ASSESSMENT: 



4 

T 



5 
P 



M 
U 



(Circle) 
(Circle) 



CONDITIONS: The sniper team has a specific sniper mission (target criteria and priority), 
either by supporting a unit or acting independently. The sniper team observes the targets. Both 
friendly and OPFOR units have indirect fire and CAS available. 

TASK STANDARDS: 

1. The sniper team selects the priority target and destroys it with no more than two rounds. 

2. The sniper team sustains no casualties. 



TASK STEPS AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES 



GO 



NO-GO 



The sniper team identifies the following priority targets that will limit the 
OPFOR's fighting ability: 

a. OPFOR sniper. 

b. Officers, both military and political. 

c. NCOS. 

d. Scout or dog team. 

e. Crew-served weapons personnel. 

f. Vehicle commanders and drivers. 

g. Communications personnel, 
h. Forward observers. 

i. Critical equipment such as optical sights or radios. 

The sniper team leader selects the priority targets to be engaged. 

a. The sniper team selects the target that is critical to the mission. 

b. The sniper team does not become a target while searching for or 
firing on an OPFOR target. 

c. The sniper team estimates its range from the target. (See T&EO 7-5- 
1872, Estimate Range). The range must be within 300 to 800 meters. 

d. The sniper team leader chooses to engage targets or continues the 
observation of the targets. 

The sniper team engages the target. 

a. The observer gives the wind adjustment. 

b. The sniper adjusts the scope on the target and informs the observer 
when completed. 

c. The observer reconfirms the wind adjustment and notifies the sniper 
of any changes. 

d. The sniper fires. 

e. The observer watches the vapor trail and the strike of the round. He 
then prepares to give an adjustment if the sniper misses. 

f. If the sniper misses, he checks the scope and fires again, or he may 
engage a second target. 



B-5 



FM 3-05.222 



TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK 


ITERATION 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


M 


TOTAL 


TOTAL TASK STEPS EVALUATED 
















TOTAL TASK STEPS "GO" 

















"*" indicates a leader task step. 

OPFOR TASK: React to Sniper Fire 
STANDARDS: 

1. The OPFOR assumes covered and concealed positions within 3 seconds of receiving sniper 
fire. 

2. The OPFOR detects the sniper team's location within 5 seconds. 

3. TheOPFOR returns fire within 5 seconds of receiving sniper fire. 

4. TheOPFOR inflicts one casualty on the sniper team. 

5. TheOPFOR sustains no more than one casualty. 



B-6 



FM 3-05.222 



ELEMENT: Sniper Team 

TASK: Occupy Firing Position (7-5-1871) (TC 23-10) 
ITERATION: 12 3 

COMMANDER/LEADER ASSESSMENT: 



4 

T 



5 
P 



U 



(Circle) 
(Circle) 



CONDITIONS: The sniper team is given a mission to engage a target and an area of operations. 
Both friendly and OPFOR units have indirect fire and CAS available. 

TASK STANDARDS: 

1. The sniper team selects a final firing position within 300 to 600 meters of the target area. 

2. The sniper team is not detected while occupying the position. 

3. The sniper team sustains no casualties. 



TASK STEPS AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES 


GO 


NO-GO 


*1 . The sniper team leader selects a final firing position that has— 

a. Maximum fields of fire and observation of the target area. 

b. Maximum concealment from the OPFOR's observation. 

c. Covered routes into and out of the position. 

d. A position no closer than 300 meters to the target area. 

e. A natural or man-made obstacle (if available) between the sniper 
team's position and the target. 

2. The sniper team maintains operations security by avoiding— 

a. Prominent, readily identifiable objects and terrain features. 

b. Roads and trails. 

c. Objects that may make noise. 

d. Optical devices that may reflect light. 

e. Leaving a path that leads to its position. 

f. Firing position(s). 

3. The sniper team operates from a position by— 

a. Using shadows (if available). 

b. Using camouflage that does not contrast with the surrounding area. 

4. The sniper team occupies the position. 

a. Moves into the position undetected. 

b. Scans ahead and watches for overhead movement. 

c. Keeps the body outline low to the ground. 

5. The sniper team sustains the firing position. 

a. Organizes the equipment. 

b. Establishes a system of observation and relief. (See T&EO 7-3/4- 
1058, Sustain, ARTEP 7-8-MTP). 







B-7 



FM 3-05.222 



TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK 


ITERATION 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


M 


TOTAL 


TOTAL TASK STEPS EVALUATED 
















TOTAL TASK STEPS "GO" 

















"*" indicates a leader task step. 

OPFORTASK: Detect Snipers 
STANDARDS: 

1. TlieOPFOR detects movement of the snipers moving into the firing position. 

2. TheOPFOR inflicts more than one casualty. 

3. TheOPFOR engages the sniper team within 5 seconds. 

4. The OP F OR sustai ns no more than one casualty. 



B-8 



FM 3-05.222 



ELEMENT: Sniper Team 

TASK: Estimate Range (7-5-1872) (TC 23-10) 
ITERATION: 1 2 

COMMANDER/LEADER ASSESSMENT: 



M 



U 



(Circle) 
(Circle) 



CONDITIONS: The sniper team has to employ range estimation throughout the target area to 
engage targets. Both friendly and OPFOR units have indirect fire and CAS available. 

TASK STANDARDS: 

1. The sniper team agrees on range estimation. 

2. The averaged range estimation must be within 10 percent of the actual distance. 

3. The sniper team sustains no casualties. 



TASK STEPS AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES 


GO 


NO-GO 


1 . Each member of the sniper team estimates the range to the target by 
selecting one or more of the following methods: 

a. The use of maps. 

b. A 100-meter increment. 

c. The appearance of objects. 

d. The mil-scale formula. 

e. The use of the SWS. 

f. The use of the range card. 

g. The bracketing method. 

h. A combination of methods. 

2. The snipers estimate the range throughout the target area. 

a. Each sniper estimates the range to the target(s). 

b. The estimated range by individuals is averaged within 10 percent, 
plus or minus, of the true range. 

*-i-3. The team leader determines the estimated range to be used. 

a. Each sniper estimates the range to the target(s). 

b. The team leader compares the estimates. 

c. The team leader makes the final determination of the range to the 
target(s). 

c. The range to the target(s) is within 1 percent, plus or minus, of the 
true range. 







TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK 


ITERATION 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


M 


TOTAL 


TOTAL TASK STEPS EVALUATED 
















TOTAL TASK STEPS "GO" 

















"*" indicates a leader task step. 
"+" indicates a critical task step. 



B-g 



FM 3-05.222 



ELEMENT: Sniper Team 

TASK: Debrief (7-5-1809) (TC 23-10) 

ITERATION: 1 2 3 4 5 IM 

COMMANDER/LEADER ASSESSMENT: T P U 

CONDITIONS: The sniper team completes the mission and conducts a debriefing. 
TASK STANDARDS: 

1. All team members and the sniper employment officer are present. 

2. All information is collected and recorded in the correct format. 



(Circle) 
(Circle) 



TASK STEPS AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES 


GO 


NO-GO 


*1 .The sniper employment officer designates an area for debriefing. 

a. The size of the area is large enough for the personnel. 

(1) S-2. 

(2) Sniper employment officer. 

(3) Sniper team. 

(4) Battalion commander or his representative. 

b. The area is equipped with the necessary maps. 

c. The debriefing is free from all distractions. 

2. The sniper team links up with the sniper employment officer. 

a. The sniper team links up with the sniper employment officer at the 
time specified in the patrol order. 

b. The location is in a secure area behind the PLOT. 

3. The team members and the sniper employment officer conduct the 
debriefing. 

a. All members are present. 

b. The sniper team has all recorded information. 

(1) Range card. 

(2) Field sketch. 

(3) Log book. 

c. The team leader conducts the debriefing in chronological order. 







TASK PERFORMANCE SUMMARY BLOCK 


ITERATION 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


M 


TOTAL 


TOTAL TASK STEPS EVALUATED 
















TOTAL TASK STEPS "GO" 

















"*" indicates a leader task step. 
NOOPFORTASK 



B-10 



Appendix C 

Sustainment Program 

Thesustainment program enables the sniper to maintain tlieliigli degree 
of sl<ill and proficiency required to complete SOF missions. The sniper's 
training program should emphasize marksmanship and stalking because 
they are the most perishable of sniper skills. 



TRAINING 



C-1. The frequency of training is important to maintain sniper proficiency. 
The sniper should be tested or evaluated on all sniper skills at least annually; 
semiannually is better. Marksmanship qualification should occur at least 
quarterly to the standards outlined in the SOTIC program of instruction 
(POI ). F igure C-1, pages C-2 through C-11, provides a sample POI for a Level 
II Program. 

TIME DEVOTED TO TRAINING 

C-2. The time the unit allows the sniper to devote to sustainment training 
determines the sniper's overall proficiency. Experience has shown that to 
maintain the degree of weapon familiarity needed to engage targets at 
unknown distances, the sniper should devote at least 8 hours a week in 
sniper marksmanship training. This amount of time spent in quality 
marksmanship training will sustain the sniper's proficiency in the art of 
precision long-range rifle fire. 

BASIC AMMUNITION REQUIREMENTS 

C-3. Basic ammunition requirements for sustainment-type firing can be 
found in DA Pam 350-39, M21/24 Sniper Rifle (Category I) 
Ammunition/ Training Strategy (Table C-1, page C-11). This amount is the 
minimum ammunition requirement, not the maximum. 



C-1 



FM 3-05.222 



PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION (RECOMMENDED) 

COURSE: SPECIAL OPERATIONS TARGET INTERDICTION COURSE, LEVEL II (SOTIC II) 

TRAINING LOCATION: UNIT TRAINING AREA 

PURPOSE: To train selected personnel in the technical skills and operational procedures 
necessary to deliver precision rifle fire from concealed positions to select targets in support 
Special Operations Forces (SOF) missions at ranges to 600 meters. This course also prepares 
personnel to train foreign personnel in target interdiction techniques within established U.S. 
policy. In addition, this course prepares personnel for the Level I SOTIC conducted at the United 
States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. 

SCOPE: Maximum hands-on training in advanced rifle marksmanship, techniques of 
observation, judging distance, advanced methods of concealment, camouflage, stalking, target 
selection, and interdiction mission planning. 

Prerequisites: As established by the local unit commander responsible for the course. 

SPECIAL INFORMATION: Instructors for this course must all be graduates of the Level I SOTIC 
conducted at USAJFKSWCS, Fort Bragg, NC. The student/instructor ratio must be maintained 
so that each team on the firing line will have an assigned instructor behind them on a mentor 
basis. This ratio may be 2:1 or 4:1 depending on the pit support for the course. The mentoring 
relationship should begin at the onset of the course and maintained throughout the course. 

NOTE: This recommended course POI can be established as a two-week or a five-week 
POI. The unit commander may decide to add to this POI dependent upon his mission 
requirements. The course materials should be left as intact as possible and taught as a 
baseline for the unit Level II course. 

COURSE LENGTH: 2 Weeks to 5 Weeks 

COURSE HOURS: 140.5 - 200 Hours 

CLASS SIZE: 4 minimum with size maximum dependent upon maintaining instructor to student 
ratio and available ranges, training areas, and classroom size. 

Hours shown do not reflect maintenance that must be performed daily, transportation to 
and from ranges and training areas, nor breaks for meals. 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction 



C-2 



FM 3-05.222 



COURSE SUMMARY 
GENERAL SUBJECTS 

G1 Inprocessing of Students 

G2 Introduction to SOTIC II 

G3 Mission Planning 

TOTAL HOURS 

MARKSMANSHIP 

Ml The M24 SWS and Equipment 

M2 Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 

M3 Sniper Marksmanship 

M4 Sight Adjustment and Zero 

M5 Correcting for Meteorological Conditions 

M6 Reading Wind and Spotting 

M7 Range Exercise #1 (Position Shooting) 

M8 Range Exercise #2 (Grouping and Zeroing 
Telescopic Sight) 

M9 Range Exercise #3 (Snap Shooting; 200, 
300, and 400 Meters) 

M1 Range Exercise #4 (Moving Targets; 200 
and 300 Meters) 

M1 1 Range Exercise #5 (Dusk Shoot) 

M12 Range Exercise #6 (Deliberate Targets; 
400, 500, and 600 Meters) 

M 1 3 Range Exercise #7 (N VD Shoot-Use 
Unit Organic NVDs) 



HOURS 



5WK 


2WK 


2.0 


2.0 


1.0 


1.0 


2.0 


1.0 


5.0 


4.0 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


4.0 


2.5 


2.5 


4.0 


4.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


1.0 


16.0 


8.0 



8.0 
12.0 

12.0 
4.0 

12.0 

6.0 



4.0 

12.0 

12.0 
2.0 

12.0 

3.0 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction (Continued) 



C-3 



FM 3-05.222 



MARKSMANSHIP (Continued) 


5WK 


HOURS 

2WK 


M14 


Application of Fire (Ballistics) 


3.0 


3.0 


MIS 


Field Shooting 


32.0 


16.0 


M16 


Judging Distance 


3.0 


3.0 


M17 


Judging Distance Exercises 


5.0 


2.0 




TOTAL HOURS 


130.5 


93.5 


OBSERVATION 






01 


Observation of Ground 


2.0 


2.0 


02 


Observation Exercises 


5.0 


2.0 


03 


Observer's Log and Range Card 


1.0 


1.0 


04 


Panoramic Sketching and Electronic 
Reporting 


2.0 


2.0 


05 


Kim's Game 


5.0 


2.0 




TOTAL HOURS 


15.0 


7.0 


CONCEALMENT 






C1 


Individual Camouflage and Concealment 


2.0 


2.0 


C2 


Ghillie Suit Construction 


1.0 


1.0 


C3 


Individual Movement (Stalking) 


2.0 


2.0 


C4 


Selecting Lines of Advance 


2.0 


2.0 


C5 


Stalking Exercise 


17.5 


7.0 


C6 


Sniper Hides and Loopholes 


2.0 


2.0 


C7 


Sniper Hide Construction 


6.0 


0.0 




TOTAL HOURS 


32.5 


19.0 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction (Continued) 



C-4 



FM 3-05.222 



EXAMINATIONS HOURS 

5 WK 2 WK 

E1 Written Examination 1.0 1.0 

E2 Sniper Marksmansiiip 8.0 8.0 

E3 Field Slnoot Examination 8.0 8.0 

TOTAL HOURS 17.0 17.0 

NOTE: It is not mandatory that the above listed examinations are "must pass" but it is 
highly recommended that they are considered critical tasks and thus are "must pass" 
events. 

Tine sponsoring unit commander may add to tliis list or adjust between the two as he sees fit, 
according to his mission perimeters and requirements. Some of the course that may be added 
according to the command requirements would be: 

Urban Operations — Urban Hides, Urban Mission Considerations, Building Surveys, Advance 
Surveys, Sniper in Support of Close Combat, Urban Shooting Positions, Shooting Through 
Medium, Aerial Platform Shooting High Angle Shooting, Video Surveillance and Reporting. 

Mountain Shooting — ^Wind Tunnel Effect of Terrain, High Angle Shooting, High Altitude Shooting 
and Environmental Effects of High Altitude. 

Desert Shooting — High Temperature Effects on Shooting and Weapons, Mirage Problems of 
Desert, Temperature Inversion Effect on Observation. 

This list is limited only by the commander's imagination and requirements based on his mission, 
equipment available, training terrain available, time allowed, and troops available for the giving 
instruction. 

TRAINING ANNEXES 

COURSE: SOTIC II 

ANNEX A: GENERAL SUBJECTS 

PURPSE: To provide the student with the background information and perspective necessary to 
understand the role of snipers in the SOF. 

TOTAL HOURS: 5.0 (4.0) 

SUBJECT TITLE HOURS 

5 WK 2 WK 

G1 Inprocessing of students 2.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will inprocess into the course and all paperwork will be completed to 
establish the student's record in the course. Weapons and equipment will be issued and 
inspected for serviceability. 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction (Continued) 



C-5 



FM 3-05.222 





HOURS 


5WK 


2WK 


3.0 


3.0 



G2 Introduction to SOTIC II 1.0 1.0 

SCOPE: The student will know and describe the course content, conduct on the range, range 
procedures, safety procedures, pass requirements, retrain and retest procedures, and 
examination perimeters. 

G3 Mission Planning 2.0 1.0 

SCOPE: The student will analyze mission requirements and operational perimeters and prepare 
an operations order for a mission. Due consideration will be taken of the unique characteristics of 
the sniper mission. 

ANNEX B: MARKSMANSHIP 

PURPOSE: To provide the student with the necessary skills to qualify him in sniper 
marksmanship to 600 meters with the M24 Sniper Marksmanship System. 

TOTAL HOURS: 130.5 (93.5) 
SUBJECT TITLE 

M1 The M24 SWS and Equipment 

SCOPE: The student will describe the functioning, inspection, disassembly, and reassembly of 
the M24; and the maintenance procedures for the M24 SWS and related sniper equipment used 
by their unit. 

M2 Advanced Rifle Marksmanship 4.0 4.0 

SCOPE: The student will demonstrate the four fundamentals of shooting to include the use of the 
sling and iron sights. The student will demonstrate the positions of standing off-hand, sitting 
rapid, prone rapid, and prone slow. NOTE: It is understood that most known distance (KD) 
ranges are established in yards, and yards may be substituted for meters in these exercises; see 
Range Exercise #1 . 

M3 Sniper Marksmanship 2.5 2.5 

SCOPE: The student will demonstrate sniper marksmanship skills, to include field shooting 
positions and engagement techniques of snap targets, moving targets, and deliberate targets at 
known ranges. 

M4 Sight Adjustment and Zero 4.0 4.0 

SCOPE: The student will descrbe the principles of minute of angle and mils and how these 
measurements relate to zeroing the M24. He will demonstrate the zeroing of both the iron sights 
and the M3A scope, sight adjustment, and use of the sniper data logbook. 

M5 Correcting for Meteorological Conditions 2.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will calculate and correct for zero change and bullet deflection caused by 
meteorological conditions. 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction (Continued) 



C-6 



FM 3-05.222 



ANNEX B: MARKSMANSHIP (Continued) HOURS 

5 WK 2 WK 

M6 Reading and Spotting 2.0 1.0 

SCOPE: Tine student wiii demonstrate tine use of tine spotting scope to determine wind velocity and 
direction. He will read bullet trace to determine round impact. This class is conducted on a known 
distance range. 

M7 Range Exercise #1 (Position Shooting) 16.0 8.0 

SCOPE: The student will demonstrate Advanced Rifle Marksmanship skills while firing the NRA 
course of fire on a known distance range. The student will first zero his iron sights at 200 meters 
(yards) in the prone supported position. This exercise will also be the first exercise to utilize the 
sniper — observer pair for reading wind and spotting. Exercise will be conducted on a known 
distance range and consists of 200 meter (yard) standing off-hand, 200 meter (yard) sitting rapid, 
300 meter (yard) prone rapid, and 600 meter (yard) slow fire. 

NOTE: Two-week course may wish to substitute 200 meter (yard) prone siow and rapid for 
200-meter exercises, drop 300 and fire tfie 600 prone siow. 

M8 Range Exercise #2 (Grouping and Zeroing 

Telescopic Sights) 8.0 4.0 

SCOPE: The student will demonstrate zeroing of his telescopic sight at 200 meters and then 
practice five round groups at 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 meters (yards). This exercise will be 
conducted on a known distance range. 

M9 Range Exercise #3 (Snap Shooting; 200, 

300, and 400 Meters [Yards]) 1 2.0 1 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will demonstrate the techniques and ability to engage snap targets at 
various ranges under restricted time limits. Exercises conducted will 3 second snap target at 200 
meters (yards) over a 7 meter front; 6 second snap target at 300 meters (yards) over a 7 meter 
front; 3 second snap target at 400 meters (yards) over a 10 meter front. The 200 and 300-meter 
targets are the head of an FBI target while the 400-meter target is the chest and head of an FBI 
target. 

Ml Range Exercise #4 (Moving Targets; 

200 and 300 Meters) 1 2.0 1 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will demonstrate the techniques and the ability to engage targets moving at 
a parade ground marching cadence over a distance of 1 meters at ranges of 200 and 300 
meters. This exercise will be conducted on a known distance range. 

Mil Range Exercise #5 (Dusk Shoot) 4.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will engage targets under conditions of failing light with the M3A telescopic 
sight. Exercise will run from sunset to EENT or until light conditions no longer permit shooting. 
The students will then engage targets with artificial illumination supplied by parachute flares fired 
from various locations. This exercise can be run on a known distance range or a machine gun 
range with pop-up targets. 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction (Continued) 



C-7 



FM 3-05.222 



ANNEX B: MARKSMANSHIP (Continued) HOURS 

5 WK 2 WK 

M12 Range Exercise #6 (Deliberate Targets; 

400, 500, and 600 Meters [Yards]) 1 2.0 1 2.0 

SCOPE: Tine student will demonstrate the ability to engage targets with precision shots at ranges 
to 600 meters under time restraints of 10 seconds, 400 meters; 12 seconds, 500 meters; 15 
seconds, 600 meters (yards) on a known distance range. 

Ml 3 Range Exercise #7 (NVD Shoot- 
Use Unit Organic NVDs) 6.0 3.0 

SCOPE: The student will zero the NVDs and engage targets at various ranges using the unit 
organic NVDs. This exercise is run on a known distance range or a machine gun range with pop- 
up targets. 

M14 Application of Fire 3.0 3.0 

SCOPE: The student will describe how to calculate the effects of internal and external ballistics 
on the trajectory of the round over uneven ground at targets on unknown distance, hit probability 
and the effects of internal and external ballistics on hit probability, target designation and 
selection, terminal ballistics and follow on shot calculation. 

Ml 5 Field Shooting (Unknown Distance) 32.0 16.0 

SCOPE: The student will successfully engage targets at unknown distances from 200 to 600 
meters under field conditions. 

Ml 6 Judging Distance 3.0 3.0 

SCOPE: The student will describe and demonstrate the various techniques of judging distance 
by eye and with the M3A telescopic sight. 

Ml 7 Judging Distance Exercises (5 or 2 

Exercises) 5.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will conduct practical exercises in judging distance by eye and by M3A 
scope using the mil-relationship formula. The 5-week course will conduct 5 exercises while the 
2-week course will conduct 2 exercises. 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction (Continued) 



C-8 



FM 3-05.222 



ANNEX C: OBSERVATION 

PURPOSE: To provide the student with the background knowledge and skills to perform his role 
as an observer in the sniper observer pair. 

SUBJECT TITLE HOURS 

5 WK 2 WK 

01 Observation of Ground 2.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will describe the four target indicators and how they are used to locate the 
enemy, demonstrate the principles and techniques of observation, and the differences in the 
techniques during day and night. 

02 Observation Exercises (5 or 2 Exercises) 5.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will conduct one practical exercise and four graded, (one and one for the 2 
week) where he will demonstrate his ability to draw a panoramic sketch or a sector and 
accurately place the 10 items in the sector through the use of observation skills and an 
understanding of target indicators. 

03 Observer's Log and Range Card 1.0 1.0 

SCOPE: The student will record information in an observer's log and demonstrate the 
construction of and use of the range card. 

04 Panoramic Sketching and Electronic 

Reporting 2.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will demonstrate the techniques of panoramic sketching and construction 
of a filed sketch including marginal information, subsketches, the use of sketching of materials, 
and the use of electronic reporting techniques and equipment. 

05 Kim's Game (5 or 2 Exercises) 5.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will demonstrate observation techniques with memorization, retention, and 
recall of detail 

ANNEX D: CONCEALMENT 

PURPOSE: To provide the student with the skills to conceal himself and his equipment during 
sniper operations. 

SUBJECT TITLE HOURS 

5 WK 2 WK 

CI Individual Camouflage and Concealment 2.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student will describe target indicators and techniques to defeat the target indicators, 
principles and techniques of camouflage and concealment, and use of various materials in 
camouflage and concealment. 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction (Continued) 



C-9 



FM 3-05.222 



ANNEX D: CONCEALMENT (Continued) HOURS 

5 WK 2 WK 

PURPOSE: To provide the student with the background knowiedge and skiiis to perform his roie 
as an observer in the sniper observer pair. 

C2 Ghiiiie Suit Construction 1.0 1.0 

SCOPE: The student wiii construct a Ghiiiie suit using the principies of camoufiage and 
conceaiment. 

C3 Individuai Movement (Staiking) 2.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student wiii demonstrate the 5 techniques of steaith movement over ground with 
the I\/I24 SWS and equipment. 

C4 Seiecting Lines of Advance 2.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student wiii demonstrate terrain anaiysis, route seiection using vantage points, 
dead space and masking techniques to faciiitate steaith movement to an objective and return. 

C5 Staiking Exercises (5 or 2 Exercises) 17.5 7.0 

SCOPE: The student wiii demonstrate seiecting iines of advance, steaith movement techniques 
and conceaiment by staiking to within 200 meters of an observer using binocuiars to iocate the 
student. There are 5 (2) three-hour exercises with each having a 30-minute preparation period 
prior to the staik start. Each exercise is graded at 20 points, five staik; or 50 points, 2 staik. 

C6 Sniper Hides and Loophoies 2.0 2.0 

SCOPE: The student wiii describe site seiection criteria, hasty and deiiberate sniper hide 
construction, methods of ioophoie construction and conceaiment, spoiis removai, and the effects 
of iong term operations confined in the hide, sieep deprivation, and the effects on mission 
compietion. The student wiii aiso describe the speciai considerations required for urban hide 
construction and buiiding construction factors effecting the hide construction. 

C7 Sniper Hide Construction 6.0 0.0 

SCOPE: The students wiii demonstrate hide construction through the construction of a ciass hide 
for sniper team. Site seiection, construction materiais and techniques, spoii disposai, and 
camoufiage and conceaiment techniques wiii be demonstrated in the hide exercise. The students 
may be required to work on an urban hide in iieu of a rurai type hide. 

ANNEX E: EXAMINATIONS 

PURPOSE: The student wiii demonstrate his grasp of the subject matter through the use of 
various examinations designed to test his knowiedge and capabiiities. 

SUBJECT TITLE HOURS 

5 WK 2 WK 

El Written Examination 1.0 1.0 

SCOPE: The student wiii demonstrate his knowiedge of the subjects presented throughout the 
course with a muitipie-choice examination consisting of 50 questions. 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction (Continued) 



C-10 



FM 3-05.222 



ANNEX E: EXAMINATIONS (Continued) 



HOURS 
5 WK 2 WK 



E2 



Sniper Marksmanship 



8.0 



8.0 



SCOPE: Tine student wiii demonstrate Inis abiiity to zero tine MSA teiescopic siglit on tine M24 
SWS and fire tlie SWS in a course of fire consisting of snaps and movers at 200 and 300 
meters, snaps and deliberates at 400 meters, and deliberates at 500 and 600 meters. 



E3 Field Shoot Examination 



8.0 



8.0 



SCOPE: The student will demonstrate his ability to engage five targets over uneven terrain at 
unknown distances from 400 meters to 700 meters. 



Figure C-1. Sample Sniper Sustainment Program of Instruction (Continued) 



Table C-1. Excerpt From DA Pam 350-39, Dated 3 July 1997 



Annual Ammunition Requirement and Training Strategy for the M24 Sniper Rifle (CAT 1) 


EVENT 


AC/RC 


MATCH 


.50 CAL 


.300 


DODIC 




A171 


A531 


A191* 


ZERO/CONFIRM ZERO 


4/1 


20 






FIRE KNOWN DIST 200-1000 M 


4/1 


100 






FIELD FIRE 


4/1 


100 






LFX 


4/1 


10 






FAM FIRE NIGHT/ZERO NVG 


2/1 


40 






SUSTAINMENT (7.62 MM) 


2/1 


40 






(.50 CAL) 


2/1 




40 




(.300 WIN) 


2/1 






40 


RECORD QUALIFICATION 


2/1 


100 






TOTAL ROUNDS INDIVIDUAL 


AC/RC 


1280/420 


80 


80 


TOTAL RDS BN 


AC/RC 


46,080/15,360 


2880/960 




SOTIC LEVEL II TNG PROGRAM (BN) 


1/.33 


12,160/4,053 






Note: * USASOC procurement item. 



TRAINING EXERCISES 



C-4. The following exercises may be incorporated into team training to improve 
every team member's skills and enhance the team's overall capabilities. 



C-11 



FM 3-05.222 



Marksmanship Exercises 

C-5. Marksmanship training will take up a large amount of the sniper's 
overall proficiency training. The sniper must be proficient in all sniper- 
related skills, but without marksmanship, these other skills are useless. 
Some examples of marksmanship exercises are— 

• Grouping Exercises. These are simple exercises where the sniper fires 
five-round shot groups at various ranges, from 100 to 800 meters. 
Analysis of the shot groups helps him determine firing errors and 
environmental effects in a more or less controlled environment. 
Analysis also allows the sniper to collect his cold bore shot and 
environmental data. 

• Moving Targd: Firing. Firing at moving targets helps the sniper to 
maintain proficiency in this difficult skill. Targets should be engaged 
from 100 to 600 meters. These exercises are simple to run. Moving 
targets are provided by having personnel "walk" silhouette targets on a 
stick or board held over their head while protected in the pits of a 
traditional known distance range. The targets must be cut 12 inches 
wide to maintain realism. Snipers should not know target direction or 
speed during final exercises. The target will come up in the middle of a 
20-meter area and then move either left or right and at a speed of 
either a slow walk, walk, or a run. The sniper must engage the target 
before it gets to the other side of the lane. Also, a second target can be 
moved in the same lane assigned to another sniper team. The teams 
must hit their assigned target. Stop-and-go targets may be engaged 
from 600 to 800 meters. These targets will move across the sniper's 
front and periodically stop for 3 to 5 seconds, then begin to move again. 
Each sniper will be assigned a target to engage. 

• Unknown Distance Firing. This exercise helps the sniper to stay 
proficient in a variety of sniper skills. The sniper pair must fill out a 
range card or sector sketch and estimate the range to targets. The pair 
must then use the information to engage targets of unknown distance. 
Distances should range from 200 to 800 meters. The targets must be 
fully mixed and partially exposed. This will force the snipers to range 
on other objects and use target information for range estimation 
and engagement. 

• Firing Under Artificial I llumination and/ or NVDs. I n this exercise, the 
sniper fires at both stationary and moving targets from 100 to 600 
meters under artificial illumination or 100 to 600 meters (weather 
dependant) using NVDs. Beyond a range of 400 meters, wind plays a 
significant role in target engagement. Winds above 5 mph will cause a 
miss, regardless of the sniper's skill, if the sniper can not detect the 
wi nd and dope the wi nd. 

• Stress Sliooting. All previous exercises can be further enhanced with 
the additional application of a stress factor. Applying a time limit, 
stalking to the target, or physical effort before firing are but a few 
stresses that may be applied to the sniper. 

• Firing Air Rifles. The sniper can effectively use match-grade air rifles 
(for example, RWS 75 or Daisy Gamo) for marksmanship training. 



C-12 



FM 3-05.222 



They do not require any special ranges. Any area with a minimum of 10 
meters of distance can be used, indoors or outdoors. The sniper can use 
this range, in conjunction with caliber .22 bullet traps and standing off- 
hand (unsupported), to reinforce marksmanship fundamentals. Using 
scaled targets and a good air-rifle scope in an outdoor area can 
simulate ranges of up to 1,000 meters. Ranges of 10 to 20 meters and 
targets, reduced in size to represent different ranges, can be used. 

Stalking Exercises 

C-6. These exercises enable the sniper to train and develop skills in 
movement, camouflage, map reading, mission planning, and position 
selection. Live fire may be incorporated to confirm the sniper's target 
engagement. Stalks should be performed by sniper teams as they must learn 
to work together. 

Range-Estimation Exercises 

C-7. There are many ways to conduct this type of exercise. The sniper 
estimates ranges out to 800 meters and must be within 5 percent of the 
correct range when miling with his scope. He should use only his binoculars 
and rifle telescope as aids. When using only the eye for range estimation, the 
sniper must be within 12 percent out to 500 meters. Range estimation beyond 
600 meters by the unaided eye is very difficult and requires constant practice. 

Other Exercises 

C-8. The sniper's training program may include other exercises to enhance 
his observation, memory, and camouflage skills. 

M24 SNIPER MILESTRAINING 

C-9. The MILES training is an invaluable tool in realistic combat training. 
Other than actual combat, the sniper's best means of displaying effectiveness 
as a force multiplier is through the use of the M24SWS with MILES. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MILES TRANSMITTER 

C-10. The M24 SWS MILES transmitter is a modified M16 transmitter. 
A special mounting bracket attaches the laser transmitter to the right side of 
the barrel (looking from the butt end) of the M24 and places it parallel with 
the line of bore. The laser beam output has been amplified and tightened 
to provide precision fire capability out to 1,000 meters. (For component 
information and instructions on mounting, zeroing, and operation, see 
TM 9-1265-211-10, Operator's Manual for Multiple Integrated Laser 
Engagement Syster) (MILES) Simulator System, Firing, Laser: M89). 

TRAINING VALUE 

C-11. Using the M24 with MILES, the trainer can enhance sustainment 
training in target engagement such as the foil owing: 

• Selection of Firing Positions. Due to transmitter modifications, the sniper 
must attain a firing position that affords clear fields of fire. Any 
obstruction (vegetation, terrain) can prevent a one-shot kill by deflecting 



C-13 



FM 3-05.222 



or blocking the path of the laser beam. By selecting this type of position, 
the sniper will greatly improve his observation and firing capabilities. 

• Target Ddiecti on/ Selection. Using MILES against multiple or cluster 
targets requires the sniper to select the target that has the greatest 
effect on the enemy. The trainer provides instant feedback on the 
sniper's performance. Situations may be created such as bunkers, 
hostage situations, and MOUT firing. The hit-or-miss indicating 
aspects of MILES are invaluable in this type of training. 

• Marksmanship. A target hit (kill) with MILES is the same as one with 
live ammunition. Proper application of marksmanship fundamentals 
results in a first-round kill; the training value is self-evident. 

MILESTRAINING LIMITATIONS 

C-12. The concept of MILES is to provide realistic training. However, MILES 
is limited in its capabilities as applied to the sniper's mission of long-range 
precision fire. These limitations are— 

• Lacl< of Range Estimation Training. Due to the straight beam, once the 
weapon and MILES are zeroed together, the sniper cannot change the 
elevation knob based on range-to-target. This negates any range 
estimation practiceduring this training. 

• Lack of External Ballistics Training. The MILES transmitter emits a 
concentrated beam of light. It travels from the sniper's weapon 
undisturbed by outside forces such as temperature, humidity, and 
wind. Lack of these effects may lull the sniper into a false sense of 
confidence. The trainers should constantly reinforce the importance of 
these factors. The sniper should make a mental note of changes that 
should be applied to compensate for these effects. 

• Engagement of Moving Targdis. The engagement of moving targets 
requires the sniper to establish a target lead to compensate for flight 
time of his bullet. Traveling in excess of 186,000 miles per second (speed 
of light), the MILES laser nullifies the requirement for target lead. 
Again, the sniper may be lulled into a false sense of confidence. The 
trainer should enforce the principles of moving target engagement by 
having the sniper note appropriate target lead for the given situation. 

REDUCED-SCALE RANGE 

C-13. When using air rifles for marksmanship training, the sniper can use one 
of several formulas to simulate distances for a reduced or subcaliber range. 
Listed below are several formulas and explanations on how to use them. 

REDUCED-SCALE TARGET HEIGHT FORMULA 

C-14. The formula to find the reduced height of a target at a given range and 
a simulated range is as follows: 

RlxHl ^^ 

= n z 

R2 

Rl = Reduced range-l- 

R2 =Simulated range-l- 



C-14 



FM 3-05.222 



H 1 = H eight of actual target* 
H2 = Reduced height of target* 

NOTES: 

+ Both the reduced range and the simulated range must agree in measurement; 
for example, 1,000 meters and 35 meters or 1,000 yards and 35 yards. 

* If the height of the real target is expressed in inches (for example, 72 inches 
for a 6-foot man), the answer is in inches. If the height is expressed in feet, 
the answer will be in feet. 

EXAMPLES: 

Rl =35 meters R2 =500 meters HI =72 inches 

35x72 ^„^. ^ 
5.04 inches 



500 
Rl =25 yards R2= 800 yards HI =6 feet 

^^^=0.1875 feet 
800 

To change the 0.1875 feet to inches, multiply by 12. 0.1875 x 12 =2.25 inches 

REDUCED-SCALE SIMULATED RANGE FORMULA 

C-15. The formula to find the simulated range of a given reduced target 
height at a given reduced range is as follows: 

RlxHl 

= R2 

H2 

EXAMPLE: A 3-inch target at 35 meters will simulate what range? 

Rl =35 meters HI =72 inches H2 =3 inches 

35x72 „._ ^ 

= 840 meters 

3 

C-16. Table C-2, page C-16, simulates in inches a 6-foot man at various 
ranges on the given reduced ranges. 

C-17. The center of the pellet strike should be the determining factor due to 
the size difference of the pellet diameter versus the range and simulated 
target size. It is also recommended that the ranges of 100 through 400 
yards/meters be against a head or head and shoulders target and not the full 
body. For example, at 35 meters the normal human head is simulated to be 
2.8 inches high by 1.75 inches wide for a simulated range of 100 meters. 

C-18. An additional advantage to the reduced range targets is that when the 
sniper uses the above table or formulas, a reduced-scale unknown distance 
range for judging distance will be constructed at the same time. When he 
uses the mil scale in the Leupold M3A Ultra lOx scope, the targets will give 
the same mil readings as a real target at that distance. As an example, a 6- 
foot man at 500 yards is 4 mils high. A 3.60-inch target at 25 yards is 4 mils 
high and simulates a 6-foot man at 500 yards. 



C-15 



FM 3-05.222 



Table C-2. Reduced Range Chart 



Range 


15 yds/m 


20 yds/m 


25 yds/m 


30 yds/m 


35 yds/m 


1 ,000 yds/m 


1 .08" 


1 .44" 


1 .80" 


2.16" 


2.52" 


900 yds/m 


1 .20" 


1 .60" 


2.00" 


2.40" 


2.80" 


800 yds/m 


1 .35" 


1 .80" 


2.25" 


2.70" 


3.15" 


700 yds/m 


1 .54" 


2.05" 


2.57" 


3.08" 


3.60" 


600 yds/m 


1 .80" 


2.40" 


3.00" 


3.60" 


4.20" 


500 yds/m 


2.16" 


2.88" 


3.60" 


4.32" 


5.04" 


400 yds/m 


2.70" 


3.60" 


4.50" 


5.40" 


6.30" 


300 yds/m 


3.60" 


4.80" 


6.00" 


7.20" 


8.40" 


200 yds/m 


5.40" 


7.20" 


9.00" 


10.80" 


12.60" 


1 00 yds/m 


10.80" 


14.40" 


18.00" 


21 .60" 


25.20" 



C-19. Another technique is to determine the number of IMOA that the target 
represents at that range; 36 inches at 600 equals 6 IMOA. Then use that 
number to simulate the reduced distance target: 6 MOA equals 1.5 inches at 
25 yards. Thus, a 1.5-inch target at 25 yards will equal a 36-inch target at 
600 yards. 



C-16 



Appendix D 

Mission Packing List 

The sniper team determines tlie type and quantity of equipment it 
carries by a METT-TC analysis. Some of tlie equipment mentioned may 
not be available. A sniper team, due to its unique mission 
requirements, carries only mission-essential equipment. This is not an 
inclusive list, and not all items listed will be carried on all missions. 



ARMS AND AMMUNITION 

D-1. Table D-1 lists mission-essential arms and ammunition carried by a 
sniper and observer. 



Table D-1. List of Arms and Ammunition 



Sniper 



M24 SWS with MSA telescope. 

Rounds of M11 8/M852 ammunition. 

Sniper's data book, mission logbook, 
range cards, wind tables, and slope 
dope. 

M9 9-mm pistol. 

Rounds 9-mm ball ammunition. 

Each 9-mm magazines. 

M9 bayonet. 

M67 fragmentation grenades. 

CS grenades; 2 percussion grenades 
(MOUT). 

M18A1 mine, complete. 



Observer 



M4/M1 6/M203 (with NVD, as appropriate). 

Rounds ammunition. 

Magazines for rifle. 

M9 9-mm pistol. 

Rounds, 9-mm ball ammunition. 

Each 9-mm magazines. 

M9 bayonet 

Rounds 40-mm, high-exploslve ammunition 
if M203 is carried. 

Rounds 40-mm antipersonnel ammunition. 

M67 fragmentation grenades; 2 CS 
grenades; 2 percussion (MOUT). 



D-1 



FM 3-05.222 



SPECIAL EQUIPMENT 

D-2. Table D-2 lists mission-essential special equipment carried by a 
sniper and observer. 



Table D-2. List of Special Equipment 



-1 

Sniper Observer 


• M24 SWS cleaning kit. 

• M24 SWS deployment kit (tools and 
replacement parts). 

• M9 pistol cleaning kit. 

• Extra handset for radio. 

• Extra batteries for radio (BA-4386 or 
lithium, dependent on mission length). 

• Signal operating instructions. 

• AN/PVS-5/7 series, night vision 
goggles. 

• Extra BA-1 567/U or AA batteries for 
night vision goggles. 

• Pace cord. 

• E-tool with carrier. 

• 50-foot 550 cord. 

• 1 green and 1 red star cluster. 

• 2 HC smoke grenades. 

• Measuring tape (25-foot carpenter- 
type). 


• M4/M1 6/M203 cleaning kit. 

• AN/PRC-77/AN-PRC-1 1 9/AN/PRC-1 04 
radio. 

• Radio accessory bag, complete with long 
whip and base, tape antenna and base, 
handset, and battery (BA-4386 or lithium). 

• M49 20x spotting scope with M1 5 tripod (or 
equivalent 15 to 20x fixed power scope, or 
15-45X spotting scope). 

• M1 9/M22 binoculars (preferably 7 x 50 
power with mil scale). 

• Range estimation "cheat book." 

• 300 feet WD-1 field wire (for field-expedient 
antenna fabrication). 

• Olive-drab duct tape, olive-drab ("1 00 
mph") tape. 

• Extra batteries for radio (if needed). 

• Extra batteries (BA-1 576/U) for AN/PVS-4. 

• Calculator with extra battery. 

• Butt pack. 

• 1 each sandwich-sized waterproof bags. 

• 2 HC smoke grenades. 

• Lineman's tool. 



D-2 



UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENT 

D-3. Table D-3 lists uniforms and equipment. 



FM 3-05.222 



Table D-3. List of Uniforms and Equipment 



Footgear (jungle/desert/cold weather/combat boots). 

2 sets of BDUs (desert/woodland/camouflage). 

Black leather gloves. 

2 brown T-shirts. 

2 pairs brown underwear. 

8 pairs ollve-drab wool socks. 

Black belt. 

Headgear (BDU/jungle/desert/cold weather). 

Identification (ID) tags and ID card. 

Wristwatch (sweep-second hand with luminous dial, waterproof). 

Pocket survival knife. 

Large all-purpose, lightweight individual carrying equipment (ALICE) pack, complete with 
frame and shoulder straps. 

2 waterproof bags (for ALICE pack). 

2 2-quart canteens with covers. 

1 bottle water purification tablets. 
Complete load-bearing equipment (LBE). 

Red-lens flashlight (angle-head type with extra batteries). 

MRE (number dependent on mission length). 

9-mm pistol holster and magazine pouch (attached to LBE). 

2 camouflage sticks (METT-TC-dependent). 
2 black ink pens. 

2 mechanical pencils with lead. 

2 black grease pencils. 

Lensatic compass. 

Map(s) of operational area. 

Protractor. 

Poncho. 

Poncho liner. 

2 ghillie suits, complete. 

2 protective masks/MOPP suits. 

Foot powder. 

Toiletries. 



D-3 



FM 3-05.222 



OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT 

D-4. Table D-4 lists optional equipment. 

Table D-4. List of Optional Equipment 





> M203 vest. 

• Desert camouflage netting. 
» Natural-colored burlap. 

» Glitter tape. 

» VS-17panel. 

» Strobe light with filters. 

» Special patrol insertion/extraction system 
harness. 

» 12-foot sling rope. 

» 2 each snap links. 

» 120-foot nylon rope. 

» Lip balm or sunscreen. 

» Signal mirror. 

» Pen gun with flares. 

» Chemical lights (to include infrared). 

» Body armor/flak jacket. 

» Sniper veil. 

» Sewing kit. 

» Insect repellent. 

» Sleeping bag. 

» Knee and elbow pads. 

• Survival kit. 




• Rifle drag bag. 

» Pistol silencer/suppressor. 

» 2.5 pounds C4 with caps, cord, fuse, and 
igniter. 

» Rifle bipod/tripod. 

» Empty sandbags. 

» Hearing protection (ear muffs). 

» Thermometer. 

» Laser range finder. 

» Thermal imager. 

» KN-200-KN-250 image intensifier. 

» Pocket binoculars. 

> 35-mm automatic loading camera with 
appropriate lenses and film. 

> 1/2-inch camcorder with accessories. 

• Satellite communication equipment. 

• Short-range radio with earphone and 
whisper microphone. 

> Field-expedient antennas. 

> Information reporting formats. 

• Encryption device for radio. 

• SO sniper training/employment manual. 



D-4 



SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 

D-5. Table D-5 lists special tools and equipment (MOUT). 

Table D-5. List of Special Tools and Equipment 



FM 3-05.222 





• Pry bar. « 


> Power saw. 




» Pliers. < 


» Cutting torch. 




» Screwdriver. < 


» Shotgun. 




» Rubber-lieaded liammer. < 


» Spray paint. 




» Glass cutter. < 


» Stethoscope. 




» Masonry drill and bits. < 


» Maps or street plans. 




» Metal shears. < 


» Photographs, aerial and panoramic. 




► Cliisel. < 


» Whistle. 




► Auger. < 


» Luminous tape. 




» Lock pick, skeleton keys, cobra pick. < 


» Flex cuffs. 




► Bolt cutters. < 


► Padlocks. 




» Hacksaw or handsaw. < 


» Intrusion detection system (booby traps). 




► Sledgehammer. < 


» Portable spotlight(s). 




» Ax. 


» Money (U.S. and indigenous). 




> Ram. « 


• Civilian attire. 



ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT TRANSPORT 

D-6. The planned use of air and vehicle drops and caching techniques 
eliminates the need for the sniper team to carry extra equipment. 
Another method is to use the stay-behind technique when operating with 
a security patrol (Chapter 5). Through coordination with the security 
patrol leader, the team's equipment may be brol<en down among the 
patrol members. On arrival at the ORP, the security patrol may leave 
behind all mission-essential equipment. After completing the mission, the 
team may cache the equipment for later picl<up, or it may be returned the 
same way it was brought in. 



D-5 



Appendix E 

M82A1 Caliber .50 Sniper Weapon System 

Changes in modern warfare required an expansion of tlie sniper's role. 
On tine fluid, modern battlefield, the sniper must be prepared to engage a 
wide range of targets at even greater distances. After years of research 
and development, the military adopted the M82A1 caliber .50 SWS. 
However, even after having been deployed to operational units, no 
comprehensive training plan has been developed to train snipers on this 
new role. The basic approach to the large-bore sniper rifle has been that 
it is nothing more than a big M24 (7.62-mm sniper rifle). This logic has 
its obvious flaws. Many of the techniques learned by the sniper need to be 
modified to compensate for this new weapon system. Some of these 
changes include movement techniques, maintenance requirements, 
sniper team size and configuration, support requirements, and the 
marksmanship skills necessary to engage targets at ranges in excess of 
1,800 meters. To keep up with the battles fought in-depth, as well as 
smaller-scale conflicts, the need for a sniper trained and equipped with a 
large-bore rifle is apparent. 



ROLE OF THE M82A1 CALIBER .50 SWS 

E-1. The military can use the M82A1 in several different roles— as the long- 
range rifle, the infantry support rifle, and the explosive ordnance disposal 
tool. Personnel usetheM82Al as— 

• A long-range rifle to disable valuable targets that are located outside the 
rangeor the capabilities of conventional weapons, many times doing so in 
situations that may preclude the use of more sophisticated weapons. 

• An infantry support rifle to engage lightly armored vehicles and to 
penetrate light fortifications that the 5.56 mm and the 7.62 mm 
cannot defeat. 

• An explosive ordnance disposal tool to engage and disrupt several types 
of munitions at ranges from 100 to 500 meters. In most cases, the 
munitions are destroyed or disrupted with a single hit and without a 
high-order detonation. 

E-2. When used in any of its roles, the caliber .50 SWS and personnel trained 
to use it are vital assets to the commander. In light of this, a training 
program is necessary to maximize their potential. 



E-1 



FM 3-05.222 



M82A1 CALIBER .50 SWS CHARACTERISTICS 

E-3. The Barrett Caliber .50 Model 82A1 is a short recoil -operated, 
magazine-fed, air-cooled, semiautomatic rifle (Figure E-1). Its specifications 
are as follows: 

• Caliber: .50 Browning machine gun cartridge (12.7 x 99 mm). 

• Weight: 30 lbs (13.6 kg). 

• Overall Length: 57 inches (144.78 cm). 

• Barrel Length: 29 inches (73.67 cm). 

• MuzzleVelocity:2,850fps(M33ball). 

• Maximum Range M 2 Ball: 6,800 meters (7,450 yds). 

• Maximum Effective Range: 1,830 meters on an area target and 1200 to 
1400 on a point target, depending on target size. 

• Magazine Capacity: 10 rounds. 




Figure E-1. The Barrett Caliber .50 l\/lodel 82A1 



THE SWAROVSKI RANGING RETICLE RIFLE SCOPE 

E-4. A qualified sniper has already been taught the fundamentals of scoped 
rifle fire. However, the scope that the M82A1 is equipped with differs from 
most of the scopes. Figure E-2, page E-3, lists the specifications for the 
Swarovski rifle scope. 



E-2 



FM 3-05.222 



Design Characteristics 


• 30-mm main tube is compatible witii existing SWS mounting rings. 

• Made of aluminum alloy. 

• NOVA ocular system filled with dry nitrogen after pressure-testing to prevent 
fogging. 

• Available add-on battery-operated reticle illuminator for low-light conditions. 

• Recoiling eyepiece offers added protection from scope "bite." 

• Sloped scope rail enables use of only the Swarovski reticle-equipped scope, rail is 
between 0.030 and 0.035 inches higher at rear. The sloped rail also aids in the M3A to 
zero at the longer ranges due to the additional slope in the rail. 

NOTE: Under no circumstances will the scope rail be removed. 


Technical Data 


< 
< 

< 

< 


» Magnification: 10x. 

» Objective Lens Diameter: 42 mm. 

» Field of View: 1 2 feet at 1 00 yards/4 meters at 1 00 meters. 

» Parallax-Free Distance of the Reticle: 500 meters (tolerance 250 meters to 
infinity). 

» Windage and Elevation Adjustments: 1 click: 1/5 inch at 100 yards, (1/5 MOA) 
maximum: 80 inches at 100 yards (80 MOA). 

» Operating Temperature: 131 degrees Fahrenheit/ -4 degrees Fahrenheit. 

» Weight: approximately 13.5 ounces. 




Reticle 


< 


» Offers "ranging" capabilities from 500 to 1 ,800 meters. 

» No range estimation abilities (500 meters to 600 meters stadia lines approximately 
1 mil apart, 3.5 MOA). 

» 5 and 1 mph wind hold-offs, also usable for moving targets. 

» Lack of mil dots require different hold-offs for wind and drift. 



Figure E-2. Scope Specifications 

USING THE M82A1 CALIBER .50 SWS 

E-5. A qualified sniper has also already been taught the considerations 
necessary for proper employment of a sniper team. With the caliber .50 SWS, 
many of these have changed. The effective range, signature, weight, support 
requirements, and terminal performance of the round are all increased over 
the 7.62 SWS. As a result, the sniper must do the following to ensure proper 
use of this system: 

• Maximize the range of the M82A1. Always engage targets at the 
maximum range that the weapon, target, and terrain will permit. Make 
sure to— 

■ Select the appropriate ammunition (by effective range and terminal 
performance). 



E-3 



FM 3-05.222 



■ Use range finder whenever possible. 

■ When in doubt of range estimation, aim low and adjust using the 
sight-to-burst method. Second shots are frowned upon with a 7.62 
SWS because of two things— the target getting into a prone position 
(which most people do when shot at) and the sniper revealing his 
position. Neither of these principles apply to the caliber .50 SWS 
when it is used against armored or fortified targets. Armored 
personnel carriers (APCs) cannot "duck," nor is an enemy buttoned 
into a bunker or an APC as observant as he could be. The sniper 
needs to have carefully observed his area before assuming the above 
to be always true. 

Conduct movement into or occupy an FFP with the M82AI SWS. Sniper 
should— 

■ Modify his movement techniques to accommodate for the following: 

♦ Increased weight of the system, ammunition, and team 
equipment. 

♦ Better route selection (amount of crawling is reduced). 

♦ Better selection of withdrawal routes (after the shot, the sniper 
becomes a higher-priority target and must select route for 
quick egress). 

■ Occupy an FFP and adjust for the following: 

♦ Much larger signature to front, clear area and dampen soil. 

♦ Signature also at 65 degrees, fan to right and left of sniper. 

♦ Size requirement for a 3-man sniper team in a permanent hide 
may make it unfeasible for many applications. 

♦ FFP should prevent long-range "skylined" targets. 

Understand additional support requirements for the M82A1. Sniper 
should— 

■ Maintain an M82A1 SWS as follows: 

♦ Clean after 10 rounds for better accuracy. 

♦ Be aware that a chamber pressure of 55,000 copper units of 
pressure (CUP) could cause fatal maintenance failures. 

■ Modify existing training and sustainment programs as follows: 

♦ Cannot fire the M82A1 on existing small-arms sniper ranges. 

♦ Requires special considerations for the use of ammunition 
other than the standard ball and tracer (for example, 
multipurpose ammunition, armor-piercing incendiary [API]). 

■ Understand the following additional transportation requirements: 

♦ Additional weight of system makes vehicular movement 
desirable. 

♦ As there is no existing approved method for parachute or 
underwater infiltration with the M82A1, the sniper must plan 
for alternate methods of getting the SWS to the battlefield. 



E-4 



FM 3-05.222 



E-6. A sniper's ability to deploy to the battlefield with an M82A1 depends on 
whether he can adapt what he has learned in the past. The rules of sniper 
employment haven't changed, but many of the finer points have. 

MAINTENANCE 

E-7. Maintenance of the M82A1 SWS involves assembly and disassembly, 
inspection, cleaning and lubrication, and replacement of parts. 

E-8. The sniper normally stores and transports the M82A1 SWS in the 
carrying case. The following procedure covers the initial assembly of the rifle 
as it would come from the case. 

E-9. The sniper first removes the lower receiver from the carrying case. He 
extends the bipod legs by pulling them back and swinging them down to the 
front where they will lock into place. He then places the lower receiver on 
the ground. 

E-10. The sniper removes the rear lock pin from its stored position in the 
lower receiver, found just forward of the recoil pad. 

E-11. He frees the bolt carrier. The bolt carrier is held in place under tension 
in the lower receiver by themidlock pin. He grasps the charging handle of the 
bolt carrier with the right hand and pulls back against the tension of the 
main spring. The sniper then removes the midlock pin and allows the bolt 
carrier to come forward slowly until there is no more spring tension. 



CAUTION 

Do not pull the midlock pin without hands-on control 
of the bolt carrier; it can be launched from the lower 
receiver. 



E-12. The sniper removes the upper receiver from the case. He maintains 
control of the barrel that is retracted in the upper receiver to prevent it from 
sliding and injuring his fingers. The barrel may have rotated in shipping and 
he will need to index it so that the feed ramp is to the bottom. The sniper 
then fully extends the barrel from the upper receiver. 

E-13. The impact bumper that surrounds the barrel must be placed into 
proper position by the barrel lug. The sniper grasps the barrel key (not the 
springs) with the thumb and middle of the index finger. He pulls the key into 
place on the key slot of the barrel. This is a difficult operation, at first, 
because the tension of the barrel spring is approximately 70 pounds. 

E-14. The sniper positions the upper receiver, rear-end up, muzzle down, 
over the lower receiver. H e engages the front hook of the lower receiver. 

NOTE: The sniper should make sure of the proper mating of the hook and 
bar to avoid receiver damage during the final assembly motion. 



E-5 



FM 3-05.222 



E-15. He grasps the charging handle on the bolt carrier and pulls back 
against the tension of the main spring until the bolt clears the barrel when 
the upper receiver is lowered. 

E-16. The sniper lowers and closes the upper receiver onto the lower 
receiver. He releases the charging handle. Then he places the mid and rear 
lock pins into the lock pin holes in the receiver. 

E-17. He places thumb safety in the "on safe" position (horizontal). 

DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY 

E-18. The two types of disassembly and assembly are general and detailed. 
General disassembly and assembly involves removing and replacing the three 
major weapon groups. Detailed disassembly and assembly involves removing 
and replacing the component parts of the major groups. 

General Disassembly 

NOTE: Only SOTIC personnel are authorized to perform complete 

disassembly. 

E-19. The three major weapon groups are the upper receiver, bolt carrier, 

and lower receiver. As the sniper disassembles the weapon, he should note 

each part position, configuration, and part name. He— 

• Begins by clearing the weapon and supporting the rifle on the bipod, 
with the magazine removed. 

• Removes the mid and rear lock pins. 

• Grasps the charging handle and pulls back until the bolt withdraws 
from and clears the barrel. 

• Lifts the upper receiver at its rear. When the receiver has raised 
enough to clear the bolt, he slowly releases the pull on the charging 
handle so that the bolt carrier comes to rest. 

• Continues to raise the upper receiver until the front hinge is 
disengaged and then lifts it from the lower receiver. 

• Withdraws the barrel by resting the upper receiver group on the 
muzzle brake by placing it on any surface that will not damage the end 
of the brake. 

• Withdraws the barrel key from the slot in the barrel by slowly working 
it out and grasping it between his thumb and the middle of the index 
finger (he should be prepared to assume the tension of the barrel 
springs upon the release of the barrel key from the slot— tension is 
approximately 70 pounds). Slowly lowers the key until the tension of 
the springs are at rest. 

NOTE: The sniper should never pull on the barrel spri ngs to remove the 
barrel key. 

• Lowers the receiver down around the barrel. 

• Grasps the charging handle and lifts the bolt carrier group from the 
lower receiver. 



E-6 



FM 3-05.222 



Assembly 



INSPECTION 



Decocks the firing mechanism by depressing the sear with the rear 
lock pin. 

With the bolt in the left hand, uses the mid lock to depress the bolt 
latch against the palm. He uses the rear lock pin to lift the cam pin and 
frees the bolt with the right hand. The bolt will rise under the power of 
the bolt spring. He should never lift the cam pin more than needed to 
release the bolt. 

Removes the bolt and bolt spring. 

If it is necessary to remove the extractor, inserts a pin punch or paper 
clip through the extractor hole and slides the extractor out either side 
of the slot. He should be prepared to capture or contain the plunger 
and the plunger spring. He reverses the procedure for replacement. 



E-20. The sniper reverses the procedure for reassembly of the bolt. He— 

• Replaces the bolt carrier. With the lower receiver group standing on its 
bipod, places the bolt carrier into the lower receiver. 

• Replaces the upper receiver by— 

■ Positioning the upper receiver (rear up and muzzle down) over the 
lower receiver so the hook of the front hinge can fully engage the 
hinge bar on the lower receiver. 

■ NOTE: If not properly seated, the hinge bar can be pried off due to 
leverage the operator can apply when closing the receiver. 

■ While positioned directly behind the rifle, preparing to close the 
upper receiver with the left hand. 

■ Grasping the charging handle of the bolt carrier and pulling the bolt 
carrier back into the main spring, so the bolt clears the barrel while 
lowering the upper receiver. 

■ Lowering and closing the upper receiver and releasing the 
charging handle. 

■ Replacing mid and rear lock pins. 



E-21. Inspection begins with the weapon disassembled into its three major 
groups. Figure E-3, page E-8, describes each group and the steps that the 
sniper must perform to inspect for proper functioning. 



E-7 



FM 3-05.222 



Upper Receiver Group 


• Makes sure barrel springs are not overstretched and each coil is tight with no space 
between the coils. 

• Checks to see if impact bumper is in good condition. 

• Ensures the muzzle brake is tight. 

• Inspects the upper receiver for signs of being cracked, bent, or burred. 

• Makes sure scope mounting rings are tight. 


Bolt Carrier Group 


• Checks the ejector and extractor to see that they are under spring pressure and not 
chipped or worn. 

• Decocks firing mechanism, depresses the bolt latch, and manually works the bolt in 
and out, feeling for any roughness. 

• Holding the bolt down, inspects firing pin protrusion and for any erosion of the firing 
pin hole. 

• Inspects bolt latch for deformation and free movement. 

• Swings cocking lever forward. The sear should capture the firing pin extension before 
the cocking lever is fully depressed. 


Lower Receiver Group 


• With the bolt carrier in place, pulls it rearwards and checks to see that the mainspring 
moves freely. 

• Holds bolt carrier under mainspring housing approximately 10 mm and checks for 
excessive lift that would prevent the trigger from firing. 

• Ensures the lower receiver is not cracked, bent, or burred. 

• Checks the bipod assembly to ensure it functions properly. 



Figure E-3. Steps in Sniper's Inspection of Major Weapon Groups 



CLEANING AND LUBRICATION 



E-22. The rifle's size makes it relatively easy to clean. The sniper should 
clean it at the completion of each day's firing or during the day if fouling is 
causing the weapon to malfunction. He— 

• Cleans the bore with rifle bore cleaner (RBC) or a suitable substitute. 
Each cleaning should include at least six passes back and forth with 
the bronze-bristle brush, followed by cloth patches until the patches 
come out clean. I mmediately after using bore cleaner, he dries the bore 
and any parts of the rifle exposed to the bore cleaner and applies a thin 
coat of oil. He should always clean the bore from the chamber end. 

• Cleans the rest of the weapon with a weapons cleaning toothbrush, 
rags, and cleaning solvent. When using cleaning solvent, he should not 
expose plastic or rubber parts to it. He dries and lubricates all metal 
surfaces when clean. 



E-8 



FM 3-05.222 



E-23. The sniper should lightly lubricate all exposed metal. These parts are 
as follows: 

• Bolt (locking lugs and cam slot). 

• Bolt carrier (receiver bearing surfaces). 

• Barrel bolt locking surfaces (receiver bearing surfaces). 

• Receiver (bearing surfaces for recoiling parts). 

NOTE: The sniper lubricates according to the conditions in the AO. 

E-24. The sniper should dust off the scope and keep it free of dirt. He should 
dust the lenses with a lens cleaning brush and only clean them with lens 
cleaning solvent and lens tissue. 

NOTE: The Barrett is easy to maintain, but because of the size of its 
components the sniper must pay attention to what he is doing, or he may 
damage the weapon, injure himself, or hurt others around him if not careful. 



E-9 



Appendix F 

Foreign/Nonstandard Sniper Weapon 
Systems Data 

Several countries have developed SWSs comparable to the U.S. systems. 
The designs and capabilities of these weapon systems are similar. This 
appendix describes the characteristics of sniper weapon systems that 
could be encountered on deployments. This is not an all-inclusive list, and 
not all weapons are current issue. The country listed is either the last 
country of issue or the manufacturer. 



AUSTRIA 



F-1. The following systems are currently in use: Steyr Model SSG 69 and 
SSG-PII rifles with KahlesZF69, ZF84, or RZFM 86 telescopes. 

F-2. The Austrian Scharf Schutzen Gewehr (Sharp Shooter's Rifle) 69 
(SSG-69) is the current sniper weapon of the Austrian Army and several 
foreign military forces. It is available in either 7.62- x 51-mm NATO or the 
.243 Winchester calibers. Recognizable features include a synthetic stock 
(green or black) that is adjustable for length of pull by a simple spacer 
system; hammer -forged, medium-heavy barrel; two-stage trigger, adjustable 
for weight of pull (a set trigger system is frequently seen); and a machined, 
longitudinal rib on top of the receiver that accepts several types of optical 
mounts. The mounting rings have a quick-release lever system that allows 
removal and reattachment of the optics with no loss of zero. The typical 
sighting system consists of the Kahles ZF69 6- x 42-mm telescope; iron sights 
are permanently affixed to the rifle for emergency use. The SSG-PI I (Politzei 
II) has a heavy barrel and does not have iron sights. The telescope comes 
equipped with a bullet drop compensator graduated to 800 meters, and a 
reticle that consists of a post with broken crosshairs. The Steyr SSG-69 has a 
well-deserved reputation for accuracy. The Kahles ZF -series of telescopes are 
zeroed with the same procedure used for Soviet telescopes. 







Steyr 


SSG-69 Characteristics 








System 
Caliber 


of operation: bolt-action 
7.62- X 51-mm NATO. 






Magazine capacity: 5- or 10- 
detachable magazine. 


rou 


nd 




Overall length: 44.5 inches. 
Barrel length: 25.6 inches. 
Rifling: 4-groove, 1/12-inch right 
Weight: 10.3 pounds. 


-hand twist. 


Telescope: Kahles ZF69 6 x 
100 to 800 m. 

Front: hooded post. 

Rear: notch. 


42 


mm 


BDC: 



F-1 



FM 3-05.222 



F-3. Ammunition requirement: The ZF69 is designed for the NATO ball 
ammunition: 147/150 gn FMJ BT @ 2,800 fps. Some models of this telescope 
were designed for export to the United States and the BDC is calibrated for 
Federal's 308M load (168 HPBT @ 2,600 fps). The Kahles ZF84 telescope is 
available with the following ballistic cams: .223/62 gn; .308/143 gn; .308/146 
gn; .308/168 gn; .308/173 gn; .308/185 gn; and .308/190 gn. 



BELGIUM 



F-4. This system is currently in use: Fabrique Nationale (FN) Model 30-11. 

F-5. The FN Model 30-11 is the current sniper rifle of the Belgian Army. It is 
built on a Mauser bolt-action with a heavy barrel and a stock with an 
adjustable length of pull. The sighting system consists of the FN 4x, 
28-mm telescope and aperture sights with 1/6 MOA adjustment capability. 
Accessories include the bipod of the MAG machine gun, butt-spacer plates, 
sling, and carrying case. 



FN Model 30-11 Characteristics 



System of operation: bolt-action. 

Caliber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO. 

Overall length: 45.2 inches. 

Barrel length: 20.0 inches. 

Rifling: 4-groove, 1/12-inch right-hand twist. 

Weight: 15.5 pounds. 

Magazine capacity: 10-round detachable 
magazine. 



Telescope: 4x with post reticle, range-finding 
stadia, and BDC: 100 to 600 m. 

Front: hooded aperture. 

Rear: Anschutz match-aperture micrometer 
adjustable for windage/elevation, and fitted 
to mount on the rifle's scope base with a 
quick-detachable mount. 

Ammunition requirement: 7.62- x 51 -mm 
NATO ball (147/1 50 gn FMJ BT @ 2,800 fps). 



CANADA 



F-6. This system is currently in use: Parker Hale Model C3. 

F-7. The Parker Hale Model C3 is a modified target rifle (commercial Model 
82 rifle. Model 1200 TX target rifle) built on the Mauser action. It was 
adopted in 1975. The receiver is fitted with two male dovetail blocks to accept 
either the Parker Hale 5E vernier rearsight or the Kahles 6- x 42-mm 
telescope. The stock has a spacer system to adjust the length of pull. 



Parker Hale Model C3 Characteristics 



System of operation: bolt-action. 

Caliber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO. 

Overall length: 48.0 inches. 

Barrel length: 26.0 inches. 

Weight: 12.8 pounds. 

Magazine capacity: 4-round internal magazine. 



Telescope: Kahles ZF69 6 x 42 mm; BDC: 
100 to 800 m. 

Front: detachable hooded post. 

Rear: detachable aperture. 

Ammunition requirement: 7.62- x 51 -mm 
NATO ball (147/150 gn FMJBT @ 2,800 fps). 



F-2 



FM 3-05.222 



CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA 

F-8. This system is currently in use: i^lodel 54. 

F-9. The current SWS is the VZ 54 sniper rifle ("vzor" is the Czech word for 
"model"; therefore, "VZ 54" is the same as "Model 54"). It is a manually 
operated, bolt-action, 10-round box, magazine-fed, 7.62- x 54-mm rimmed 
weapon. It is built with a free-floating barrel. This weapon is similar to the 
Soviet M 1891/30 sniping rifle, but shorter and lighter. The rifle is 45.2 inches 
long and weighs 9.0 pounds with the telescope. It has a muzzle velocity of 
2,659 fps with a maximum effective range of 1,000 meters. 



FINLAND 



F-10. This system is currently in use: Vaime Silenced Sniper Rifle Mark 2 
(SSRMk2). 

F-11. The Finnish armed forces are using a 7.62- x 51-mm NATO sniper rifle 
that is equipped with an integral barrel and silencer assembly. The SSR Mk2 
has a fixed, self-cleaning, and noncorrosive silencer. It has a nonreflective 
plastic stock and an adjustable bipod. Through the use of adapters, any 
telescopic or electro-optical sight may be mounted. The weapon is not 
equipped with metallic sights. With subsonic ammunition, the SSR Mk2 has a 
maximum effective range of 200 meters. 





SSR Mk2 Characteristics 


System of operation: bolt-action. 


Magazine capacity: 10-round internal 


Caliber: 7.62- x-51-mm NATO. 


magazine. 


Overall length: 46.5 inches. 


Telescope: various. 


Barrel length: 18.3 inches. 


Front: none. 


Rifling: not known. 


Rear: none. 


Weight: 11 pounds. 


Ammunition requirements: subsonic (185 gn 
FMJBT@ 1,050 fps). 



FRANCE 



F-12. These systems are currently in use: MAS-GIAT FR-Fl and FR-F2. 

F-13. The FR-Fl sniping rifle, known as the Tireur d'Elite (sniper), was 
adopted in 1966. It is based on the MAS 1936 bolt-action rifle. The length of 
pull may be adjusted with the removable butt-spacer plates. This weapon's 
sighting system consists of the Model 53 bis 3.8x telescopic sight and integral 
metallic sights with luminous spots for night firing. Standard equipment 
features a permanently affixed bipod whose legs may be folded forward into 
recesses in the fore-end of the weapon. The barrel has an integral muzzle 
brake or flash suppressor. This weapon has a muzzle velocity of 2,794 fps and 
a maximum effective range of 800 meters. 



F-3 



FM 3-05.222 





MAS-GIAT FR-F1 Characteristics 


System of operation: bolt-action. 








Magazine capacity: 10-round detaciiabie box 


Caiiber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO 


or 


7.5- 


x54- 


mm 


magazine. 


Frencli. 










Teiescope: Modei 53, 3.8x. 


Overaii iengtii: 44.8 inclnes. 










Front: inooded post. 


Barrei iengtii: 22.8 inciies. 










Rear: notcii. 


Rifiing: not known. 










Ammunition requirement: not known. 


Weigiit: 11.9 pounds. 













F-14. Tine FR-F2 sniping rifle is an updated version of tine Fl. Dimensions and 
operating cinaracteristics remain unclnanged; however, functional improvements 
Inave been made. A heavy-duty bipod has been mounted more toward the butt- 
end of the rifle, adding ease of adjustment for the firer. Also, the major change is 
the addition of a thici<, plastic thermal sleeve around and along the length of the 
barrel. This addition eliminates or reduces barrel mi rage and heat signature. 



MAS-GIAT FR-F2 Characteristics 



System of operation: boit-action. 

Caiiber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO. 

Overaii length: 47.2 inches. 

Barrei length: 22.9 inches. 

Rifiing: 3-groove, 1/1 1 .6-inch right-hand twist. 

Weight: 13.6 pounds. 



Magazine capacity: 10-round detachable 
magazine. 

Teiescope: 6- x 42-mm or 1 .5-6- x 42-mm 
Schmidt and Bender; BDC: 100 to 600 m. 

Front: post. 

Rear: notch. 

Ammunition requirement: 150 gn FMJBT @ 
2,690 fps. 



GERMANY 



F-15. These systems are currently in use: Mauser Model SP66, Walther WA 
2000, andtheHeci<lerand Koch PSG-1. 

F-16. The Mauser Model SP66 is used by the Germans and also by about 12 
other countries. This weapon is a heavy-barrelled, bolt-action rifle built upon a 
Mauser short-action. It has a completely adjustable thumbhole-typestoci<. The 
muzzle of the weapon is equipped with a flash suppressor and muzzle brai<e. 





Mauser SP66 Characteristics 


System of operation: boit-action 


Magazine capacity: 3-round internal magazine. 


Caiiber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO. 


Teiescope: Zeiss-Diavari ZA 1 .5-6x. 


Overaii length: not known. 


Front: detachable hooded post. 


Barrei length: 26.8 inches. 


Rear: detachable aperture. 


Rifiing: not known. 


Ammunition requirement: not known. 


Weight: not known. 





F-4 



FM 3-05.222 



F-17. The Walther WA 2000 is built specifically for sniping. The entire 
weapon is built around the 25.6-inch barrel; it is a semiautomatic gas- 
operated bull-pup design that is 35.6 inches long. This unique weapon is 
chambered for .300 Winchester Magnum, but it can be equipped to 
accommodate calibers 7.62- x 51-mm NATO or 7.5- x 55-mm Swiss. The 
weapon's trigger is a single- or two-staged type. It can befitted with various 
optics, but is typically found with a Schmidt & Bender 2.5-10- x 56-mm 
telescope. It has range settings from 100 to 600 meters and can be 
dismounted and mounted without loss of zero. 





Walther WA 2000 Characteristics 




System of operation: semiautomatic. 




Magazine capacity: 3-round detachable 




Calibers: .300 Winchester Magnum, 




magazine. 




7.62- X 51 -mm NATO, 7.5- x 


55-mm 


Swiss. 


Telescope: Schmidt and Bender 2.5-1 x 56 | 


Overall length: 35.6 inches. 






mm, BDG: 100 to 600 m. 




Barrel length: 25.6 inches. 






Front: none. 




Rifling: not known. 






Rear: none. 




Weight: 18.3 pounds. 






Ammunition requirement: not known. 





F-18. The Heckler and Koch Prazisions Schutzen Gewehr (Precision 
Marksman's Shooting Rifle) PSG-1 is an extremely accurate version of the 
G-3. It is a gas-operated, magazine-fed, semiautomatic weapon with a fully 
adjustable, pistol-grip-style stock. Heckler & Koch claims that this weapon will 
shoot as accurately as the inherent accuracy of the ammunition. The 6- x 42- 
mm Hensoldt has light emitting diode (LED)-enhanced, illuminated crosshairs, 
elevation adjustments from 100 to 600 meters, and point-blank settings from 10 
to 75 meters. Sighting requires loosening two small screws located in the center 
of the windage and elevation knobs. Once the screws are loosened, the 
adjustment can be made to center the shot group to correspond with one of the 
range settings on the knobs. The adjustments for both elevation and windage 
move the i mpact of the bul let one centi meter (0.4 i nches) at 100 meters. 



Heckler and Koch PSG-1 Characteristics 



System of operation: semiautomatic. 

Caliber: 7.62- x 51-mm NATO. 

Overall length: 47.5 inches. 

Barrel length: 25.6 inches. 

Rifling: polygonal, 1/12-inch right hand twist. 

Weight: 17.8 pounds. 



Magazine capacity: 5- and 20-round 
detachable magazine. 

Telescope: 6- x 42-mm Hensoldt with 
illuminated reticle, BDC: 100 to 600 m. 

Front: none. 

Rear: none. 

Ammunition requirement: Lapua 7.62- x 
51-mm NATO Match: 185 FMJBT D46/D47 
@ 2,493 fps. 



F-5 



FM 3-05.222 



ISRAEL 



F-19. These systems are currently in use: Galil and M21 Sniping Rifles. 

F-20. The Israelis copied the basic design, operational characteristics, and 
configuration of the Soviet AK-47 assault rifle to develop an improved 
weapon to meet the demands of the Israeli Army. The Galil sniping rifle is a 
further evolution of this basic design. Like most service rifles modified for 
sniper use, the weapon is equipped with a heavier barrel fitted with a flash 
suppressor; it can be equipped with a silencer and fired with subsonic 
ammunition. The weapon features a pistol -grip-style stock, a fully adjustable 
cheekpiece, a rubber recoil pad, a two-stage trigger, and an adjustable bipod 
mounted to the rear of the fore-end of the rifle. Its sighting system consists of 
a side-mounted 6- x 40-mm telescope and fixed metallic sights. When firing 
FN Match ammunition, the weapon has a muzzle velocity of 2,672 fps; when 
firing M 118 special ball ammunition, it has a muzzle velocity of 2,557 fps. The 
specifications on the M21 can be found in the U.S. section. 



Galil Sniper Rifle Characteristics 

System of operation: semiautomatic. Magazine capacity: 5- or 25-round 

Caliber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO. detachable magazine. 

Overall length: 43.9 inches. Telescope: 6- x 40-mm Nimrod, BDC: 1 00 to 

1,000 m. 



Barrel length: 20 inches. 

Rifling: 4-groove, 1/12-inch right-hand twist 

Weight: 18.3 pounds. 



Front: hooded post with tritium night sight. 

Rear: aperture with flip-up tritium night sight. 

Ammunition requirement: Ml 18 (173 gn 
FMJBT@ 2,610 fps). 



ITALY 

F-21. This system is currently in use: Beretta Sniper Rifle. 

F-22. The Beretta rifle is the Italian sniper rifle. This rifle is a manually 
operated, bolt-action, 5-round box, magazine-fed weapon that fires the 7.62- x 51- 
mm NATO. Its 45.9-inch length consists of a 23-inch heavy, free-floating barrel, a 
wooden thumbhole-type stock with a rubber recoil pad, and an adjustable 
cheekpiece. Target-quality, metallic sights consist of a hooded front sight and a 
fully adjustable, V-notch rear sight. The optical sight consists of a Zeiss-Diavari 
ZA 1.5-6X variable telescope. The weapon weighs 15.8 pounds with a bipod, and 
13.75 pounds without a bipod. The NATO-standard telescope mount allows 
almost any electro-optical or optical sight to be mounted to the weapon. 

PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 

F-23. This system is currently in use: NorincoType79. 

F-24. The standard sniper rifle of the People's Republic of China is the 
NorincoType 79, which was adopted in 1980. It is a virtual copy of the Soviet 
SVD. In many instances, these rifles are nothing more than refinished and 
restamped Soviet SVDs that were once sold to the PRC. They have been 



F-6 



FM 3-05.222 



ROMANIA 



imported into the U.S. under the designation of N DIM -86. The specifications 
can be found under the Soviet SVD. 



F-25. This system is currently in use: IModel FPK. 

F-26. The FPK was adopted in 1970. This sniper riflefires the Mosin/Nagant 
M 1891 cartridge, which has a case length that is 15 mm longer than the 7.62- 
X 39-mm Warsaw Pact cartridge. Since the bolt of the AKM travels 30 mm 
(1.18 inches) farther to the rear than is necessary to accommodate the 7.62- x 
39-mm cartridge, the Romanian designers were able to modify the standard 
AKM -type receiver mechanism to fire the more powerful and longer-ranged 
7.62- X 54-mm rimmed cartridge. First, they altered the bolt face to take the 
larger-rimmed base of the M1891 cartridge, added a new barrel, and 
lengthened the RPK-type gas piston system. The gas system of the Soviet 
SVD (Dragunov) sniping rifle is more like that of the obsolete Tokarev rifle. 
Second, the Romanians developed their own 10-shot magazine, and they 
fabricated a skeleton stock from laminated wood (plywood). This buttstock, 
with its molded cheek rest, is probably slightly better than the one used on 
the Dragunov. Third, the Romanians have riveted two steel reinforcing plates 
to the rear of the receiver to help absorb the increased recoil forces of the 
more powerful M1891 cartridge. Finally, they have attached a muzzle brake 
of their own design. The standard AKM wire cutter bayonet will attach to this 
sniper rifle. The telescopic sight has English language markings. 



FPK Characteristics 

System of operation: semiautomatic. Telescope: LSP (Romanian copy of the 

Caliber: 7.62- x 54-mm rimmed. Soviet PSO-1); BDC: 100 to 1,000 m with 



Overall length: 45.4 inches. 

Barrel length: 26.7 inches. 

Rifling: not known. 

Weight: 10.6 lbs. 

Magazine capacity: 10-round detachable box 
magazine. 



1 ,1 00, 1 ,200, and 1 ,300 m reference points. 

Front: hooded post. 

Rear: sliding U-shaped notch. 

Ammunition requirements: see Soviet SVD 
comments. 



SPAIN 



F-27. This system is currently in use: Model C-75. 

F-28. The 7.62- x 51-mm NATO C-75 Special Forces rifle is the current 
sniper rifle of Spain. This bolt-action weapon is built upon the Mauser 98 
action. It is equipped with iron sights and has telescope mounts machined 
into the receiver to allow for the mounting of most electro-optic or optic 
sights. The weapon weighs 8.14 pounds. 



F-7 



FM 3-05.222 



SWITZERLAND 

F-29. This system is currently in use: SIG iviodel 510-4. 

F-30. The Swiss use the 7.62- x 51-mm NATO SIG Model 510-4 rifle with a 
telescopic sight. The 510-4 is a delayed, blow-back-operated, 20-round, 
magazine-fed, semiautomatic or fully automatic weapon. With bipod, telescope, 
and empty 20-round magazine, the weapon weighs 12.3 pounds. It is 39.9 
inches long with a 19.8-inch barrel and has a muzzle velocity of 2,591 fps. 

UNITED KINGDOM 

F-31. These systems are currently in use: Lee Enfield Model L42A1, Parker- 
Hale models 82 and 85, and the Accuracy International L96A1. The Lee 
Enfield No. 4 Mark 1 (T) is obsolete but still found in use around the world. 

F-32. The L42A1 is the current standard sniper rifle. It is a conversion of the 
Lee Enfield No. 4 Mark 1 (T) .303, and was adopted in 1970. It has a heavy 
7.62- X 51-mm NATO barrel, and the fore-end is cut back. The original No. 32 
telescope was renovated, regraduated, and redesignated the 'Telescope 
Straight Sighting LlAl," which is marked on the tube along with the part 
number, O.S. 2429 G.A. The original No. 32 markings are usually still visible, 
cancelled out, and painted over. New range graduations are read in meters 
instead of yards. Receivers from No. 4 Mark 1 (T) or Mark 1* (T) are used for 
this rifle. The magazine of the L42A1 is designed for 7.62-mm NATO 
cartridges and has a capacity of 10 rounds. The buttstock has the same type 
"screw on" wooden cheek piece as used with the No. 4 Mark 1 (T). The left 
side of the receiver has a telescope bracket for the telescope No. 32 M ark 3. A 
leaf-type rear sight and a protected blade-type front sight are also used. 





Lee Enfield L42A1 Characteristics 


System 


of operation: bolt-action. 


Magazine capacity: 10-round detachable 


Caliber 


7.62- X 51-mm NATO. 


magazine. 


Overall length: 46.5 inches. 


Telescope: LI A1 , 3x, BDG: to 1 ,000 m. 


Barrel length: 27.5 inches. 


Front: blade, with protecting ears. 


Rifling: 


4-groove, 1/12-inch right-hand twist. 


Rear: aperture. 


Weight 


12.5 pounds. 


Ammunition requirement: NATO ball. 


1 47/1 50 gn FMJBT @ 2,800 fps. 



F-33. The Parker-Hale Model 82 sniper rifle is a bolt-action 7.62- x 51-mm 
NATO rifle built upon a Mauser 98 action. It is a militarized version of the 
Model 1200 TX target rifle. It is equipped with metallic target sights and the 
Pecar V2S 4 to lOx variable telescope. An optional, adjustable bipod is 
also available. 



F-8 



FM 3-05.222 





Parker-Hale Model 82 Characteristics 


System of operation: bolt-action. 


Magazine capacity: 4-round internal magazine. 


Caliber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO. 


Telescope: Pecar V2S 4-1 Ox. 


Overall length: 48.0 inches. 




Front: detachable hooded post. 


Barrel length: 26.0 inches. 




Rear: detachable aperture. 


Rifling: not known. 




Ammunition requirement: 7.62- x 51 -mm 


Weight: 12.8 pounds. 




NATO ball (1 47/1 50 gn FMJBT @ 2,800 
fps). 



F-34. The Model 85 sniper rifle is a bolt-action 7.62- x 51-mm rifle designed 
for extended use under adverse conditions. It uses a McMillan fiberglass 
stock that is adjustable for length of pull. The telescope is mounted on a 
quicl<-detachable mount that can be removed in emergencies to reveal a flip- 
up rear aperture sight that is graduated from 100 to 900 meters. 



Parker-Hale Model 85 Characteristics 

System of operation: bolt-action. Telescope: Swarovski ZFM 6 x 42 mm 

Caliber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO. (BDC: 1 00 to 800 m) or ZFM 1 x 42 mm 



Overall length: 47.5 inches. 

Barrel length: 24.8 inches. 

Rifling: 4-groove, 1/12-inch right-hand twist 



(BDC: 100 to 1,000 m). 
Front: protected blade. 
Rear: folding aperture. 



lAi ■ u. ^oir ^ Ammunition requirement: NATO ball. 

Weight: 12.5 pounds. ^4^/^50 ^^ P Jjg-^ @ 2,800 fps. 

Magazine capacity: 10-round detachable 
magazine. 



F-35. The L96A1 sniper rifle is built by Accuracy International using a 
unique bedding system designed by Malcolm Cooper. It features an 
aluminum frame with a high-impact plastic, thumbhole-type stocl<; a free- 
floated barrel; and a lightweight-alloy, fully adjustable bipod. The rifle is 
equipped with metallic sights that can deliver accurate fire out to 700 meters 
and can use the LlAl telescope. The reported accuracy of this weapon is 0.75 
MOA at 1,000 meters. One interesting feature of the stock design is a spring- 
loaded monopod concealed in the butt. Fully adjustable for elevation, the 
monopod serves the same purpose as the sand sock that the U .5. Army uses. 



F-9 



FM 3-05.222 



Accuracy International Model PM/L96A1 Characteristics 


System of operation: bolt-action. 


Magazine capacity: 10-round detachable 


Caiiber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO, .243 


magazine. 


Wincliester, 7 mm Remington Magnum, 


Telescope: 6- x 42-mm or 12- x 42-mm 


300 WM. 


Schmidt and Bender. 


Overall length: 47.0 inches. 


Front: none. 


Barrel length: 26 inches. 


Rear: none. 


Rifling: 1/12-inch right-hand twist. 


Ammunition requirement: not known. 


Weight: 15 pounds. 





F-36. The Lee Enfield Rifle No. 4 Mark 1 (T) and No. 4 Mark 1* (T) are 
sniper versions of the No. 4. They are fitted with scope mounts on the left side 
of the receiver and have a wooden cheek rest screwed to the butt. The No. 32 
telescope is used on these weapons. 



Lee Enfield No. 


4 Mark 1 (T) Characteristics 


System of operation: bolt-action. 


Telescope: No. 32, 3x, BDC: 1 00 to 1 ,000 


Caliber: .303 British. 


yards. 


Overall length: 44.5 inches. 


Front: blade with protecting ears. 


Barrel length: 25.2 inches. 

Rifling: not known. 

Weight: 11.5 pounds. 

Magazine capacity: 10-round detachable 


Rear: vertical leaf with aperture battle sight 
or L-type. 

Ammunition requirement: .303 ball with a 
muzzle velocity (at date of adoption) of 
2,440 fps. 


magazine. 





FORMER UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 

F-37. This system is currently in use: SVD (Dragunov). 

F-38. The self-loading rifle, SVD (Dragunov) is a purpose-designed system 
that replaced the M 1891/30 sniper rifle in 1963. The bolt operation of the 
SVD is similar to that of the AK/AKM. The principal difference is that the 
SVD has a short stroke piston system. It is not attached to the bolt carrier 
like that of the AK/AKM, and delivers its impulse to the carrier, which then 
moves to the rear. The remainder of the operating sequence is quite similar to 
the Kalashnikov-series assault rifle. The rifle has a somewhat unusual stock 
in that a large section has been cut out of it immediately to the rear of the 
pistol grip. This lightens the weight of the rifle considerably. It has a prong- 
type flash suppressor similar to those used on current U.S. small arms. It is 
equipped with metallic sights that are graduated to 2,000 meters and the 
PSO-1 4x telescopic sight with a battery-powered, illuminated reticle. The 
PSO-1 also incorporates a metascope that, when activated, is capable of 
detecting an active, infrared source. The PSO-1 is designed for the ballistic 
trajectory of the LPS ball round. The windage knob provides 2 MOA per click 
and 4 MOA per numeral. The reticle pattern has 10 vertical lines to the left 



F-10 



FM 3-05.222 



and right of the aiming chevron. These lines are spaced 4 IMOA from each 
other, which provide 40 IMOA to the left and right of the aiming chevron. 



SVD Characteristics 


System of operation: semiautomatic. 


IVIagazine capacity: 10-round detachable 


Caliber: 7.62- x 54-mm rimmed. 


magazine. 


Overall length: 47.9 Inches. 


Telescope: 4x PSO-1 , BDC: to 1 ,300 m. 


Barrel length: 24.5 inches. 


Front: hooded post. 


Rifling: 4 grooves, 1/10-inch right-hand twist. 


Rear: tangent with notch. 


Weight: 9.7 pounds. 


Ammunition requirement: LPS ball (149 gn 




FMJBT@ 2,800 fps). 



FORMER WARSAW PACT AMMUNITION 

F-39. The standard |VI1908 Russian L ball cartridge features a 149 grain 
lead-core spitzer bullet with a gilding metal jacket and a conical hollow base. 
The L ball gives about 2,800 fps from the M 1891/30 rifles. It can be identified 
with a plain, unpainted, copper-colored bullet. 

F-40. The LPS ball cartridge is a 149 grain boat tail with a gilding metal- 
clad steel jacket and mild steel core. The LPS cartridge can be identified by a 
white or silver bullet tip, distinguishing it from the lead-core L ball. Velocity 
is around 2,820 fps. 

F-41. The M1930 heavy ball sniper load is known as the Type D and is 
sometimes identified by a yellow bullet tip. It features a 182 grain full metal 
jacket bullet with a hollow-base boat tail and develops 2,680 fps from the 
M 1891/30 or the SVD. 

F-42. The general rule for identifying Soviet/Warsaw Pact ammunition is as 
follows: when the head of the cartridge case is oriented so that both numbers 
can be read, the factory number appears at 12 o'clock and the date of 
manufacture appears at 6 o'clock. 

MOSIN-NAGANT BOLT-ACTION SNIPER RIFLE MODEL M189iy30 

F-43. The M1891 was adopted as the Russian Army service rifle in 1891. It 
has a blade front sight with a leaf rear sight graduated in arshins (paces) 
from 100 to 3,200 (2,496 yards). In the 1930s, the improved M 1891/30 was 
fielded. The M 1891/30 has a hooded front sight and a tangent rear sight 
graduated from 100 to 2,000 meters. The M 1891/30 sniper rifle was adopted 
shortly thereafter, with its only modification being the addition of a telescopic 
sight. Details on the telescope are found in Appendix E. 



F-11 



FM 3-05.222 









M 1891/30 Characteristics 


System 


of operation: bolt-action. 




Magazine capacity: 5-round semifixed 


Caliber 


7.62- X 54-mm rimmed. 




magazine. 


Overall length: 48.5 Inches. 






Telescope: PU 3.5x or PE 4x. 


Barrel length: 28.7 inches. 






Front: hooded post. 


Rifling: 


4-groove, 1/10-inch 


riqht- 


hand twist. 


Rear: tangent rear, graduated from 100 to 


Weight 


11.3 pounds. 






2,000 m. 

Ammunition requirement: L or LPS ball 
(149 gnFMJ@ 2,800 fps). 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

F-44. These systems are currently in use: M24 and M21 (used by the Army). 
The USMC has adopted a product-improved version of the Remington 700 
that is currently known as the M40A1. Special application sniper rifles, such 
as the Barrett Model 82 and the RAI Model 500, are used on an organized but 
limited basis. Numerous nonstandard sniper rifles are used by different U.S. 
Government and DOD agencies. Also, obsolete sniper rifles are still being 
used abroad. These include the M1903A4, MIC, MID, and the M 21. 

M21 SNIPER SYSTEM 

F-45. In September 1968, the Army Materiel Command was directed to 
produce 1,800 National Match M-14s for immediate shipment to Vietnam. 
From 1968 until 1975, when the XM-21 was adopted, several NM M-14 
variants with different telescopes were shipped to Vietnam for use. The first 
XM -21s used the WW 1 1 -era M 84 telescope. J ames Leatherwood, the designer 
of the ART-series, provided most of the telescopes, although others were used. 
The M21 is carefully assembled to National Match standards with selected 
components. The stock was originally an epoxy-impregnated walnut or birch 
stock. The rifle has NM iron sights. The elevation and windage adjustments 
provide 1/2 MOA corrections. The scope mount is mounted to the side of the 
receiver with a large knurled knob. Later mounts provided two points of 
attachment with an additional knob threaded into a modified clip guide. The 
M21 was type-classified with the ART I. The ART II was later used on a 
limited basis, and the MBA Ultra has been used to upgrade the M 21 system. 



M21 Characteristics 



System of operation: semiautomatic. 

Caliber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO. 

Overall length: 44.3 inches. 

Barrel length: 22 inches. 

Rifling: 4-groove, 1/12-inch right-hand twist. 

Weight: 14.4 pounds. 



Magazine capacity: 20-round detachable 
magazine. 

Telescope: ART I or ART II, BDC: 300 to 900 m. 

Front: protected post. 

Rear: hooded aperture. 

Ammunition requirement: Ml 1 8 Match or 
Special Ball (1 73 gn FMJBT @ 2,61 fps). 



F-12 



FM 3-05.222 



USMC M40A1 



F-46. The M40A1 is the current USMC sniping rifle that is the culmination 
of 20 years of use of the Remington Model 700 since the Vietnam War. It is 
built by match armorers to exacting standards using selected components. It 
uses Remington M700 and 40x receivers mated to a heavy 
McMillan/Wiseman stainless steel match barrel. The stocl< is made by 
McMillan. The UnertI lOx USMC sniper scope has the mil-dot reticle and a 
BDC designed to range from 100 to 1,000 yards. 







M40A1 Characteristics 


System 


of operation: bolt-action. 






Magazine capacity: 5-round internal magazine. 


Caliber 


7.62- X 51 -mm NATO. 






Telescope: UnertI lOx, BDC: 100 to 1,000 


Overall length: 44 inches. 






yards. 


Barrel length: 24 inches. 






Front: none. 


Rifling: 
Weight 


6-groove, 1/12-inch right-hand 
14.4 pounds. 


twist. 


Rear: none. 

Ammunition requirement: Ml 1 8 Match or 








Special Ball (1 73 gn FMJBT @ 2,61 fps), 
or Federal Match with the 180 gn Sierra 










MatchKing bullet. 



BARRETT MODEL 82A1 

F-47. The Barrett Model 82A1 sniping rifle is a recoil -operated, 11-round 
detachable box, magazine-fed, semiautomatic chambered for the caliber .50 
Browning cartridge. Its 36.9-inch fluted barrel is equipped with a six-port 
muzzle brake that reduces recoil by 30 percent. It has an adjustable bipod 
and can also be mounted on the M82 tripod or any mount compatible with the 
M60 machine gun. This weapon has a pistol -grip-style stock, is 65.9 inches 
long, and weighs 32.9 pounds. The sighting system consists of a telescope, but 
no metallic sights are provided. The telescope mount may accommodate any 
telescope with 1-inch rings. Muzzle velocity of the Model 82A1 is 2,849 fps. 

IVER J OHNSON MODEL 500 

F-48. The Iver Johnson Model 500 is the old version of the Research 
Armaments Industry (RAI) Model 500/Daisy Model 500. The Model 500 long- 
range rifle is a bolt-action, single-shot weapon, which is chambered for the 
caliber .50 Browning cartridge. It has a 33-inch heavy, fluted, free-floating 
barrel. With its bipod, fully adjustable stock, cheek piece, and telescope, it 
weighs a total of 29.92 pounds. The weapon is equipped with a harmonic 
balancer that dampens barrel vibrations, a telescope with a ranging scope 
base, a muzzle velocity of 2,912 fps, and a muzzle brake with flash 
suppressor. The USMC and United States Navy (USN) have used this 
weapon in the past. 



F-13 



FM 3-05.222 



U.S. SNIPER RIFLES 

F-49. These systems are currently in use: Remington l^lodels 40XB, 40XC, 
and 700 rifles. 

F-50. These variations of the Remington M700 bolt-action rifle are widely 
used. The M700 is the standard rifle. The M700 and its variants have 
tubular/round actions which are preferred by many competitors due to its 
ease of trueing and bedding. It is most frequently seen in the heavy-barreled 
"Varmint Special" version. The 40XB is a single-shot competition rifle and 
extremely accurate. The 40XB has a solid magazine well that adds to the 
action's rigidity. The 40X or 40XC is similar to the XB except they have a 
magazine well, stripper clip guide, and are designed for use in high-powered 
rifle competition. The M24 SWS is built on a Remington M700 action marked 
M24 M700. It is built to the same exacting standards as the 40XBs. The 
original M24 came with a Rock 5R barrel. The new M24s from Remington 
come with a Remington hammer-forged barrel. Most Remington .308 rifles 
(M700, 40XB, and 40XC) come with a short action for reduced action size, 
increased action rigidity, and reduced bolt-cycling distance. The M24 was 
adopted with a long action so that it could be converted to the .300 
Winchester Magnum cartridge at a later date. This change may be 
accomplished by replacing the barrel and bolt. In this magnum chambering, 
the M24 will be designated the Medium Sniper Rifle (MSR) and be effective 
out to 1,200 meters. The BDC on the Leupold and Stevens M3A will be 
replaced to match the different ballistic trajectory. 



Remington Models 40X/700 Characteristics 

System of operation: bolt-action. Magazine capacity: 5-round standard calibers, 

Caliber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO (.308 3-round magnum calibers, internal magazine; 

Winchester), .300 Winchester Magnum, and 40XB is single shot. 

others. Telescopes: Leupold and Stevens Ultra/Mark 

Overall length: approximately 42 inches IV M1A, M3A; UnertI 10x USMC; Bausch and 

(dependent on barrel length). ^°^^ 1 0- x 40-mm. 

Barrel length: 22 to 26 inches. ^^°^^- "O"®- 

Rifling: 4- to 6-groove, 1/10- to 1/12-inch right- ^iear: none. 

hand twist. Ammunition requirement: varied. 

Weight: 10 to 15 pounds. 



WINCHESTER MODEL 70 



F-51. The Model 70 in .308 or .300 Winchester Magnum, when properly built, 
is also a very effective and accurate rifle, as proven by the multiple national 
and international competitors that use them. Winchester now makes a true 
short action, in caliber .308 as a varmint rifle that can be an alternative to the 
M700 Remington. The Winchester Model 70 has a square- bottomed action. 



F-14 



FM 3-05.222 



MCMILLAN SYSTEMS 

F-52. The M-86SR (.308 Win), M-86LR (.300 Win IMag), and |V|-89 (.308 
suppressed) are bolt-action rifles built on McMillan actions. The M-88ELR, 
M-87ELR, and M-87R are caliber .50 bolt rifles. The McMillan M-40 is a 
Remington short-action barrel with a McMillan .308 match barrel. A variety 
of optics are available: Leupold and Stevens Ultra/Mark IV MIA, M3A, 3.5- 
lOx Law Enforcement; the Bausch and Lomb 10- x 40-mm tactical; and the 
Phrobis tactical rifle telescopes. 

BARRETT FIREARMS 

F-53. T hese firearms consist of the M 82, M82A1 light semiautomatic caliber 
.50 rifles, and the M90 bolt-action caliber .50 rifle. Appendix E provides 
additional information. 

OTHER SYSTEMS 

F-54. Robar Systems. Accurized Remington Model 700 rifle. 

F-55. IverJ ohnson ConvertibleLong-RangeRifleSystem. The characteristics 
of this bolt-action rifle are listed below. 



Iver Johnson Convertible Long-Range Rifle Characteristics 


System of operation: bolt-action. 


Magazine capacity: 4-round (7.62) or 5-round 


Caliber: 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO, 8.58 x 71 mm 


(8.58) detachable magazine. 


(.338/.416). 


Telescope: varied. 


Overall length: 46.5 inches. 


Front: none. 


Barrel length: 24 inches. 


Rear: none. 


Rifling: 4-groove; 1/12 (7.62)-, 1/10 (8.58)-inch 


Ammunition requirement: 8.58 x 71 mm; 


right-hand twist. 


250 gn HPBT @ 3,000 fps. 


Weight: 15 pounds. 





OBSOLETE U.S. SNIPER RIFLES 

F-56. The M1903A4 Springfield was adopted in December 1942 as a sniper 
rifle during WW II. The only modification to the standard service rifle was 
the addition of a pistol grip and optical sight. There were numerous telescopic 
sights used, but the most common were the M 84 and the Weaver M odel 330C 
(marked M73B1 for the contract). There are a few 1903s that were 
meticulously assembled with selected parts for sniper use, but as a general 
rule, the majority were standard service rifles. The low magnification of the 
telescopes (2.2x for the M84) made long-range target interdiction difficult. 
The M84 scope is discussed in Appendix G. The Model 1942 is a USMC 
modification of the 1903A1, fitted with an 8x UnertI scope. These rifles were 
manufactured by Remington, Springfield Armory, and the L.C. Smith Corona 
Typewriter Company. 



F-15 



FM 3-05.222 



M1903A4 Characteristics 



System of operation: bolt-action. 

Caliber: .30 M1/M2 ball (7.62 x 63 mm/30-06). 

Overall length: 43.5 inches. 

Barrel length: 24 inches. 

Rifling: 4-groove (and 2-groove), 1/10-inch 
right-hand twist. 

Weight: 9.4 pounds. 



Magazine capacity: 5-round internal magazine. 

Telescope: M84, M73B1 Weaver (Model 
330C), or the M73 Lyman Alaska; BDC: to 
900 yards. 

Front: none. 

Rear: none. 

Ammunition requirement: Caliber .30 M1/M2 

ball (150 FMJ flat base @ 2,800 fps. 



GAR AND MIC AND MID 



F-57. In 1939, the Springfield Armory and Winchester began production of 
the Ml. The Ml was the first self-loading rifle that withstood battlefield use. 
The MIC and MID were developed for designated marksman use. The MID 
was fitted with a steel collar around the barrel in front of the receiver, which 
was tapped for a side-mounted scope mount, because the weapon loads 
through the top of the receiver. An M84 2.2x scope was used. A specially 
fabricated leather extension was affixed to the left side of the stock to provide 
a solid stock weld to accommodate the side-mounted telescope. This piece 
allowed the sniper to rest his cheek and fire left-eyed. Although the rifle can 
be fired right-eyed, it was designed to be fired left-eyed. It is a fallacy to this 
day that the leather stock extension is a cheek piece; it is not. It was and is a 
rest for use with the side-mounted scope. The majority of the M IDs were also 
fitted with a prong-flash hider. The MIC is identical to the MID except in one 
respect: the MIC has a side mount that was tapped into the left side of the 
receiver directly instead of using a collar around the barrel. Like the 
M1903A4, nothing was done to the majority of the rifles to accurize them. 
Eventually, hand-assembled M IDs and M ICs were made and used. 



M1C/D Characteristics 


System of operation: semiautomatic. 


Magazine capacity: 8-round en-bloc metallic 


Caliber: .30 Caliber M1/M2 ball (7.62 x 63 mm/ 


clip. 


30-06). 


Telescope: M84, 2.2x, BDC: to 900 yards. 


Overall length: 43.6 inches. 


Front: protected post. 


Barrel length: 24 inches. 


Rear: aperture. 


Rifling: 4-groove, 1/10-inch right-hand twist. 


Ammunition requirement: M1/M2 ball (150 


Weight: 11.8 pounds. 


gn FMJ flat base bullet @ 2,800 fps). 



F-16 



FM 3-05.222 



FORMER YUGOSLAVIA 

F-58. This system is currently in use: Model M76. 

F-59. TheYugoslav armed forces use the M76 semiautomatic sniping rifle. It 
is believed to be based upon the FAZ family of automatic weapons. It features 
permanently affixed metallic sights, a pistol -grip-style wood stock, and a 4x 
telescopic sight. The telescopic sight is graduated in 100-meter increments 
from 100 to 1,000 meters, and the optical sight mount allows the mounting of 
passive nightsights. It has a muzzle velocity of 2,361 fps. 





M76 Characteristics 


System of operation: semiautomatic. 




Magazine capacity: 10-round detachable. 


Caliber: 7.92 x 57 mm (8-mm 


Mauser), 


7.62- X 


Telescope: 4x, BDC: 1 00 to 1 ,000 m. 


54-mm R, 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO. 




Front: hooded post. 


Overall length: 44.7 inches. 






Rear: tangent. 


Barrel length: 21.6 inches. 






Ammunition requirement: 7.92 x 57 mm 


Rifling: not known. 






(2,361 fps); 7.62- x 51 -mm NATO (2,657 fps). 


Weight: 11.2 pounds. 









F-17 



Appendix G 

Sniper Rifle Telescopes 

A scope mounted on the rifle allows the sniper to detect and engage 
targets more effectively. Another advantage of the scope is its ability 
to magnify the target. As previously stated, a scope does not make a 
soldier a better sniper, it only helps him see better. This appendix 
explains the characteristics and types of scopes. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF RIFLE TELESCOPES 

G-1. The telescope is an optical instrument that the sniper uses to 
improve his ability to see his target clearly in most situations. It also 
helps him to quickly identify or recognize the target and enables him to 
engage with a higher rate of success. The following characteristics apply 
to most types of scopes. 

TELESCOPE MAGNIFICATION 

G-2. The average unaided human eye can distinguish 1-inch detail at 100 
meters. Magnification, combined with quality lens manufacture and 
design, permits resolution of this 1 inch divided by the optical 
magnification. The general rule is Ix magnification per 100 meters. The 
magnification (power) of a telescope should correspond to the maximum 
effective range of the weapon system being used. This amount of power 
will enable the operator to identify precise corrections. For example, a 5x 
telescope is adequate out to 500 meters; a lOx is good out to 1,000 meters. 
The best all-around magnification determined for field-type sniping is the 
lOx because it permits the operator to identify precise corrections out to 
1,000 meters. The field of view of a lOx at close range, while small, is still 
enough to see large and small targets. Higher-powered telescopes have 
very limited fields of view, making close range and snap target 
engagements difficult. Substandard high-powered telescopes may be hard 
to focus and have parallax problems. Some marksmen still prefer lower- 
powered telescopes. Recent advances in the construction of variable- 
powered rifle telescopes have negated the problems that once plagued 
them. Advantages of the variable power scopes in both urban and clip-on 
style night vision devices make them very desirable in the long run. A 
number of scope manufacturers now make reliable variable powers in the 
2.5 to 10 or 14 range. This allows the sniper to power down so as not to 
overpower the phosphorus matrix of the NVD or to gain a wider field of 
view in close in sniping. 



PARALLAX 



G-3. Parallax results when the target is not focused on the same focal 
plane as the reticle. When parallax is present, the target will move in 



G-1 



FM 3-05.222 



relation to the reticle when the sniper moves his head (changes his spot 
weld) while looking through the telescope. It is more apparent in high- 
powered telescopes. With parallax, the error will affect the strike of the 
bullet by the amount seen in the scope. If the crosshairs move from one side 
of the target to the other, then the potential error is from one side of the 
target to the other. Therefore, the sniper should zero his system, for 
elevation, at the greatest distance possible. For a 1,000-meter system, the 
sniper should confirm his zero at 500 meters for elevation. The initial zero 
of the weapon system for elevation and windage should be at 100 or 200 
meters. This will keep the shooter on paper. The 100-meter range will 
negate most wind effect; however, the shooter is capable of computing the 
wind effect and zero with the bullet strike at that point on the target. The 
MIA and M3A Ultra/Mark IV by Leupold and Stevens have a 
focus/parallax knob on the left side of the telescope. With the MIA and 
M3A, it is imperative that the sniper adjusts his focus/parallax when he 
zeros his system for each range and that he records this data in his 
shooter's log. If there is a zero-shift while adjusting parallax from range to 
range, then the scope is defective and requires replacement. The reticle 
must be focused for the eye prior to focusing on the target. If the reticle is 
perfectly focused, then the target will be in focus and the scope will be 
parallax-free. If the target is focused and the scope is not parallax-free, then 
the shooter may wish to refocus the reticle and recheck parallax. Once both 
reticle and target are focused on the same plane, the scope will be parallax- 
free at that range only. The snipers will be required to then focus the target 
for each range to obtain a parallax-free scope. This information is then 
recorded in the shooter's log for use when firing over unknown distances 
and will become part of the sniper and observer dialogue. As an example, 
"Range 650+1, windage left 1 click spin drift, parallax second ball." 

ADJ USTABLE OBJ ECTIVE LENS 

G-4. Adjustable objective lenses for focusing at different magnifications 
and ranges are becoming quite common. Some target telescopes (such as 
the MIA and M3A) have a third turret knob on the side of the telescope 
that will focus the objective lens. Doing so will focus the target and reticle 
on the same plane, eliminating parallax. Unfortunately, many telescopes 
have neither and must be dealt with on an individual basis. The best way 
to deal with the problem is to eliminate shadow. Once shadow is 
eliminated, the sniper must ensure that the reticle moves the same 
distance left and right on the target as well as up and down. Doing so will 
assist in attaining the same aim point even with parallax. If shadow is 
present, with parallax error, then the strike of the bullet will be opposite 
of the shadow. The shadow indicates that the sniper is looking down that 
side of the scope's exit pupil and the crosshairs will appear to have moved 
to that side as well. The sniper will then compensate by moving the 
weapon right to get the crosshair back on target, causing the strike of the 
bullet to be opposite of the shadow. 

VARIABLE-POWERED TELESCOPES 

G-5. Older variable- powered telescopes often shifted the POI if the 
magnification was changed from its original setting when sighting the 



G-2 



FM 3-05.222 



system. Modern, high-quality, variable-powered telescopes do not have 
this problem. This type of movement has been tested on a number of 
quality variable- powered telescopes. After zeroing, the scopes showed no 
variation in the POA versus the POI at any range or any power. Of 
course, it is prudent to test the system during live-fire exercises to 
establish the optic's reliability. 

TELESCOPE ADJ USTMENTS 

G-6. One telescope will not automatically work in the same manner for 
every sniper. Each sniper's vision is different and requires different 
adjustments. The following factors vary with each use. 



FOCUSING 



EYE RELIEF 



G-7. Focusing the telescope to the sniper assigned the weapon is 
important. He can adjust the ocular lens of most telescopes to obtain a 
crisp, clear picture of the reticle. To do this, the sniper should look at a 
distant object for several seconds without using the telescope. Then he 
should shift his vision quickly, looking through the telescope at a plain 
background. The reticle pattern should be sharp and clear before his eye 
refocuses. If he needs to make an adjustment to match his eyes, he should 
hold the eyepiece lock ring and loosen the eyepiece by turning it two 
turns clockwise to compensate for nearsightedness and counterclockwise 
to compensate for farsightedness. Then, with a quick glance he should 
recheck the image. If the focus is worse, he then turns it four revolutions 
in the opposite direction. It will normally take two full revolutions to see 
a noticeable difference in the focus. Once the reticle appears focused, the 
sniper leaves the sights alone and allows the eye to rest for 5 to 10 
minutes and then rechecks the reticle. If he force-focuses the reticle, his 
eye will tire and he will see two reticles after shooting for a period of 
time. After determining the precise focus for his eye, the sniper should 
make sure to retighten the lock ring securely against the eyepiece to hold 
it in position. 



Never look 
Goncentratior 
eye damage. 


CAUTION 

at the sun through the telescope, 
of strong solar rays can cause serious 



G-8. Proper eye relief is established very simply. First, the sniper loosens 
the scope rings' Allen screws so that the telescope is free to move. He gets 
into the shooting position that will be used most frequently and slides the 
scope forward or back until a full, crisp picture is obtained. There should 
be no shading in the view. This view will be anywhere from 2 to 4 inches 
from his eye depending on the telescope. He rotates the telescope until 



G-3 



FM 3-05.222 



the reticle crosshairs are perfectly vertical and horizontal, then he 
tightens the rings' screws. 

G-9. The M24 has a one-piece telescope base that has two sets of 
machined grooves that allow the telescope to be mounted either forward 
or back to adjust for personal comfort. If that range of adjustment is not 
sufficient, the telescope can be adjusted after the mounting ring lock 
screws are loosened. 

UNITED STATE STELE SCOPES 

G-IO. The sniper team carries the telescope on all missions. The observer 
uses the telescope to determine wind speed and direction. The sniper uses 
this information to make quick and accurate adjustments for wind 
conditions. The team also uses the telescope for quicker and easier target 
identification during troop movement. The following discussion applies to 
the U.S. rifletelescopes currently in use. 

M84TELESCOPIC SIGHT 

G-11. The M84 telescopic sight has a magnification of 2.2x. It has a field 
of view of 27 feet at 100 yards. The maximum field of view is obtained 
with an eye relief of 3 1/2 to 5 inches. The reticle consists of a vertical post 
and a horizontal crosshair. The post is 3 MOA in width. The sight is 
sealed with rubber seals and may be submerged without damage (not 
recommended due to age). The windage knob has 60 MOA of adjustment, 
30 MOA from center left or right. However, there are a total of 100 MOA 
adjustments available to zero the telescope for misalignment. To adjust 
the strike of the bullet vertically, the sniper turns the knob to the higher 
numbers to raise the POI, and to lower numbers to lower the POL A 
complete turn of the elevation knob provides 40 MOA of adjustment. One 
click of the elevation or windage knob equals 1 MOA. The elevation scale 
starts at yards and goes up to 900 yards with graduations every 50 
yards. There is a numbered graduation every 100 yards. 

G-12. To zero the scope, the sniper shoots at a target at 100 or 200 yards. 
He adjusts the elevation and windage until the POA and POI are the 
same. He turns out the setscrews on both the elevation and windage 
knobs to "zero" them. The sniper then lifts and rotates the windage dial 
until the windage (deflection) is on the zero marking for the no-wind zero. 
He lifts and rotates the range (elevation) knob to the distance used for the 
zeroing procedure. He can mount this telescope on both the MIC and 
MID, the Ml Marine sniper, and the 1903A4 Springfield using a Redfield 
scope mount. 

ADJ USTABLE RANGING TELESCOPE I (ART I) 

G-13. The ART I automatically compensates for trajectory when a target 
of the proper size is adjusted between the stadia lines. It is a 3-9x 
variable that compensates for targets from 300 to 900 meters. It has a 
one-piece ballistic cam/power ring. The ballistic cam is set for the ballistic 
trajectory of the M118 Match or Special Ball ammunition (173 grain 
FMJ BT @2610 fps). Each click or tick mark on the adjustment screws is 



G-4 



FM 3-05.222 



worth 1/2 MOA in value. The ART I is zeroed at 300 meters. The sniper 
sets the power ring to 3 (3x/300m) and removes the adjustment turret 
caps. He fires the rifle and adjusts the elevation and windage adjustment 
screws until the POI is the same as the POA. Then he screws the turret 
caps back on to maxi mize the waterproof i ng of the telescope. 

G-14. The reticle has four stadia lines on it (Figure G-1). The two 
horizontal stadia lines are on the vertical crosshair, are 30 inches apart at 
the designated distance, and are used for ranging. The vertical crosshair 
and horizontal stadia lines are used to range targets from the beltline to 
the top of the head. The sniper adjusts the power/cam until the stadia 
lines are bracketing the target's beltline and top of head. The numeral on 
the power ring is the target distance. For example, if the power ring reads 
5, the target is at 500 m, and the scope is at 5x magnification. The 
ballistic cam has automatically adjusted the telescope for the trajectory of 
the round by changing the telescope's POA. The sniper aims center mass 
on the target to obtain a hit in a no-wind situation. The two vertical 
stadia lines are on the horizontal crosshair, are 60 inches apart at the 
designated distance, and are used for wind hold-offs and leads. If 
necessary, he holds off for environmental effects or target movement. 

NOTE: It is imperative to keep the scope base clean. The cam slides along 
the mount and pushes the telescope off from the bearing surface. Debris 
can interfere with the precise camming and ranging functions. 




Figure G-1. ART I Telescope Reticle 

ADJ USTABLE RANGING TELESCOPE II (ART II) 

G-15. The ART 1 1 is similar in operation and design to the ART I , with 
two major modifications. The ballistic cam and the power ring are now 
separate and can be moved independently of each other. This 
modification was made so that after ranging a target, the ballistic cam 



G-5 



FM 3-05.222 



can be locked to permit the sniper to increase the magnification for 
greater definition. The problem with this system is that it seldom works 
correctly. The two rings are locked together in poker-chip-tooth fashion, 
and even when locked together, they can move independently. When 
unlocked, it is very difficult to move one without the other moving, 
creating a change in the camming action, and ultimately, causing misses. 
It is best to lock them together and keep them together. The mount is 
similar to the ART I mount, and the bearing surface must be kept clean. 
The ART II mount has two mounting screws, one of which is threaded 
into a modified clip guide. The reticle is the second major modification. 
The reticle pattern is a standard crosshair, with thick outer bars on the 
left, right, and bottom crosshairs (Figure G-2). The horizontal crosshair 
has two dots, one on each side of the crosshair intersection. Each dot is 30 
inches from the center and a total of 60 inches apart. The heavy bars are 
1 meter in height or thickness at the range indicated. To determine the 
range to a target, the sniper adjusts the power ring and cam together 
until the target is of equal height to the bar. The correct placement of the 
bar is from the crotch to the top of head (1 meter). He aims center mass 
for a no-wi nd hit. He can read the cam to determi ne the range. 




Figure G-2. ART II Telescope Reticle 

LEUPOLD AND STEVENS MIA AND MBA ULTRA/MARK 4 lOX OR 16X 

G-16. The MIA comes in either lOx or 16x. It has three large, oversized 
target knobs. The left knob (as seen from the sniper) is for focus/parallax 
adjustment. The top knob is for elevation adjustment. The right knob is 
for windage adjustment. Table G-1, page G-7, explains the scope 
adjustments. The M3A is only available in lOx. It has the same knob 
arrangement as the MIA, but the knobs are smaller, and they have 
different click values. All Leupold and Stevens sniper telescopes use the 
mil-dot reticle (Figure G-3, pageG-7). 



G-6 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure G-3. Leupold and Stevens Telescope With a Mil-Dot Reticle 

G-17. The M3A has a ballistic collar to compensate for the trajectory of 
the specified cartridge. The collar is calibrated for bullet drop 
compensation from 100 meters to 1,000 meters. The following are 
available: 

• 7.62 mm NATO M 118 (173 FMJ BT @2,610fps). 

• .300 Winchester Magnum (190 HPBT @2900fps). 
NOTE: This collar is erroneously marked as 220 grain. 

• .30-06 Springfield (180 H PBT @2,700 fps). 

• 5.56 mm M193/.223 Remington (55 FMJ BT @3,200fps). 

Table G-1. Adjustments of Leupold and Stevens Telescopes 



Model 

MIA 

M3 

MSA 


Elevation 

1/4 MOA 
1 MOA 
1 MOA 


Windage 

1/4 MOA 
1 MOA 
1/2 MOA 


Complete Revolution 

1 5 MOAs 
100-1 ,000 M 
100-1 ,000 M 



NOTE: If the scope exhibits a zero shift after focusing the scope for the 
range, then the sniper should send the scope in for maintenance. 

BAUSCH AND LOMB TACTICAL RIFLE TELESCOPE 

G-18. The Bausch and Lomb is a 10- x 40-mm fixed-magnification 
telescope with 1/4 MOA adjustments. It has two large, target-type knobs. 
The upper knob is for elevation, and the knob on the right is for windage. 
The eyepiece houses the range-focus adjustment ring that is calibrated 
from 50 yards to infinity. It has the same mil-dot reticle pattern as the 
Leupold and Stevens series and USMC UnertI telescope. Each revolution 



G-7 



FM 3-05.222 



of the adjustment knobs provides 12 MOA. This scope is no longer 
manufactured and only a few are in the system. 

UNERTL USMC SNIPER TELESCOPE 

G-19. John UnertI was a USMC sniper during World War I and later 
became the manufacturer of some of the finest U.S. -made optics. This 
telescope was designed and built by the J ohn UnertI Company. It is a 
fixed lOx, steel-tubed, mil-dot telescope with a BDC for the M118 
ammunition. The lens is coated with a high-efficiency, low-reflection 
(HELR) film that transmits up to 91 percent of the ambient light. This 
telescope has 1/2 MOA adjustments, fine adjustments for zeroing, and 1 
MOA adjustments for elevation under normal use. For windage, the 
adjustments are in .5 MOA. It has a fine-tune elevation capability that 
permits 4/- 3 MOA, in .5 MOA adjustments, to adjust for differences in 
sniper's zero, temperatures, ammunition lots, and ammunition. The 
windage adjustment has 60 MOA of main adjustment with 4/- 4 MOA 
fine adjustment. This telescope also has a parallax-adjusting capability. 
The reticle is identical to that of the Leupold and Stevens series and the 
Bausch and Lomb Tactical scope. Care must be taken as most of these 
scopes are not waterproof and can fog badly under high-humidity use. 

SOVIET TELESCOPES 

G-20. The Soviet telescopes are made on machinery purchased from Carl 
Zeiss of Germany during the 1930s. Their optical quality is therefore good 
to excellent. Their operation is rather simple. Only the PE series has the 
capability of individually focusing to the user. The top turret is for 
elevation adjustment and has a ballistic cam that is calibrated for the 
7.62- X 54-mm Rimmed L ball ammunition (150 gn FMJ flat base @2,800 
fps). The turret on the left is for windage adjustments. Table G-2, 
pageG-9, lists various models and their characteristics. 

G-21. The zeroing procedures are identical for all Soviet telescopes. The 
sniper should zero at 100 meters. To do so, he loosens the small screws on 
the turrets that hold the top plate to the cam that is engraved with the 
tick marks and numerals. Several turns are all that is necessary. He 
should not remove these screws completely; they are not captive and are 
easily lost. Using a small screwdriver, he gently pries the top plate and 
cam apart so that the top plate can move independently of the cam. 
Firing three-shot groups, he adjusts the elevation and windage knobs 
until the POA and the POI are the same. When making adjustments, the 
sniper should move the reticle to the shot group. This adjustment is 
the major difference from zeroing these telescopes when compared to 
zeroing modern, U.S.-style telescopes where the shot group is moved to 
the reticle (POA). When the rifle and telescope system is zeroed, the 
sniper should "zero out" the cams. He should turn the elevation cam until 
the "1," which represents 100 meters, is aligned with the reference tick 
mark. He makes sure the top plate does not rotate when the cam is 
moved. The windage cam is also centered on its "0" marking. The sniper 
then pushes down on the top plates until they mate with the cams. He 
carefully tightens the small metal screws. The telescope is now zeroed. 



G-8 



FM 3-05.222 



Table G-2. M1891/30 Sniper Telescopes 



Model 


Magnification 


BDC (out to) 


Tube Diameter 


PE 


4x 


1 ,400 m 


1 inch 


PU 


3.5x 


1 ,300 m 


30 mm 


PV 


3.5x 


1 ,300 m 


30 mm 



SOVIET MANUAL DESCRIPTION 



Telescope Tube 



G-22. Telescopes can be any of various tubular optical instruments. 
Soviet technical manuals describe the telescope in two parts: a telescope 
tube and a mount. 



G-23. On the top of the tube is an elevation range knob, consisting of a 
screw and a drum, marked with numbers from 1 to 14 on the PE scope 
and from 1 to 13 on the PU scope. Each graduation is equivalent to 100 
meters in distance. 

G-24. At the left rear side of the scope is a windage knob. The 
components of the windage knob are the same as that of the elevation- 
range knob. The sniper uses the windage knob to compensate for the 
effects of wind on the trajectory of the bullet. The windage knob has 10 
graduations; the middle one is marked with the number 0. 

G-25. To move the strike of the bullet to the right, the sniper turns the 
windage knob to the direction of the mark "+," and conversely, turns the 
knob to the di rection of the mark "- " to move the stri ke of the bu I let to the 
left. Each click of windage corresponds to 1 mil. 

G-26. The telescope tube contains a system of optical glasses including 
convex lenses, prisms, and an eyepiece. The reticle is a cross-wire type. 
When aiming the rifle at the objective, the sniper places the vertical line 
of the reticle right on the objective. He uses the horizontal line to 
adjust the aim. The two knobs provide horizontal and vertical movement 
of the reticle. 

G-27. Thetelescopetube PE has adjusting devices. When taking aim, the 
sniper adjusts the knobs on the tube to fit with the observer's eye. 

G-28. The telescope tube PU has no adjusting (focusing) devices. 
Therefore, when aiming, the observer looks through the telescope and 
moves his head until the sighted object is in focus. 

G-29. When using a telescope to aim at the objective, the sniper places 
the eye at the center of the eyepiece, thus forming a sight alignment 
toward the objective. If aiming inaccurately, the sniper will see a small, 
black, crescent-shaped spot in the telescope. 



G-9 



FM 3-05.222 



Mount 



PSO-1 



G-30. The mount for PE consists of a base and a body. The sniper fixes 
the base to the receiver of the rifle with six screws. He uses the body of 
the mount, after it is fastened to the base, to fix the telescope to the rifle. 

G-31. The mount for PU also includes a base and a body. The sniper 
connects the base, after it is screwed to the receiver of the rifle, with the 
body of the mount by guide lugs and screws. The body of the mount may 
be moved up and down on the base using the two screws on the upper 
side and the rear lower side of the base. The sniper uses the body to fix 
the telescope to the rifle. 

G-32. The sniper then loosens three screws to rotate the sighting 
telescope, but only loosens the screws when firing for adjustment at the 
repair station of the regiment. 



G-33. The PSO-1 scope will be found mounted on the Soviet SVD and the 
Romanian FPK. The PSO-1 is 4x, and has an illuminated reticle powered 
by a small battery. The battery housing is located at the bottom rear of 
the telescopic sight mount. To change batteries, the sniper presses in and 
rotates the battery housing counterclockwise. He removes the old battery 
and replaces it with the same type. He can replace the reticle lamp by 
unscrewing its housing and removing the bulb (the RPG-7 sight uses the 
same bulb). The reticle light is turned on or off by its switch. The lens cap 
should always be in place except when the telescope is in use. Two covers 
are issued with each rifle: one is for the telescopic sight alone and the 
other covers the sight and breech when the PSO-1 is mounted. A belt 
pouch is provided for carrying the telescope when dismounted from the 
rifle, four magazines, a cleaning kit, and an extra battery and lamp. 

G-34. If the sniper needs to use open sights, he sets the rear sight by 
pressing in the locks on the rear sight slide, then moves the slide along 
the rear sight leaf. He then aligns the front edge of the slide with the 
numeral that corresponds in hundreds of meters. He can use the same 
sight picture as for firing a pistol. 

G-35. If the sniper uses the PSO-1, he rotates the elevation knob until 
the index aligns with the figure that corresponds to the range in 
hundreds of meters. He can closely determine the range by using the 
range finder located in the lower left of the telescopic reticle. This range 
finder is graduated to the height of a man (5 feet 7 inches) from 200 to 
1,000 meters. The sniper looks through the telescope and places the 
horizontal line at the bottom of the target. He moves the telescope until 
the upper (curved) line just touches the top of the target's head. The 
number indicates the range in hundreds of meters. If the target falls 
between numbers, he must estimate the remaining distance. When the 
range is determined and set into the elevation knob, he uses the point of 
the top chevron on the reticle as an aiming point. He uses the three lower 
chevrons for firing at 1,100, 1,200, and 1,300 meters with the elevation 
knob set at 10. 



G-10 



FM 3-05.222 



G-36. The sniper uses the horizontal scale extending out from the sides 
of the top chevron for hasty wind and lead corrections; each tick mark is 
worth 1 Soviet mil (6,000 Soviet mils per 360 degrees). The horizontal 
scale is numbered every 5 and 10 mils. Rotating the windage knob makes 
deliberate changes. The windage knob is graduated every 1/2 Soviet mil. 
The windage knob scale has two clicks per graduation, each click 
representing 1/2 mil (.5 mil), each graduation one mil. At 1,000 meters, 
each click moves the impact of the round .5 meters (20 inches), each 
graduation moves the impact 1 meter (40 inches). The numbers on the 
windage knob are colored. Right windage corrections are black and are 
obtained when the knob is rotated clockwise. Left windage corrections are 
red and are obtained when the knob is rotated counterclockwise. 

G-37. When the sniper must fire in dim light, he illuminates the reticle 
by turning on the switch in the telescopic sight mount. If active infrared 
light sources are believed to be used by the enemy, he sets the range 
drum at four and switches the infrared detector into place. He then scans 
the area to the front; if any active infrared light sources are in use, they 
will appear as orange-red blobs in the telescope. He aligns the point of the 
reticle on the light and fires. The sniper should turn off the reticle when 
not in use to conserve the battery and swing the infrared detector out of 
the way so that it will be activated by light during the day. Several hours 
of direct sunlight are required to activate the infrared detector. 

G-38. If the sniper is unable to obtain the correct dry cell batteries, he 
can easily assemble a suitable expedient. The Soviet dry cell is 5.0 volts. 
The following are required: 

• Two 1.25 volt/625 camera batteries (lithium). 

• One3.0volt/DL 2025 camera battery (lithium). 

• One plastic bushing Outside Diameter- 0.85," Inside Diameter- 
0.60,"Length-0.73." 

G-39. The sniper should place the batteries' positive "+" side into the 
battery compartment first. He places the large, flat DL2025 in first, then 
the bushing, then the two 625 batteries, and replaces the battery 
compartment cap. 



G-11 



Appendix H 

Ballistics Chart 



SIERRA BALLISTICS III 

Datafor: 7.62mm M1 18 Bullet: 173 grains BCs: .515(H), .503(M), .491 (L) 
Company: Sierra Temperature: 59 Pressure: 29.53 Humidity: 78% 
Zero: 100 meters Crosswind: 10.00 mph Tail Wind: + 0.00 mpli 
Elevation Angle: degrees Altitude: feet Sight Height: 1 .7 inclies 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 





2,610.0 


2,616 


-1.7 


+ 0.0 


+ 0.0 


0.000000 


25 


2,561.9 


2,521 


-0.7 


-0.2 


-0.1 


0.031719 


50 


2,514.3 


2,428 


-0.0 


-0.7 


-0.2 


0.064037 


75 


2,467.2 


2,338 


+ 0.2 


-1.7 


-0.5 


0.096969 


100 


2,420.6 


2,250 


+ 0.0 


-3.1 


-0.9 


0.130533 


125 


2,374.4 


2,165 


-0.6 


-4.9 


-1.3 


0.164745 


150 


2,328.8 


2,083 


-1.7 


-7.2 


-1.9 


0.199625 


175 


2,283.7 


2,003 


-3.3 


-9.9 


-2.7 


0.235191 


200 


2,239.1 


1,925 


-5.4 


-13.2 


-3.5 


0.271464 


225 


2,194.9 


1,850 


-8.0 


-17.0 


-4.5 


0.308463 


250 


2,151.2 


1,777 


-11.1 


-21.3 


-5.6 


0.346210 


275 


2,108.0 


1,707 


-14.8 


-26.2 


-6.9 


0.384726 


300 


2,065.3 


1,638 


-19.1 


-31.6 


-8.3 


0.424036 


325 


2,023.2 


1,572 


-24.0 


-37.7 


-9.8 


0.464162 


350 


1,981.5 


1,508 


-29.5 


-44.4 


-11.5 


0.505128 


375 


1,940.4 


1,446 


-35.6 


-51.8 


-13.3 


0.546959 


400 


1,899.8 


1,386 


-42.5 


-59.8 


-15.3 


0.589681 


425 


1,859.7 


1,328 


-50.1 


-68.6 


-17.4 


0.633319 


450 


1,820.3 


1,273 


-58.4 


-78.1 


-19.8 


0.677901 


475 


1,781.2 


1,219 


-67.5 


-88.4 


-22.2 


0.723454 


500 


1,742.0 


1,165 


-77.5 


-99.5 


-24.9 


0.770022 


525 


1,703.4 


1,114 


-88.2 


-111.5 


-27.8 


0.817641 


550 


1,665.5 


1,065 


-99.9 


-124.3 


-30.8 


0.866341 


575 


1,628.4 


1,018 


-112.5 


-138.1 


-34.0 


0.916152 


600 


1,591.9 


973 


-126.1 


-152.9 


-37.5 


0.967102 


625 


1,556.3 


930 


-140.7 


-168.7 


-41.1 


1.019220 


650 


1,521.4 


889 


-156.4 


-185.6 


-45.0 


1 .072533 


675 


1,487.3 


850 


-173.2 


-203.6 


-49.0 


1.127070 



H-1 



FM 3-05.222 



Data for: 7.62mm M1 1 8 (Continued) 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 


700 


1,454.1 


812 


-191.2 


-222.8 


-53.3 


1.182854 


725 


1,421.8 


776 


-210.4 


- 243.2 


-57.8 


1.239911 


750 


1,390.4 


743 


-231.0 


-264.9 


-62.6 


1 .298263 


775 


1,360.0 


710 


-252.8 


-287.9 


-67.5 


1 .357928 


800 


1,330.6 


680 


-276.1 


-312.4 


-72.7 


1.418923 


825 


1,302.2 


651 


-300.8 


-338.3 


-78.2 


1.481260 


850 


1,274.9 


624 


-327.0 


-365.7 


-83.9 


1 .544946 


875 


1,248.8 


599 


-354.9 


-394.8 


-89.8 


1 .609982 


900 


1,223.9 


575 


-384.4 


-425.5 


-95.9 


1 .676366 


925 


1,200.1 


553 


-415.7 


-458.0 


-102.3 


1 .744087 


950 


1,177.6 


533 


-448.8 


-492.2 


-108.9 


1.813130 


975 


1,156.3 


514 


-483.8 


- 528.4 


-115.8 


1 .883472 


1,000 


1,136.3 


496 


-520.7 


-566.5 


-122.9 


1.955087 


Range Path Drift 

-1.7 +0.0 
100 +0.0 -0.9 
200 -5.4 -3.5 
300 -19.1 -8.3 
400 -42.5 -15.3 
500 -77.5 -24.9 

Environmental Conditions 

Actual barometric pressure at firing site 29.53 inclies 

Actual speed of sound at firing site 1,121 fps 

Effective ballistic coefficient at firing site 0.514 

Animal Lead Calculations 

Average lead for a running deer at 100 meters is 3 feet 

Average lead for a running elk at 100 meters is 5 feet 

Average lead for a running antelope at 100 meters is 8 feet 



H-2 



FM 3-05.222 



SIERRA BALLISTICS III 
Data for: 7.62mm M852 Bullet: 1 68 grains Match King BCs: .462(H), .447(M), .424(L) 
Company: Sierra Temperature: 59 Pressure: 29.53 Humidity: 78% 
Zero: 600 meters Crosswind: 10.00 mpli Tail Wind: + 0.00 mpli 
Elevation Angle: degrees Altitude: feet Sight Height: 1 .5 inclies 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 





2,600.0 


2,521 


-1.50 


0.00 


0.00 


0.000000 


25 


2,546.3 


2,418 


5.20 


0.19 


-0.06 


0.031865 


50 


2,493.3 


2,319 


11.49 


0.77 


-0.23 


0.064404 


75 


2,440.6 


2,222 


17.37 


1.78 


-0.53 


0.097641 


100 


2,388.5 


2,128 


22.81 


3.22 


-0.95 


0.131599 


125 


2,337.2 


2,037 


27.80 


5.12 


-1.51 


0.166299 


150 


2,286.5 


1,950 


32.31 


7.49 


-2.20 


0.201764 


175 


2,236.5 


1,866 


36.32 


10.35 


-3.03 


0.238020 


200 


2,187.1 


1,784 


39.82 


13.74 


-4.00 


0.275089 


225 


2,138.5 


1,706 


42.77 


17.67 


-5.12 


0.312998 


250 


2,090.0 


1,629 


45.16 


22.16 


-6.39 


0.351774 


275 


2,040.1 


1,552 


46.95 


27.25 


-7.82 


0.391476 


300 


1,991.0 


1,478 


48.12 


32.97 


-9.43 


0.432153 


325 


1,942.5 


1,407 


48.63 


39.34 


- 1 1 .22 


0.473840 


350 


1,894.8 


1,339 


48.45 


46.39 


-13.18 


0.516572 


375 


1,847.8 


1,273 


47.56 


54.17 


-15.34 


0.560386 


400 


1,801.5 


1,210 


45.90 


62.71 


-17.70 


0.605319 


425 


1,755.9 


1,150 


43.44 


72.05 


-20.26 


0.651414 


450 


1,711.0 


1,092 


40.14 


82.23 


-23.03 


0.698711 


475 


1,667.0 


1,036 


35.96 


93.30 


-26.02 


0.747254 


500 


1,624.2 


984 


30.84 


105.30 


-29.24 


0.797077 


525 


1,581.7 


933 


24.73 


118.29 


-32.69 


0.848218 


550 


1,539.3 


884 


17.59 


132.31 


-36.38 


0.900757 


575 


1,498.1 


837 


9.35 


147.43 


-40.33 


0.954745 


600 


1,458.0 


793 


-0.04 


163.70 


-44.54 


1.010219 


625 


1,419.0 


751 


-10.65 


181.20 


-49.02 


1.067219 


650 


1,381.1 


711 


-22.56 


199.98 


-53.78 


1.125786 


675 


1,345.0 


675 


-35.82 


220.13 


-58.81 


1.185945 



H-3 



FM 3-05.222 



Data for: 7.62mm M852 (Continued) 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 


700 


1,310.7 


641 


-50.52 


241.71 


-64.13 


1 .247702 


725 


1,278.0 


609 


-66.73 


264.80 


-69.73 


1.311059 


750 


1,246.9 


580 


- 84.53 


289.48 


-75.61 


1.376018 


775 


1,217.2 


553 


-104.00 


315.83 


-81.77 


1 .442582 


800 


1,189.0 


527 


-125.22 


343.93 


- 88.22 


1.510752 


825 


1,163.0 


504 


-148.28 


373.87 


- 94.94 


1.580501 


850 


1,139.0 


484 


-173.25 


405.73 


-101.93 


1.651770 


875 


1,116.8 


465 


-200.23 


439.60 


-109.18 


1 .724503 


900 


1,096.1 


448 


-229.30 


475.54 


-116.68 


1 .798649 


925 


1,076.9 


433 


-260.52 


513.65 


-124.42 


1.874162 


950 


1,058.9 


418 


-293.98 


554.00 


-132.39 


1 .950999 


975 


1,042.0 


405 


-329.77 


596.66 


-140.58 


2.029121 


1,000 


1,026.0 


393 


-367.95 


641.72 


-149.00 


2.108491 


Range Path Drift 3-mph Target Lead 3-mph Mil Dot Lead 

-1.50 0.00 0" 0.00 
100 +22.81 -0.95 6" Light 1.50 
200 +39.82 -4.00 12" 1.50 
300 +48.12 -9.43 19" Heavy 1.50 
400 +45.90 -17.70 26" Light 1.75 
500 +30.84 -29.24 35" 1.75 
600 -0.04 -44.54 44" Heavy 1 .75 



H-4 



FM 3-05.222 



SIERRA BALLISTICS III 
Data for: 7.62mm M1 1 SLR Bullet: 1 75 grains Match King BCs: .505(H), .496(M), .485(L) 
Company: Sierra Temperature: 59 Pressure: 29.53 Humidity: 78% 
Zero: 600 meters Crosswind: 10.00 mpli Tail Wind: + 0.00 mpli 
Elevation Angle: degrees Altitude: feet Sight Height: 1 .5 inclies 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 





2,600.0 


2,626 


-1.50 


0.00 


0.00 


0.000000 


25 


2,551.6 


2,529 


0.20 


0.19 


-0.05 


0.031833 


50 


2,503.8 


2,435 


1.50 


0.77 


-0.21 


0.064271 


75 


2,456.1 


2,344 


2.38 


1.77 


-0.47 


0.097334 


100 


2,409.0 


2,255 


2.84 


3.20 


-0.85 


0.131040 


125 


2,362.5 


2,168 


2.84 


5.08 


-1.35 


0.165408 


150 


2,316.5 


2,085 


2.39 


7.42 


-1.97 


0.200455 


175 


2,271.0 


2,004 


1.44 


10.25 


-2.71 


0.236201 


200 


2,226.1 


1,925 


0.00 


13.58 


-3.57 


0.272665 


225 


2,181.8 


1,849 


-1.97 


17.43 


-4.57 


0.309867 


250 


2,138.0 


1,776 


-4.48 


21.83 


-5.70 


0.347829 


275 


2,094.7 


1,705 


-7.57 


26.79 


-6.96 


0.386572 


300 


2,051.9 


1,636 


-11.24 


32.35 


-8.37 


0.426119 


325 


2,009.7 


1,569 


-15.53 


38.52 


-9.92 


0.466494 


350 


1,968.0 


1,505 


-20.46 


45.34 


-11.63 


0.507720 


375 


1,926.8 


1,442 


-26.06 


52.83 


-13.49 


0.549823 


400 


1,886.2 


1,382 


-32.37 


61.02 


-15.50 


0.592830 


425 


1,846.1 


1,324 


-39.40 


69.93 


-17.68 


0.636767 


450 


1,806.5 


1,268 


-47.19 


79.61 


-20.03 


0.681663 


475 


1,766.7 


1,213 


-55.78 


90.08 


-22.56 


0.727555 


500 


1,727.3 


1,159 


-65.20 


101.39 


-25.27 


0.774488 


525 


1,688.5 


1,108 


-75.49 


113.56 


-28.16 


0.822498 


550 


1,650.5 


1,058 


-86.69 


126.65 


-31.26 


0.871613 


575 


1,613.4 


1,011 


-98.84 


140.68 


-34.55 


0.921859 


600 


1,577.2 


966 


-112.00 


155.72 


-38.04 


0.973260 


625 


1,541.8 


924 


-126.19 


171.80 


-41.74 


1 .025842 


650 


1,507.2 


883 


-141.48 


188.97 


-45.66 


1 .079631 


675 


1,473.4 


843 


-157.91 


207.28 


-49.79 


1.134655 



H-5 



FM 3-05.222 



Data for: 7.62mm Ml 1 8LR (Continued) 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 


700 


1,440.5 


806 


-175.53 


226.79 


-54.14 


1.190941 


725 


1,408.2 


770 


-194.41 


247.56 


-58.73 


1.248516 


750 


1,376.9 


737 


-214.60 


269.63 


-63.54 


1 .307409 


775 


1,346.8 


705 


-236.15 


293.07 


-68.59 


1 .367634 


800 


1,318.0 


675 


-259.14 


317.94 


-73.87 


1.429192 


825 


1,290.3 


647 


-283.62 


344.31 


-79.38 


1 .492086 


850 


1,263.8 


620 


-309.67 


372.23 


-85.14 


1.556318 


875 


1,238.3 


596 


-337.33 


401.79 


-91.13 


1.621889 


900 


1,213.8 


572 


-366.70 


433.03 


-97.35 


1.688801 


925 


1,190.3 


550 


-397.82 


466.05 


-103.81 


1 .757055 


950 


1,168.3 


530 


-430.79 


500.89 


-110.50 


1 .826631 


975 


1,147.8 


512 


-465.65 


537.64 


-117.42 


1 .897487 


1,000 


1,128.7 


495 


-502.49 


576.36 


-124.56 


1 .969582 


Range Path Drift 3-mph Target Lead 3-mph Mil Dot Lead 

-1.50 0.00 0" 0.00 
100 +2.84 0.85 6" Light 1.50 
200 0.00 -3.57 12" 1.50 
300 -11.24 -8.37 19" Heavy 1 .50 
400 -32.37 -15.50 26" Light 1.75 
500 -65.20 -25.27 34" 1.75 
600 -112.00 -38.04 43" Heavy 1.75 



H-6 



FM 3-05.222 



SIERRA BALLISTICS III 
Data for: 5.56mm Bullet: 77 grains SPR BCs: .372(H), .372(M), .372(L) 
Company: Sierra Temperature: 59 Pressure: 29.53 Humidity: 78% 
Zero: 200 meters Crosswind: 10.00 mpli Tail Wind: + 0.00 mpli 
Elevation Angle: degrees Altitude: feet Sight Height: 2 inclies 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 





2,600.0 


1,156 


-2.00 


0.00 


+ 0.00 


0.000000 


25 


2,535.6 


1,099 


-0.18 


0.19 


-0.07 


0.031929 


50 


2,471.9 


1,045 


1.24 


0.78 


-0.28 


0.064674 


75 


2,409.0 


992 


2.24 


1.79 


-0.64 


0.098268 


100 


2,347.1 


942 


2.78 


3.26 


-1.15 


0.132744 


125 


2,286.1 


893 


2.86 


5.19 


-1.83 


0.168100 


150 


2,226.1 


847 


2.44 


7.62 


-2.67 


0.204500 


175 


2,167.1 


803 


1.50 


10.58 


-3.69 


0.241800 


200 


2,109.0 


760 


0.00 


14.08 


-4.89 


0.280100 


225 


2,051.9 


720 


-2.08 


18.18 


-6.27 


0.319600 


250 


1,995.7 


681 


-4.78 


22.88 


-7.85 


0.360100 


275 


1,940.4 


644 


-8.13 


28.24 


-9.63 


0.401700 


300 


1,886.1 


608 


-12.16 


34.29 


-11.62 


0.444600 


325 


1,832.7 


574 


-16.93 


41.07 


-13.83 


0.488700 


350 


1,780.3 


542 


-22.47 


48.62 


-16.26 


0.534000 


375 


1,728.8 


511 


-28.83 


56.99 


-18.93 


0.580800 


400 


1,678.2 


481 


-36.06 


66.22 


-21.85 


0.628900 


425 


1,629.2 


454 


-44.21 


76.38 


-25.02 


0.678500 


450 


1,581.6 


428 


- 53.33 


87.52 


-28.46 


0.729500 


475 


1,535.5 


403 


-63.50 


99.69 


-32.17 


0.782200 


500 


1,490.8 


380 


-74.76 


112.97 


-36.15 


0.836300 


525 


1,447.4 


358 


-87.19 


127.41 


-40.42 


0.892200 


550 


1,405.3 


338 


-100.87 


143.09 


-44.99 


0.949600 


575 


1,364.8 


318 


-115.85 


160.09 


-49.86 


1 .008800 


600 


1,326.4 


301 


-132.23 


178.48 


-55.03 


1 .069800 


625 


1,290.1 


285 


-150.09 


198.35 


-60.51 


1.132470 


650 


1,255.7 


270 


-169.50 


219.77 


-66.30 


1.196890 


675 


1,223.0 


256 


-190.56 


242.84 


-72.39 


1 .263070 



H-7 



FM 3-05.222 



Data for: 5.56mm (Continued) 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 


700 


1,192.0 


243 


-213.36 


267.65 


-78.79 


1 .33099 


725 


1,163.5 


231 


-237.98 


294.29 


-85.50 


1 .40064 


750 


1,137.4 


221 


-264.52 


322.84 


-92.50 


1.47194 


775 


1,113.4 


212 


-293.07 


353.40 


-99.77 


1 .54484 


800 


1,091.3 


204 


-323.72 


386.05 


-107.32 


1.61926 


825 


1,070.7 


196 


-356.55 


420.89 


-115.13 


1.69517 


850 


1,051.6 


189 


-391.64 


458.00 


-123.18 


1 .77250 


875 


1,033.7 


183 


-429.08 


497.45 


-131.49 


1.85121 


900 


1,016.9 


177 


-468.96 


539.34 


-140.02 


1.93126 


925 


1,001.1 


171 


-511.35 


583.74 


-148.79 


2.01261 


950 


986.2 


166 


-556.34 


630.74 


-157.78 


2.09523 


975 


972.1 


162 


-604.00 


680.42 


-166.98 


2.17908 


1,000 


958.8 


157 


- 654.42 


732.85 


-176.40 


2.26413 


Range Path 

-2.00 
100 2.78 
200 0.00 
300 -12.16 
400 - 36.06 
500 - 74.76 

Environmental Co 

Actual barometric pressure at firing site.... 

Actual speed of sound at firing site 

Effective ballistic coefficient at firing site... 

Animal Lead Calc 

Average lead for a 3-mph walking targe 

Average lead for a running deer at 100 me 
Average lead for a running elk at 100 met( 
Averane lead for a riinnino antelone at 10 


Drift 

+ 0.00 

-1.15 

-4.89 
-11.62 
-21.85 
-36.15 

nditions 

29.53 inches 

1,121 fps 

0.372 

ulations 

t at 100 meters is 7 inches 

;ters is 3 feet 

3rs is 5 feet 


D meters is 8 feet 















H-8 



FM 3-05.222 



SIERRA BALLISTICS III 
Data for: 300 Win Mag Bullet: 1 90 grains Match King BCs: .533(H), .525(M), .51 5(L) 
Company: Sierra Temperature: 59 Pressure: 29.53 Humidity: 78% 
Zero: 200 meters Crosswind: 10.00 mpli Tail Wind: + 0.00 mpli 
Elevation Angle: degrees Altitude: feet Sight Height: 1.5 inclies 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 





2,900.0 


3,547 


-1.50 


0.00 


0.00 


0.0000 


25 


2,855.7 


3,440 


-0.32 


0.13 


-0.03 


0.0261 


50 


2,811.9 


3,335 


0.59 


0.52 


-0.14 


0.0525 


75 


2,768.5 


3,233 


1.23 


1.18 


-0.32 


0.0794 


100 


2,725.5 


3,133 


1.59 


2.13 


-0.57 


0.1067 


125 


2,683.0 


3,036 


1.66 


3.37 


-0.90 


0.1344 


150 


2,640.9 


2,942 


1.42 


4.92 


-1.30 


0.1626 


175 


2,599.2 


2,850 


0.87 


6.77 


-1.79 


0.1912 


200 


2,558.0 


2,760 


0.00 


8.95 


-2.35 


0.2203 


225 


2,517.2 


2,673 


-1.20 


11.45 


-3.00 


0.2498 


250 


2,476.6 


2,587 


-2.75 


14.30 


-3.74 


0.2798 


275 


2,436.3 


2,504 


-4.64 


17.51 


-4.56 


0.3104 


300 


2,396.4 


2,422 


-6.91 


21.07 


-5.46 


0.3414 


325 


2,356.9 


2,343 


-9.55 


25.02 


-6.47 


0.3729 


350 


2,317.8 


2,266 


-12.58 


29.36 


-7.56 


0.4050 


375 


2,279.1 


2,191 


-16.02 


34.10 


-8.75 


0.4376 


400 


2,240.8 


2,118 


-19.87 


39.26 


-10.04 


0.4708 


425 


2,202.8 


2,047 


-24.16 


44.85 


- 1 1 .42 


0.5046 


450 


2,165.3 


1,978 


-28.89 


50.89 


-12.91 


0.5389 


475 


2,128.1 


1,910 


-34.09 


57.40 


-14.51 


0.5738 


500 


2,091.3 


1,845 


-39.77 


64.38 


-16.21 


0.6094 


525 


2,054.3 


1,780 


-45.94 


71.85 


-18.03 


0.6455 


550 


2,017.8 


1,717 


-52.62 


79.85 


-19.96 


0.6824 


575 


1,981.7 


1,656 


-59.84 


88.37 


-22.00 


0.7199 


600 


1,945.9 


1,597 


-67.62 


97.45 


-24.17 


0.7580 


625 


1,910.6 


1,540 


-75.96 


107.10 


-26.46 


0.7969 


650 


1,875.7 


1,484 


-84.90 


117.35 


-28.88 


0.8365 


675 


1,841.1 


1,430 


-94.46 


128.21 


-31.43 


0.8769 



H-9 



FM 3-05.222 



Data for: 300 Win Mag (Continued) 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 


700 


1,806.9 


1,377 


-104.66 


139.71 


-34.12 


0.9180 


725 


1,773.1 


1,326 


-115.52 


151.88 


-36.94 


0.9599 


750 


1,739.7 


1,277 


-127.07 


164.74 


-39.90 


1 .0026 


775 


1,706.7 


1,229 


-139.34 


178.32 


-43.01 


1.0461 


800 


1,674.2 


1,182 


-152.36 


192.64 


-46.26 


1 .0904 


825 


1,642.4 


1,138 


-166.15 


207.73 


-49.67 


1.1356 


850 


1,611.2 


1,095 


-180.75 


223.64 


- 53.23 


1.1817 


875 


1,580.2 


1,053 


-196.18 


240.37 


-56.95 


1 .2287 


900 


1,549.6 


1,013 


-212.48 


257.98 


-60.83 


1 .2767 


925 


1,519.6 


974 


-229.68 


276.49 


-64.88 


1 .3255 


950 


1,490.3 


937 


-247.83 


295.94 


-69.10 


1 .3753 


975 


1,461.5 


901 


-266.95 


316.37 


-73.49 


1 .4262 


1,000 


1 ,433.3 


867 


-287.09 


337.81 


-78.05 


1.477976 


Range Path 

-1.50 
100 1.59 
200 0.00 
300 - 6.91 
400 -19.87 
500 - 39.77 

Environmental Co 

Actual barometric pressure at firing site.... 

Actual speed of sound at firing site 

Effective ballistic coefficient at firing site... 

Animal Lead Calc 

Average lead for a 3-mph walking targe 

Average lead for a running deer at 100 me 
Average lead for a running elk at 100 met 
Averaoe lead for a riinnino antelone at 10 


Drift 

-0.03 

-0.57 

-2.35 

-5.46 
-10.04 
-16.21 

nditions 

29.53 inches 

1,121 fps 

0.530 

ulations 

t at 100 meters. ...5 1/2 inches 

3ters is 3 feet 

3rs is 5 feet 


D meters is 8 feet 

















H-10 



FM 3-05.222 



SIERRA BALLISTICS III 

Data for: .338 Lapua Weight: 250 grains BCs: .675(H), .675(M), .675(L) 
Company: Sierra Temperature: 59 Pressure: 29.53 Humidity: 78% 
Zero: 200 meters Crosswind: 10.00 mpli Tail Wind: + 0.00 mpli 
Elevation Angle: degrees Altitude: feet Sight Height: 2 inclies 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 





2,750.0 


4,197 


-2.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.000000 


50 


2,676.4 


3,976 


0.76 


0.67 


-0.14 


0.060434 


100 


2,604.1 


3,764 


2.06 


2.79 


-0.57 


0.122538 


150 


2,533.0 


3,561 


1.84 


6.44 


-1.31 


0.186376 


200 


2,463.0 


3,367 


0.00 


11.71 


-2.36 


0.252013 


250 


2,393.8 


3,180 


-3.55 


18.69 


-3.74 


0.319534 


300 


2,325.9 


3,002 


-8.92 


27.49 


-5.47 


0.389016 


350 


2,259.1 


2,833 


-16.20 


38.20 


-7.56 


0.460539 


400 


2,193.5 


2,670 


-25.52 


50.94 


-10.03 


0.534189 


450 


2,129.1 


2,516 


-36.99 


65.85 


-12.88 


0.610054 


500 


2,065.8 


2,369 


-50.76 


83.04 


-16.14 


0.688230 


550 


2,003.7 


2,228 


-66.96 


102.66 


-19.83 


0.768814 


600 


1,942.7 


2,095 


-85.74 


124.88 


-23.95 


0.851912 


650 


1,882.9 


1,968 


-107.27 


149.84 


-28.54 


0.937636 


700 


1,824.2 


1,847 


-131.74 


177.73 


-33.61 


1.026101 


750 


1,766.6 


1,732 


-159.32 


208.74 


-39.19 


1.117432 


800 


1,710.2 


1,623 


-190.23 


243.08 


-45.29 


1.211761 


850 


1,655.2 


1,520 


-224.69 


280.97 


-51.95 


1 .309221 


900 


1,602.0 


1,424 


-262.94 


322.64 


-59.17 


1 .409921 


950 


1,550.6 


1,334 


-305.24 


368.37 


-66.98 


1.513966 


1,000 


1,500.9 


1,250 


-351.85 


418.41 


-75.40 


1.621464 


1,050 


1,452.9 


1,172 


-403.08 


473.07 


-84.45 


1 .732525 


1,100 


1,406.4 


1,098 


-459.23 


532.64 


-94.15 


1 .847264 


1,150 


1,361.9 


1,029 


-520.63 


597.47 


-104.51 


1.965791 



H-11 



FM 3-05.222 



Data for: .338 Lapua (Continued) 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 


1,200 


1,320.0 


967 


- 587.63 


667.90 


-115.55 


2.088153 


1,250 


1,280.5 


910 


- 660.60 


744.30 


-127.26 


2.214358 


1,300 


1 ,243.3 


858 


- 739.90 


827.03 


-139.65 


2.344413 


1,350 


1,208.2 


810 


- 825.93 


916.49 


-152.72 


2.478326 


1,400 


1,175.4 


767 


-919.09 


1,013.08 


-166.47 


2.616090 


1,450 


1,145.9 


729 


-1,019.78 


1,117.20 


-180.87 


2.757582 


1,500 


1,118.9 


695 


-1,128.39 


1,229.24 


-195.90 


2.902635 


1,550 


1,094.3 


665 


- 1 ,245.33 


1,349.61 


-211.53 


3.051101 


1,600 


1,071.7 


637 


-1,370.96 


1,478.67 


-227.74 


3.202849 


1,650 


1,050.8 


613 


-1,505.67 


1,616.82 


-244.51 


3.357759 


1,700 


1,031.4 


590 


-1,649.84 


1 ,764.42 


-261.81 


3.515722 


1,750 


1,013.3 


570 


-1,803.81 


1,921.83 


-279.63 


3.676642 


1,800 


996.5 


551 


-1,967.97 


2,089.42 


-297.96 


3.840426 


1,850 


980.7 


534 


-2,142.66 


2,267.55 


-316.78 


4.006993 


1,900 


965.8 


518 


-2,328.24 


2,456.57 


-336.07 


4.176266 


1,950 


951.9 


503 


-2,525.06 


2,656.83 


-355.83 


4.348176 


2,000 


938.7 


489 


-2,733.46 


2,868.67 


-376.04 


4.522656 


Range Path Drift 

-2.00 0.00 

500 -50.76 -16.14 

750 -159.32 -39.19 

1,000 -351.85 -75.40 

1,500 -1128.39 -195.90 

2,000 - 2733.46 - 376.04 

Average lead for a 3-mph moving target 

350 meters 2 feet 1.75 mils 
500 meters 3 feet Heavy 1 .75 mils 
750 meters 5 feet 2.00 mils 
1,000 meters 7 feet Light 2.25 mils 
1 ,200 meters 9 feet Heavy 2.25 mils 
1,450 meters 12 feet Heavy 2.50 mils 
1,600 meters 14 feet Light 2.75 mils 
1,850 meters 17 feet Heavy 2.75 mils 
2,000 meters 20 feet 3.00 mils 



H-12 



FM 3-05.222 



SIERRA BALLISTICS III 

Data for: .338 Lapua Weight: 300 grains BCs: .768(H), .76(M), .75(L) 
Company: Sierra Temperature: 59 Pressure: 29.53 Humidity: 78% 
Zero: 200 meters Crosswind: 10.00 mpli Tail Wind: + 0.00 mpli 
Elevation Angle: degrees Altitude: feet Sight Height: 2 inclies 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 





2,750.0 


5,037 


-2.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.000000 


50 


2,685.2 


4,802 


0.73 


0.67 


-0.12 


0.060338 


100 


2,621.5 


4,577 


2.02 


2.78 


-0.50 


0.122138 


150 


2,558.7 


4,360 


1.80 


6.40 


-1.14 


0.185447 


200 


2,496.9 


4,152 


0.00 


11.61 


-2.06 


0.250316 


250 


2,435.6 


3,951 


-3.47 


18.48 


-3.26 


0.316804 


300 


2,375.1 


3,757 


-8.69 


27.10 


-4.76 


0.384974 


350 


2,315.6 


3,571 


-15.75 


37.56 


-6.57 


0.454888 


400 


2,256.6 


3,392 


-24.75 


49.96 


-8.69 


0.526611 


450 


2,198.3 


3,219 


-35.78 


64.40 


-11.15 


0.600225 


500 


2,141.0 


3,053 


-48.97 


80.98 


-13.95 


0.675801 


550 


2,084.6 


2,894 


- 64.42 


99.83 


-17.11 


0.753413 


600 


2,029.0 


2,742 


-82.25 


121.07 


-20.65 


0.833137 


650 


1,974.4 


2,596 


-102.61 


144.83 


-24.57 


0.915056 


700 


1,920.7 


2,457 


-125.64 


171.26 


-28.89 


0.999254 


750 


1,867.9 


2,324 


-151.47 


200.49 


-33.62 


1 .085820 


800 


1,816.0 


2,196 


-180.29 


232.71 


-38.79 


1.174850 


850 


1,764.5 


2,074 


-212.25 


268.07 


-44.42 


1 .266449 


900 


1,713.7 


1,956 


-247.55 


306.77 


-50.52 


1 .360749 


950 


1,664.0 


1,844 


-286.38 


349.01 


-57.11 


1 .457860 


1,000 


1,615.8 


1,739 


-328.97 


394.99 


-64.21 


1 .557873 


1,050 


1,569.1 


1,640 


-375.53 


444.96 


-71.84 


1 .660872 


1,100 


1,523.7 


1,546 


-426.31 


499.14 


-80.01 


1 .766942 


1,150 


1,479.8 


1,458 


-481.57 


557.80 


-88.74 


1.876174 



H-13 



FM 3-05.222 



Data for: .338 Lapua (Continued) 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 


1,200 


1,437.1 


1,376 


-541.57 


621 .20 


-98.03 


1 .988657 


1,250 


1,395.7 


1,297 


- 606.60 


689.64 


-107.92 


2.104487 


1,300 


1,356.1 


1,225 


- 676.97 


763.40 


-118.41 


2.223746 


1,350 


1,318.6 


1,158 


- 752.99 


842.83 


-129.51 


2.346457 


1,400 


1,283.1 


1,096 


- 834.99 


928.23 


-141.22 


2.472628 


1,450 


1,249.4 


1,040 


- 923.30 


1,019.94 


-153.54 


2.602265 


1,500 


1,217.4 


987 


-1,018.28 


1,118.33 


-166.46 


2.735374 


1,550 


1,187.2 


939 


-1,120.28 


1 ,223.73 


-180.01 


2.871960 


1,600 


1,159.5 


895 


-1,229.67 


1 ,336.52 


-194.15 


3.011956 


1,650 


1,134.1 


857 


-1,346.80 


1,457.06 


-208.86 


3.155227 


1,700 


1,110.7 


822 


- 1 ,472.04 


1,585.70 


-224.13 


3.301647 


1,750 


1,089.1 


790 


-1,605.72 


1,722.79 


-239.94 


3.451100 


1,800 


1,069.1 


761 


-1,748.21 


1,868.68 


-256.26 


3.603483 


1,850 


1,050.5 


735 


-1,899.82 


2,023.70 


-273.08 


3.758703 


1,900 


1,033.0 


711 


-2,060.91 


2,188.20 


-290.38 


3.916673 


1,950 


1,016.7 


688 


-2,231.79 


2,362.49 


-308.16 


4.077313 


2,000 


1,001.4 


668 


-2,412.80 


2,546.91 


-326.39 


4.240551 


Range Path Drift 

-2.00 0.00 

500 -48.97 -13.95 

750 -151.47 -33.62 

1,000 -328.97 -64.21 

1,500 -1,018.28 -166.46 

2,000 -2,412.80 -326.39 

Average lead for a 3-mph moving target 

350 meters 2 feet 1 .75 mils 
500 meters 3 feet Heavy 1 .75 mils 
800 meters 5 feet Light 2.00 mils 
1 ,000 meters 7 feet Light 2.25 mils 
1 ,250 meters 9 feet 2.25 mils 
1 ,500 meters 1 2 feet Light 2.50 mils 
1 ,750 meters 1 5 feet Heavy 2.50 mils 
1 ,900 meters 1 7 feet 2.75 mils 
2,000 meters 1 8.5 feet Heavy 2.74 mils 



H-14 



FM 3-05.222 



SIERRA BALLISTICS III 

Data for: .50 cal MK 21 1 Bullet Weight: 671 grains BCs: .701 (H), .701 (M), .701 (L) 
Company: Sierra Temperature: 59 Pressure: 29.53 Humidity: 78% 
Zero: 500 meters Crosswind: -10.00 mpli Tail Wind: + 0.00 mpli 
Elevation Angle: degrees Altitude: feet Sight Height: 3.25 inclnes 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 





2,740.0 


11,184 


-3.25 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00000 


50 


2,669.4 


10,615 


4.70 


0.68 


-0.13 


0.06063 


100 


2,600.0 


10,070 


11.19 


2.81 


-0.55 


0.12286 


150 


2,531.7 


9,548 


16.14 


6.48 


-1.26 


0.18677 


200 


2,464.4 


9,047 


19.48 


11.76 


-2.27 


0.25241 


250 


2,397.8 


8,565 


21.11 


18.76 


-3.61 


0.31985 


300 


2,332.4 


8,104 


20.93 


27.57 


-5.27 


0.38918 


350 


2,268.1 


7,663 


18.84 


38.28 


-7.28 


0.46046 


400 


2,204.9 


7,242 


14.73 


51.01 


-9.65 


0.53377 


450 


2,142.7 


6,839 


8.49 


65.87 


-12.39 


0.60920 


500 


2,081.6 


6,455 


-0.01 


83.00 


-15.51 


0.68683 


550 


2,021.6 


6,088 


-10.91 


102.52 


-19.04 


0.76675 


600 


1,962.7 


5,738 


- 24.34 


124.58 


-22.99 


0.84906 


650 


1,904.8 


5,405 


-40.48 


149.33 


-27.38 


0.93386 


700 


1,847.9 


5,087 


-59.47 


176.95 


-32.22 


1.02124 


750 


1,792.1 


4,784 


-81.51 


207.61 


-37.54 


1.11134 


800 


1,737.4 


4,496 


-106.77 


241.50 


-43.36 


1 .20426 


850 


1,683.7 


4,223 


-135.48 


278.83 


-49.69 


1.30012 


900 


1,631.6 


3,966 


-167.85 


319.82 


-56.57 


1 .39905 


950 


1,581.3 


3,725 


-204.12 


364.71 


-63.99 


1.50114 


1,000 


1,532.5 


3,499 


-244.54 


413.76 


-72.00 


1 .60648 


1,050 


1,485.3 


3,286 


-289.39 


467.23 


-80.59 


1.71517 


1,100 


1,439.6 


3,087 


-338.94 


525.40 


-89.79 


1 .82732 


1,150 


1,395.4 


2,901 


-393.50 


588.59 


-99.62 


1 .94304 


1,200 


1,353.2 


2,728 


-453.40 


657.11 


-110.10 


2.06242 


1,250 


1,313.4 


2,570 


-518.97 


731.31 


-121.22 


2.18548 



H-15 



FM 3-05.222 



Data for: .50 cal MK 21 1 (Continued) 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 


1,300 


1,275.9 


2,425 


-590.57 


811.53 


-132.99 


2.31222 


1,350 


1,240.4 


2,292 


-668.55 


898.14 


-145.41 


2.44267 


1,400 


1,206.8 


2,169 


-753.29 


991.51 


-158.48 


2.57682 


1,450 


1,175.4 


2,058 


-845.18 


1,092.02 


-172.20 


2.71466 


1,500 


1,147.0 


1,960 


-944.59 


1,200.06 


-186.56 


2.85608 


1,550 


1,121.0 


1,872 


-1,051.90 


1,316.01 


-201.51 


3.00093 


1,600 


1,097.2 


1,793 


-1,167.50 


1,440.25 


-217.05 


3.14906 


1,650 


1,075.2 


1,722 


-1,291.80 


1,573.15 


-233.14 


3.30036 


1,700 


1,054.9 


1,658 


-1,425.10 


1,715.07 


-249.77 


3.45471 


1,750 


1,035.9 


1,599 


-1,567.70 


1,866.38 


-266.92 


3.61201 


1,800 


1,018.3 


1,545 


-1,720.10 


2,027.41 


-284.57 


3.77217 


1,850 


1,001.8 


1,495 


-1,882.60 


2,198.52 


-302.71 


3.93511 


1,900 


986.3 


1,449 


-2,055.50 


2,380.06 


-321.32 


4.10074 


1,950 


971.8 


1,407 


-2,239.20 


2,572.37 


-340.40 


4.26900 


2,000 


958.1 


1,367 


-2,433.90 


2,775.78 


-359.92 


4.43981 


Range Path Drift 

-3.25 0.00 

500 -0.01 -15.51 

750 -81.51 -37.54 

1 ,000 - 244.54 - 72.00 

1,500 -944.59 -186.56 

2,000 -2,433.90 -359.92 

Environmental Conditions 

Actual barometric pressure at firing site 29.53 inches 

Actual speed of sound at firing site 1,121 fps 

Effective ballistic coefficient at firing site 0.701 

Average lead for a 3-mph moving target 

350 meters 2 feet 1.75 mils 
500 meters 3 feet Heavy 1 .75 mils 
700 meters 4.5 feet 2.00 mils 
1,000 meters 7 feet Heavy 2.00 mils 
1 ,200 meters 9 feet Heavy 2.25 mils 
1,450 meters 12 feet 2.50 mils 
1,600 meters 14 feet Heavy 2.50 mils 
1,850 meters 17 feet Heavy 2.75 mils 
2,000 meters 19.5 feet 3.00 mils 



H-16 



FM 3-05.222 



SIERRA BALLISTICS III 

Data for: .50 cal M8 API Bullet Weight: 622.5 grains BCs: .701 (H), .701 (M), .701 (L) 
Company: Sierra Temperature: 60 Pressure: 29.53 Humidity: 78% 
Zero: 500 meters Crosswind: -10.00 mpli Tail Wind: + 0.00 mpli 
Elevation Angle: degrees Altitude: feet Sight Height: 3.25 inclnes 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 





2,910.0 


1 1 ,703 


-3.25 


0.00 


0.00 


0.0000 


50 


2,836.5 


11,119 


3.80 


0.60 


-0.12 


0.0571 


100 


2,764.3 


10,560 


9.56 


2.49 


-0.51 


0.1156 


150 


2,693.3 


10,025 


13.96 


5.74 


-1.16 


0.1757 


200 


2,623.4 


9,512 


16.93 


10.41 


-2.10 


0.2374 


250 


2,554.8 


9,020 


18.39 


16.60 


-3.32 


0.3007 


300 


2,487.3 


8,550 


18.26 


24.38 


-4.85 


0.3658 


350 


2,420.4 


8,096 


16.46 


33.84 


-6.68 


0.4326 


400 


2,354.6 


7,662 


12.88 


45.06 


-8.85 


0.5013 


450 


2,289.9 


7,247 


7.42 


58.16 


-11.36 


0.5719 


500 


2,226.3 


6,850 


-0.010 


73.24 


-14.21 


0.6445 


550 


2,163.8 


6,470 


-9.530 


90.42 


-17.44 


0.7192 


600 


2,102.4 


6,108 


-21.28 


109.81 


-21.05 


0.7961 


650 


2,042.0 


5,762 


-35.37 


131.55 


-25.05 


0.8752 


700 


1,982.7 


5,433 


-51.95 


155.78 


-29.47 


0.9567 


750 


1,924.4 


5,118 


-71.17 


182.65 


-34.32 


1 .0406 


800 


1,867.2 


4,818 


-93.20 


212.33 


-39.62 


1.1271 


850 


1,811.1 


4,533 


-118.20 


244.98 


-45.39 


1.2163 


900 


1,755.9 


4,261 


-146.37 


280.80 


-51.66 


1 .3082 


950 


1,701.9 


4,003 


-177.91 


319.98 


-58.43 


1 .4030 


1,000 


1,649.2 


3,759 


-213.03 


362.75 


-65.73 


1.5009 


1,050 


1,598.3 


3,530 


-251.97 


409.34 


-73.59 


1.6019 


1,100 


1,549.0 


3,316 


-294.98 


460.00 


-82.01 


1.7061 


1,150 


1,501.3 


3,115 


-342.31 


514.98 


-91.01 


1.8137 


1,200 


1,455.1 


2,926 


-394.25 


574.57 


-100.62 


1 .9246 



H-17 



FM 3-05.222 



Data for: .50 cal M8 API (Continued) 


Range 
(meters) 


Velocity 
(fps) 


Energy 
(ft-lb) 


Bullet Path 
(inches) 


Drop 
(inches) 


Drift 
(inches) 


Time of 
Flight (sec) 


1,250 


1,410.4 


2,749 


-451.10 


639.06 


-110.85 


2.03914 


1,300 


1,367.4 


2,584 


-513.17 


708.78 


-121.72 


2.15726 


1,350 


1,326.8 


2,433 


- 580.80 


784.06 


-133.23 


2.27907 


1,400 


1,288.5 


2,294 


- 654.33 


865.24 


-145.40 


2.40456 


1,450 


1,252.3 


2,167 


-734.13 


952.69 


-158.22 


2.53375 


1,500 


1,218.1 


2,050 


- 820.55 


1,046.76 


-171.68 


2.66664 


1,550 


1,185.8 


1,943 


-913.98 


1,147.85 


-185.80 


2.80323 


1,600 


1,156.4 


1,848 


-1,014.80 


1 ,256.33 


-200.56 


2.94346 


1,650 


1,129.7 


1,764 


-1,123.40 


1,372.60 


-215.93 


3.08716 


1,700 


1,105.1 


1,688 


- 1 ,240.20 


1,497.03 


-231.89 


3.23420 


1,750 


1,082.6 


1,620 


-1,365.50 


1,630.00 


-248.41 


3.38444 


1,800 


1,061.7 


1,558 


-1,499.70 


1,771.86 


-265.47 


3.53777 


1,850 


1,042.3 


1,501 


- 1 ,643.20 


1,922.99 


-283.06 


3.69409 


1,900 


1,024.3 


1,450 


-1,796.30 


2,083.72 


-301.16 


3.85330 


1,950 


1,007.4 


1,403 


-1,959.30 


2,254.43 


-319.76 


4.01531 


2,000 


991.6 


1,359 


-2,132.60 


2,435.44 


-338.83 


4.18005 


Range Path Drift 

-3.25 0.00 

500 -0.01 -15.51 

750 -81.51 -37.54 

1 ,000 - 244.54 - 72.00 

1,500 -944.59 -186.56 

2,000 -2,433.90 -359.92 

Environmental Conditions 

Actual barometric pressure at firing site 29.53 inches 

Actual speed of sound at firing site 1,121 fps 

Effective ballistic coefficient at firing site 0.701 

Average lead for a 3-mph moving target 

350 meters 2 feet Heavy 1 .50 mils 

500 meters 3 feet 1 .75 mils 

700 meters 4 feet Heavy 1 .75 mils 

1 ,000 meters 6.5 feet 2.00 mils 

1,300 meters 9.5 feet 2.25 mils 

1,500 meters 11. 5 feet Heavy 2.25 mils 

1,600 meters 13 feet 2.25 mils 

1 ,800 meters 1 5.5 feet Heavy 2.25 mils 

950 meters 7.5 feet .75 mils 



H-18 



Appendix I 

Sniper Training Exercises 

In all training, trainers stress practical exercises whenever possible. 
Snipers must achieve certain standards and perform remedial 
training as required. They must constantly strive to improve their 
performance to the point that basic skills become instinctive. To 
maintain this level of proficiency, the snipers periodically conduct the 
exercises listed in this appendix. 



STALKING 



DESCRIPTION 



1-1. The purpose of stalking exercises is to give the sniper confidence in 
his ability to approach and occupy a firing position without being observed. 



1-2. Having studied a map (and aerial photograph if available), an 
individual sniper must stalk for a predesignated distance. It could be 
1,000 meters or more depending on the area selected. All stalking 
exercises and tests should be approximately 1,000 meters with a 3-hour 
time limit. The sniper must stalk to within 200 meters of two trained 
observers who are scanning the area with binoculars and fire two blanks 
without being detected. 

RECONNAISSANCE BYTHE CONDUCTING OFFICER OR NCO 

1-3. The area used for a stalking exercise must be chosen with great 
care. An area in which a sniper must do the low crawl for the complete 
distance would beunsuitable. The trainer should consider the following: 

• As much of the area as possible should be visible to the observer. 
This level of visibility forces the sniper to use the ground properly, 
even when far from the observer's location. The stalk lanes should 
also vary in terrain to give the maximum variations to the sniper, 
without being a 1,000-meter low crawl. 

• Where possible, available cover should decrease as the sniper nears 
the observer's position. This effect will enable him to take chances 
early in the stalk and force him to move more carefully as he closes 
in on his firing position. 

• The sniper must start the stalk in an area out-of-sight of 
the observer. 

• The trainer must establish boundaries by means of natural 
features or the use of markers. 



1-1 



FM 3-05.222 



CONDUCT OF THE EXERCISE 

1-4. In a location near the jump-off point for the stalk, the sniper 
receives a brief on the following: 

• Ai m of the exercise. 

• Boundaries. 

• Time limit (usually 3 hours). 

• Standards to be achieved. 

1-5. When the sniper reaches his final firing position, which is closer 
than 220 meters for the individual stalk and 330 meters for a team stalk, 
of the observer, he will fire a blank round at an observer. This shot will 
tell the walker that he is ready to continue the rest of the exercise. The 
walker will then move to within 3 meters of the sniper. The observer will 
search a 3-meter radius around the walker for the sniper. If the sniper is 
undetected, the observer will expose a 6-inch by 6-inch plaque, held 
directly above or below the observer's binoculars. The sniper will have 30 
seconds to correctly identify the letter or number on the plaque. The 
sniper must remain undetected and the observer will direct the walker to 
have the sniper fire his second blank round. The observer will look for 
indicators such as muzzle blast caused by the blank. Use caution so that 
the muzzle flash caused by the blank round is not confused with the blast 
of vegetation from a poorly prepared position. If the sniper remains 
undetected, the walker will then move in and place his hand on the 
sniper's head. The sniper must then tell the walker his exact range, wind 
velocity, and windage applied to the scope. 

STANDARDS 

1-6. If the sniper completes all of these steps correctly, he has passed the 
stalk exercise. The trainer conducts a critique at the conclusion of the 
exercise, touching on main problem areas. 

CREATING INTEREST 

1-7. To create interest and to give the snipers practice in observation 
and stalking skills, one-half of the class may be positioned to observe the 
conduct of the stalk. Seeing an error made is an effective way of teaching 
better stalking skills. When a sniper is caught, he should be sent to the 
OP to observe the exercise. 

RANGE ESTIMATION 

1-8. Range estimation exercises are to make the sniper proficient in 
accurately judging distance. 



DESCRIPTION 



1-9. The sniper arrives at the OP. The trainer shows him different 
objects over distances of up to 800 meters. After time for consideration, 
the sniper writes down the estimated distance to each object. He may use 
only his binoculars and rifle telescope as aids. He must estimate to within 
10 percent of the correct range. 



1-2 



FM 3-05.222 



RECONNAISSANCE BYTHE CONDUCTING OFFICER OR NCO 

1-10. Each exercise must take place in a different area and offer a variety 
of terrain. The exercise areas should include dead space as well as places 
where the sniper will be observing uphill or downhill. The trainer should 
select extra objects in case those originally chosen cannot be seen due to 
weather conditions or other reasons. 

CONDUCT OF THE EXERCISE 

1-11. The sniper arrives at the OP, obtains a record card, and receives a 
review on methods of judging distances and causes of miscalculation. The 
trainer then briefs him on the following: 

• Aim of the exercise. 

• Reference points. 

• Time limit per object. 

• Standard to be achieved. 

1-12. The trainer indicates the first object to the sniper. The sniper is 
allowed 3 minutes to estimate the distance and write it down. He repeats 
the sequence for a total of eight objects. The trainer collects the card and 
gives the correct range to each object. He points out in each case why the 
distance might be underestimated or overestimated. After correction, the 
card is given back to the sniper. This way, the sniper retains a record of 
his performance. 



STANDARDS 



1-13. The sniper fails if he estimates four or more distances incorrectly 
out of 10 distances. 



OBSERVATION 

1-14. Observation exercises allow the sniper to practice improving his 
ability to observe an enemy. They also teach him to accurately record the 
results of his observations. 

DESCRIPTION 

1-15. The trainer assigns the sniper an arc of about 1,800 mils to observe 
identifying the left and right limits.. The first 20 minutes is spent 
drawing a panoramic sketch. He plots any objects that appear to be out 
of place. Objects are so positioned as to be invisible to the naked eye, 
indistinguishable when using binoculars, but recognizable when using the 
spotting telescope. 

RECONNAISSANCE BYTHE CONDUCTING OFFICER OR NCO 

1-16. When choosing the location for the exercise, the trainer should 
consider the following points: 

• Number of objects in the arc. 

• Time limits. 



1-3 



FM 3-05.222 



SCORING 



• Equipment that is allowed to be used (binoculars and spotting 
telescopes). 

• Standard to be attai ned. 

1-17. The sniper takes up the prone position on the observation line and 
spends 20 minutes drawing a panoramic sketch of the area. The staff is 
available to answer questions about the area if the sniper is unclear. He 
should focus on one-half of the area for the first 20 minutes and then shift 
attention to the other half. (This method ensures that he sees all the 
ground in the arc.) At the end of 40 minutes, the trainer collects the 
sniper's sheet and shows him the location of each object. This critique is 
best done by the sniper staying in his position and watching while a 
member of the staff points out each object. This way, the sniper will see 
why he failed to find an object, even though it was visible. (A sniper 
should view first with binoculars and then with spotting telescopes before 
the trainer picks up the item.) 

1-18. The trainer holds a critique session and brings out the main points, 
noting why the object should have been seen. 



1-19. The sniper receives half a point for each object correctly plotted and 
another half a point for naming the object correctly. 



STANDARDS 

1-20. The sniper fails if he scores fewer than 8 points out of 12 points (12 
disguised military objects). 

HIDE CONSTRUCTION 

1-21. The intent of this exercise is to show the sniper how to build a 
hide and remain undetected while the area is under observation. 
The purpose of a hide is to camouflage a sniper or sniper team that is not 
in movement. 

DESCRIPTION 

1-22. The trainer gives the sniper 8 hours to build a temporary hide large 
enough to hold a sniper team with all its necessary equipment. 

RECONNAISSANCE BYTHE CONDUCTING OFFICER OR NCO 

1-23. The hide exercise area should be selected with great care. It can be 
in any type of terrain, but there should be more than enough prospective 
spots in which to build a hide. The area should be easily bounded by left 
and right, far and near limits. If designated properly, the sniper should 
be able to easily and quickly identify these points. There should be 
enough tools (for example, axes, picks, shovels, and sandbags) availableto 
accommodate the sniper's entire time. There must also be sufficient 
rations and water available to the sniper to last the entire exercise, 
which is about 9 1/2 hours total— 8 hours of instruction and 1 1/2 hours 
of testing. 



1-4 



FM 3-05.222 



CONDUCT OF THE EXERCISE 

1-24. The sniper receives a shovel, ax, pickax, and approximately 20 
sandbags. He is taken to the area and briefed on the purpose of the 
exercise, time limit for construction, and area limits. The sniper then 
begins construction of the hide. 

NOTE: During the construction, a trainer should be present at all times 
to act as an advisor. 

1-25. At the end of 8 hours, the trainer checks the sniper's hide to ensure 
it is complete. An infantry officer is brought out to act as an observer. He 
is placed in an area 300 yards from the hide area, where he starts his 
observation with binoculars and a 20x M49 spotting scope. The observer, 
after failing to find a hide, is brought forward 150 yards and again 
commences observation. 

1-26. A trainer in the field (walker with radio) then moves to within 10 
yards of a hide and informs the observer. The observer then tells the 
walker to have the sniper in the hide load and fire his only round (blank). 
If the sniper's muzzle blast is seen, or if the hide is seen due to improper 
construction, the sniper fails but remains in the hide. These procedures 
are repeated for all the sniper teams. The observer is then brought down 
to within 25 yards of each hide to determine whether the sniper can be 
seen with the naked eye at that distance. The observer is not shown the 
hide. He must find it. If the sniper is located at 25 yards, he fails and is 
allowed to come out and see his discrepancies. If he is not seen, he passes. 

OTHER REQUIREMENTS 

1-27. The sniper should also fill out a range card and a sniper's logbook 
and make a field sketch. One way of helping him is to have a trainer show 
"flash cards" from 150 yards away, beginning when the observer arrives 
and ending when the observer moves to within 25 yards. The sniper 
should record everything he sees on the flash cards and anything going 
on at the OP during the exercise. 

STANDARDS 

1-28. The sniper must pass all phases to pass the exercise. All range 
cards, logbooks, and field sketches must be turned in for grading; the 
trainer makes a final determination of pass or fail. 

CAMOUFLAGE AND CONCEALMENT 

1-29. Camouflage and concealment exercises help the sniper select final 
firing positions. 



DESCRIPTION 



1-30. The sniper conceals himself within 200 yards of an observer. The 
observer uses binoculars to try to find the sniper. The sniper must be able 
to fire blank ammunition at the observer without being seen and have the 
correct elevation and windage on his sight. The sniper must remain 
unseen throughout the conduct of the exercise. 



1-5 



FM 3-05.222 



RECONNAISSANCE BYTHE CONDUCTING OFFICER OR NCO 

1-31. In choosing the location for the exercise, the trainer ensures that 
certain conditions are met. They include the following: 

• There must be adequate space to ensure snipers are not crowded 
together in the area. There should be at least twice the number of 
potential positions as there are snipers. Once the area has been 
established, the limits should be marked in some manner (for 
example, flags, trees, and prominent features). Snipers should then 
be allowed to choose any position within the limits for their final 
firing position. 

• The observer must be able to see the entire problem area. 

• As there will be several concealment exercises throughout the 
sniper course, different types of terrain should be chosen for the 
sniper to practice concealment in varied conditions. For instance, 
one exercise could take place in a fairly open area, one along a 
wood line, one in shrubs, and another in hilly or rough terrain. 

CONDUCT OF THE EXERCISE 

1-32. The trainer assigns the sniper a specified area with boundaries in 
which to conceal himself properly. The observer turns his back to the area 
and allows the sniper 5 minutes to conceal himself. At the end of 5 
minutes, the observer turns and commences observation in his search for 
the concealed sniper. This observation should last approximately one-half 
hour (more time may be allotted at the discretion of the trainer). At the 
conclusion of observation, the observer instructs, by radio, one of the two 
observers (walkers) in the field to move to within 10 meters of the sniper. 
The sniper is given one blank. If he cannot be seen after the walker 
moves within the 10 meters, the walker will tell him to load and fire his 
blank. The observer is looking for muzzle blast, vegetation flying after the 
shot, and movement by the sniper before and after he fires. If the sniper 
cannot be seen, the walker then extends his arm in the direction of the 
sniper, indicating his position. If the sniper remains unseen after 
indication, the walker goes to the sniper's position and places his hand, 
palm facing the observer, directly on top of the sniper's head. If the sniper 
passes all of the above, he must then state his elevation, windage, and 
what type of movement the observer is making. The sniper must also 
identify a letter or number plaque held by the observer. 

CREATING INTEREST 

1-33. To create interest and give the sniper practice in observation, 
one-half of the class may be positioned with the observer so the other half 
of the class can profit from the mistakes. When a sniper fails the exercise, 
he should go to the OP to observe. 



1-6 



Appendix J 

Range Estimation Table 







Table J-1. Mils 


for Objects 






Target Height 
(Mils) 


6 Feet 
(1.8 M) 


5 Feet, 
9 Inches 
(1.75 M) 


5 Feet, 

6 Inches 

(1.7M) 


39 Inches 
(1M) 


19 Inches 
(0.5 M) 


6.0 


300 


292 


283 


167 


83 


5.9 


305 


297 


288 


169 


85 


5.8 


310 


302 


293 


172 


86 


5.7 


316 


307 


298 


175 


88 


5.6 


321 


313 


304 


179 


89 


5.5 


327 


318 


309 


182 


91 


5.4 


333 


324 


315 


185 


93 


5.3 


340 


330 


321 


189 


94 


5.2 


346 


337 


327 


192 


96 


5.1 


353 


343 


333 


196 


98 


5.0 


360 


350 


340 


200 


100 


4.9 


367 


357 


347 


204 


102 


4.8 


375 


365 


354 


208 


104 


4.7 


383 


372 


362 


213 


106 


4.6 


391 


380 


370 


217 


109 


4.5 


400 


389 


378 


222 


111 


4.4 


409 


398 


386 


227 


114 


4.3 


419 


407 


395 


233 


116 


4.2 


429 


417 


405 


238 


119 


4.1 


439 


427 


415 


244 


122 


4.0 


450 


438 


425 


250 


125 


3.9 


462 


449 


436 


256 


128 


3.8 


474 


461 


447 


263 


132 


3.7 


486 


473 


459 


270 


135 


3.6 


500 


486 


472 


278 


139 


3.5 


514 


500 


486 


286 


143 


3.4 


529 


515 


500 


294 


147 


3.3 


545 


530 


515 


303 


152 


3,2 


563 


547 


531 


313 


156 


3.1 


581 


565 


548 


323 


161 


3.0 


600 


583 


567 


333 


167 



J-1 



FM 3-05.222 





Table J-1. Mils for Objects (Continued) 




Target Height 
(Mils) 


6 Feet 
(1.8 M) 


5 Feet, 
9 Inches 
(1.75 M) 


5 Feet, 

6 Inches 

(1.7M) 


39 Inches 
(1M) 


19 Inches 
(0.5 M) 


2.9 


621 


603 


586 


345 


172 


2.8 


643 


625 


607 


357 


179 


2.7 


667 


648 


630 


370 


185 


2.6 


692 


673 


654 


385 


192 


2.5 


720 


700 


680 


400 


200 


2.4 


750 


729 


708 


417 


208 


2.3 


783 


761 


739 


435 


217 


2.2 


818 


795 


773 


455 


227 


2.1 


857 


833 


810 


476 


238 


2.0 


900 


875 


850 


500 


250 


1.9 


947 


921 


895 


526 


263 


1.8 


1,000 


972 


944 


556 


278 


1.7 


1,059 


1,029 


1,000 


588 


294 


1.6 


1,125 


1,094 


1,063 


625 


313 


1.5 


1,200 


1,167 


1,133 


667 


333 


1.4 


1,286 


1,250 


1,214 


714 


357 


1.3 


1,385 


1,346 


1,308 


769 


385 


1.2 


1,500 


1,458 


1,417 


833 


417 


1.1 


1,636 


1,591 


1,545 


909 


455 


1.0 


1,800 


1,750 


1,700 


1,000 


500 


0.9 


2,000 


1,944 


1,889 


1,111 


556 


0.8 


2,250 


2,188 


2,125 


1,250 


625 


0.7 


2,571 


2,500 


2,429 


1,429 


714 


0.6 


3,000 


2,917 


2,833 


1,667 


833 


0.5 


3,600 


3,500 


3,400 


2,000 


1,000 


0.4 


4,500 


4,375 


4,250 


2,500 


1,250 


0.3 


6,000 


5,833 


5,667 


3,333 


1,667 


0.2 


9,000 


8,750 


8,500 


5,000 


2,500 


0.1 


18,000 


17,500 


17,000 


10,000 


5,000 


NOTE: Use of the formula (HI x 1000)/mils will give the range to any known sized object. 

Example: a 2-meter door would be: HI = 2(2 x 1 ,000) = 2,000/mils with a mil reading of 
3.5 = 571 meters to the door. 



J-2 



Appendix K 

Sniper's Logbook 

Nine Steps for a First-Shot Hit 

1. Determine the range in meters— set. Take slope into account. 

2. Determine the base wind: 

a. In MOA— set. (For iron sights only) or, 

b. Mi Is for hold-off. 1 mil =3.5 MOAs, 1/4 mil =.87 MOA, 1/2 mil =1.75 MOAs, 
3/4 mils =2.62 MOAs. 

NOTE: When determining base winds, ensure you know how the mirage looks under the base 
condition so you can see changes. 

3. Determinethe spin drift correction: 

a. 600-700 mils— left 1/2 MOA. 

b. 800-900 mils— left 3/4 MOA. 

c. l,000mils— left 1 MOA (M 118). 

4. Determine the temperature change from "0" and set: 100-500 mils 4/- 20 degrees = 4/- 1 
MOA. 

a. 600-900 mils -f/- 15 degrees =-f/- 1 MOA. 

b. 1,000 mils +1- 10 degrees =+1-1 MOA. 

5. Determine the pressure change versus "0" pressureand set. 

6. Determi ne the altitude change from "0" and set. 

7. Determine lead (if a moving target). 

8. Assume a good position: 

a. Bone support. 

b. Muscular relaxation. 

c. Natural POA on the aiming point. 

9. Fire the shot: 

a. Natural respiratory pause. 

b. Focus on the front sight/reticle. 

c. Follow-through. 

NOTE: Ammunition should remain covered so it will stay at a constant temperature. As a 
weapon heats up it will string rounds high. This is caused by the internal residual heat 
increasing the chamber temperature that causes increased chamber pressure. This increase 
results in increased bullet velocity. Log all shots and subsequent changes. 



K-1 



FM 3-05.222 



Wind Data 

1. Determine direction of— 

a. Average wind. 

b. Gusts 

c. Lulls. 

2. Determine velocity of— 

a. Average wind. 

b. Gusts. 

c. Lulls. 

3. Determine mil hold for wind call. 

4. Observer must be prepared to change his wind call based on gust or lulls. NOTE: Lulls are 
more dangerous than gusts. 

5. Refer to your target dimensions in MOAs: 

a. Center = center of target. 

b. Favor =1/2 between midline and edge of target. 

c. Hold =the edge of the target. 

NOTE: You cannot use mirage as a velocity indicator until you know what it looks I ike for the 
average wind. This number will change throughout the day. 

8. Shoot the condition. Do not chase spotters. 

9. Ignore minor fluctuations. Wait for the condition to fully change. Mirage will change before 
conditions arrive. Boiling mirage indicates change. 

10. Grass will givemagnitudeof the wind but requires practice for direction or velocity. 

11. Observer computes correction in minutes and gives it to the shooter in mil hold-off. 

NOTE: This matrix (Figure K-1) is designed to compile data on the individual sniper weapon 
system's zero at these ranges and temperatures. Figure K-2, pages K-2 through 
K-36, provides sample components of theSOTIC Shooter's Log as used in the course. 



CONSOLIDATED ZERO DATA 


Meters 


100 


200 


300 


400 


500 


600 


700 


800 


900 


1,000 


Temperature 


50 






















55 






















60 






















65 






















70 






















75 






















80 






















85 






















90 






















95 























Figure K-1. Individual SWS's Data for Zeroing 



K-2 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log 



K-3 



FM 3-05.222 



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K-4 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-5 



FM 3-05.222 





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K-6 



FM 3-05.222 





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K-7 



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K-8 



FM 3-05.222 















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K-9 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-10 



FM 3-05.222 

































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Wind Velocity 
ctile/ Observation M 


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mph - Felt lightly on face, mov 
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Clock Method for Va 


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K-11 



FM 3-05.222 

















































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Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-12 



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K-13 



FM 3-05.222 











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K-14 



FM 3-05.222 





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K-15 



FM 3-05.222 





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K-16 



FM 3-05.222 



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K-17 



FM 3-05.222 



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K-18 



FM 3-05.222 



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K-19 



FM 3-05.222 





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CO 






o 




3 

D 






CM 






o 


rsi 






o 




- 






o 


T- 






o 




O 
Q. 




0) 

•a 

3 

■•-• 

< 




s 






o 


in 






o 




o 

CO 


LU 


5 


re 

o 


CO 


LU 


■a 

E 

5 


re 
o 


1 
1 











Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-20 



FM 3-05.222 



5 

o 

CO 

o 

c 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o 

c 

(0 

Q 


o 
o 
o 


c 


o 

Direction 


jT V- 


1 




r 


\ 


E t-ui 

III 

DDD 


/ 


>" 


C3 


\ 


\ 


a. 
E 
|2 








■^ 


( 


f, 


^ 


> 


A 


\ 


c 
,2 

c 

3 

E 

E 
< 




I 1 ( ^ 


. A \ » 


[ 


\ [ { ^^ J 1 1 


/ 


4-> 


OI 

_ "J 

m X O 

DDD 


\ 


C 


^ 


7 


\ 


V 






^ 


/ 


/ 






\ 


X, 










a 
o 
o 

CO 




x: - >- \ 


2 




o 






o 


o 

CM 






o 




LU ^\ 


o> 






o 


o> 






o 


LU 




00 






o 


oo 






o 


t- 






o 


r*. 






o 


(A 
(A 

£ 

a. 

o 

*- 

(0 

EQ 




<o 






o 


(O 






o 


Q] ^x 


0) 

E 




in 






o 


lO 






o 


-<* 






o 


■* 






o 






E 

3 






fO 






o 


CO 






o 


1 




tM 






o 


CM 






o 


- 






o 


^ 






o 


u 
re 

Q. 




< 




to 






o 








o 


O 
CO 


LU 


E 

5 


To 
o 


o 

(0 


LU 


■a 

5 


75 
o 


E 









Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-21 



FM 3-05.222 




a 



tn 
Q. 

m 
e: 
CO 






Ln -^ ■" 

^ . II II ? 
fe a; raraO 

o * * * • 

CN 



O 
CD 
CO 



in 
a. 
CD 
d 
CO 



CD 



i,!^ 



^1 
II c 
QlCD 

C £ 

q: q) 
• ^ o 

C CO 
CD — 



o 

ED 

CO 

I 
w 

Q. 
CO 



II 



CJ 
CO 

o 



c/1 

(LI 



Q) 



i_ CC Tj- CD 
CD i£ C (^ CD 

So ™ ^- 
I T-Ln<< 

o • • • • 



Q CD II II ■* 

I b. in -Rj- < I 
o • • • • 



CO 
in 



CO 

CD 

fc II 



o 

CD 
CO 
O 
CM 
I 

tn 
0} 



Q TO 



q: 



i-H^ II 

Q) CD C p _ 

^ >< CD E3 

I LL Ul < LL 

o * * • • 

CO 



~ CD " 
CD PoS 
□ 

B 



to oi 

CD — 



o' 
o 

CO 



Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-22 



FM 3-05.222 















a 






-. — ^ o 










o 






/^^ ^ 










E 






( • J ffi 










iS 






^-^s 










CO 
















b 




■D 








-.^ -*^^^ 










C 


~f ^ E 






^^"""""""•oi.^ ^-^^ 






a 

E 




5 








■ V 








^ 






ight( 
iediui 

leavy 


/f^ 


J *" 


^ 














-I 2 X 


VL 




J 








c 
o 






DDD 






^ 








^ — -\ ° 






3^^-^ 1 




^ 




Jp 






f • )"^ 






^^ 






*E 






\U - 










3 






^-^ Q 










E 




.w 




a a 










i 




5 2 0) 








E 




O) 










o 


< 




'_J 


right 

azy 

verc; 


■Sec. 
■Sec. 
elibe 






£ 








m X o 


rt 10 Q 






o 

3 








nan 


DDD 








































o 


% 




0) 

re 




o 






<_3 


o 

CM 






<=o 






w 


0) 
Q. 






o> 






O 


o> 






o 






^ 


O 
O 




ii 












^ 












DO 
U- 




S 




00 






•=o 


00 






<:: 








M- 






























Qf 




tn 




t- 






<D 


h- 






o 








































Q. 




(O 






<c:: 


(D 






cO 








0) 




2 










'" 




























E 




re 

m 




m 






<=o 


m 






<=o 










>, 




■* 






=o 


■* 






<=o 
















■•-' 


























(1> 
CO 




T3 

E 




CO 






=o 


CO 






=o 








Q 




3 




CM 






=o 


CM 






-o 










V 




- 






<33 


- 






o 




a 




-o 










































o 




3 




% 








ft 














re 

Q. 




< 




o 
to 


> 

LU 


■a 

c 

5 


re 
O 


O 


> 

LU 


13 
5 


75 
o 


tA 

E 















Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-23 



FM 3-05.222 











« 






c 








u 

c 






oi 








to 














O 




5 


3 mph) 
nri (7 mph) 
(15 mph) 
mph 


Pv -'^— ^ 




a 

E 




V /V 




>- 






.V 






^ 3 >■ 








H 






^li 














Li El 














nan 








c 






r 








o 






OI 


r~^ 




p— 




" _ 1 


-1 


=3 

F 






Q 


^~^^^=^=-?== 




C£. 


E 
< 






I?) N «l 






C£. 








DO X O 






-1 








nnn 






i2 






<a 




1 






^-C^a^^ 




1 






rc=:^ 








P 







2 




o 










o 














D) 


to 

1) 




s 




en 






c^ 




o 






rr^ 








■> 


(£. 




U) 
















































O 






n 




r- 






CS3 




CO 






CS 








ta 




o 




E 




(0 




in 






_^ 




to 






n— 


















> 


































^ 






























1 




E 

X 




CO 






o<^ 




■* 






r<^^ 








T- 






CSS 




CM 






rc=:^ 








<i> 






o 




■o 






























u 








« 










tt 










Ia 






Q. 




< 







1 


■a 




« 





s 


E 


tu 


« 


t 

E 














CO 


111 


5 


-1 


i 


to 


LU 


5 


-1 


i 


.£ 











Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-24 



FM 3-05.222 




Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-25 



FM 3-05.222 











c 






o 

Direction 








tn 














Q 




■o 










a 

E 
























|2 










J 






















O) 01 S 


















Hi S X 


















nnn 










































c 


















g 






c 












3 






OI 


















E 














E 




D) 


s 






o 


< 




"_J 








■^-l 








o) ff aj 






♦- 








'C nj > 






0) 








m r o 






3 

o 








DDD 






% 








o 








o 

CM 












a 
o 
o 
w 




2 
























o> 
















^ 




s 




oo 








00 












Lil 


!^ 


















































Q£ 




w 

01 




r- 








r- 


















C 






























Q. 




(O 


























0) 




£ 










































E 
i— 




re 
m 




lO 








lO 














» 




^^_ 




■* 








■* 


















.,£• 












^~ 














5 




E 




CO 








CO 














a 




3 




CM 








CM 
















d) 




T- 








T- 










o 




13 

3 


























o 






% 








% 














0. 








o 


s 


■o 


Jff 


-6 


s 


■a 

c 


fn 


1 










< 




CO 


LU 


5 


o 


CO 


LU 


5 


TO 

o 


1 











Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-26 



FM 3-05.222 











u 

c 

iS 






o 

Direction 








« 














Q 




■a 










E 




t- 
5 










0) 






~= >* 








H 






III 














-J S X 








c 






nnn 


















'c 

3 






O 

Direction 




11 






E 




<w 






u 








^ 






.™ 






E 




O) 


(n 




H 






< 




_l 


D Bright 
n Overca 




O 

% 
(0 




^ 








o 






O 


o 






O 






a 
o 




U) 
























OJ 






O 


o> 






O 




u 
w 

•1- 




S 
























oo 






o 


00 






o 
























Q£ 




(11 




1^ 






o 


r-. 






o 












Q. 




to 






o 


(O 






o 












(U 




£ 










































E 
i— 




re 
CO 




in 






o 


in 






o 
















■* 






o 


■* 






o 












>> 


























■a 
E 




CO 






o 


CO 






o 








D 




3 




CN 






o 


evi 






o 










01 




T- 






o 








o 




0) 




-J 


























u 






% 








% 














n 








o 


> 
at 


■a 

c 




-5 


> 






^ 










< 




(0 


m 


5 


TO 

o 


CO 


LU 


5 


o 


a. 











Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-27 



FM 3-05.222 





















o 










« 










"(0 


J2 






.^ 














1- 


•o 






in 














Q> 


>- 






IM 














> 


o 

o in 




















o 


T- := 






£ 1 


in T 














fg^ 






1 ? <f 












.^s^ 






s ^ 


^ 












O 


it' 

S _ B> 

0.-= a, 







^^-^ 




-iS* 


A 












W 




1 


^ 


is 




2 


t 














^ 


££o 






*^-^ 




*-§-► 


i 












i 


T- T- T- 




Ui 




n- 


^ T— ^ 


















5? 


1 1 t 










1 






a 






















1- 






















. (0 






















1^-. a 




















o 


et size In mil; 
J target twice 
ons and com 
timation. 








i 








S 


II 


E 
11 


to 


1 1 
II II 




2 






E'£«S 


LU 


g 




'^ 




o 


t 








E 






d; 


S- S a> 


H 


o 




in 

(VI 




Q^ 


1^ 






jfl oj 








O 

9 

C 

re 


s below to calculate 
sady, and always "m 
nt known target dim' 
form a more a ecu rat 


LU 

Z 

LU 
O 

z 


X 

DC 
lU 

E 

lU 
N 
(0 

1- 


w 

_l 

E 
z 

u 
tn 

H 

o 
m 

-) 


X 

« 
UJ 

X 

o 

z 

M 


_i 
Z 

m 


Z 

LU 
O 

z 

to 

o 


CN 

X 

OT 
U 

X 

o 

z 

i 

CO 

1- 


OBJECT SIZE IN MILS 
OBJECT SIZE (YARDSl X 1 


3 

E 
Z 

1- 


II 
.2 


I 
00 

T- 

II 
m 

IN 
X 


II 

CO 








Use the figure 
Be precise, sti 
Mil two differe 

two results to 


<0 

D 


u 

lU 


g 


LU 

-i 

g 


o 


o 

LU 

-) 

o 


o 


□ 
E 

LU 














* 


































merits 
er Dot To 
erDot 




i5 














Z 

o 




« 


= E 

^i i 


1 _ 














:= (U -^ -.^ 


:= 


T- O 












1- 




.^ ™ c c 
^ (J a> d) 


5 


W o ^ 


^ 










< 


1 




O 

1 




*iH/ \ 


LO 

o 










Oo to 


-^ 


, 1_ 


y 




-J 


1 








' T^ 


p 


'niiiiiiii 










I 


1 


1 
















<u]iiJ 






g 




^1— ► 












t So 






E 


T— 












o§2 






" 


i 


> 










H J. Q 
O - Z 




















W5< 








f 

























Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-28 



FM 3-05.222 






(A 

■4-1 
0) 



i2 
u 
d) 

S" 

O 

o 

E 

E 
o 
o 
o 

« 

c 
m 





S 


S 


1 


s 


5 


^ 


CB 


r^ 


LO 


CM 


O 


g 


g 


s 


a 


5 


S 


a, 


g 


a 


g 


S 


g 


g 


CO 


LO 
CO 


g 


g 


s 


CO 


g 




CO 


h- 


LO 


R 




CO 


«2 


m 

s 


1 


2 


S 


s 


s 


CF) 




CM 


g 


s 


s 


s 


s 


2 


LO 




LO 


3 


^ 


s 


2 


g 


g 


rt 


CM 


CM 


s 


g 


s 


§ 


CO 


r^ 


LO 


■rr 


CM 


;z 


o 




? 






^ 


CM 


fM 


§ 


i 


s 


s 


g 


1 


s 


CO 


CO 


LO 
1^ 


CM 


s 


to 


3 


s 


S 


2 


i 


a 


5 




m 

TT 


CO 


rr 


g 


CO 


g 


3 


a 


1 


CM 


s 




t, 


i 




s 




5 


5 




CO 




s 


i 




s 




i 


% 


% 


^ 


3 


i 


8 




s 


CO 


fO 


g 


g 


8 


s 


^ 




I 


S 


CM 






% 


11 


s 


g 

CM 


s 

CM 


g 


S 


s 




S 




LO 


CO 


s 


1 


s 


1 


s 


s 


a 


s 




(ft 


CO 


T 


g 


g 


3 


g 


CO 


CI> 
CM 


^ 


s 


s 


CM 
CM 


o 

CM 


OJ 


h- 


CD 


■^ 


Km 


s 


fO 

r- 




1 


CN 


B 


g 


K 








'^ 


s 


2 


s 


fTS 


s 


CM 


LO 
CN 


C^ 


CN 


<j^ 


h- 


LO 


■fl- 


CM 


o 


1 




i 


1 




S 


1 


s 


S 


8 




O 


CM 


LO 


(^ 


o 


g 


S 


3 


S 


s 


s 


s 


a 


s 


s 


s 


S 


s 


s 


3 


a 


CO 


ff 


E 


t 


e 


LO 


s 


CO 


S 


h- 


^ 


s 


s 


£ 


s 


JS 


S 


s 


1 


3) 


a 


tfi 


s 








LO 


LO 


3 


en 






^ 


o 

T 


g 


g 


g 


CO 


fe 


g 


g 


g 


g 


s 


3 


g 


g 


U 


S 


rt 


rt 


g 


g 


g 


^ 


S 


a 


1 

i2 


1 




IP 


to 


r- 

^ 








»ri 


S 


.o 


-* 

»o 






1^ 
LCJ 




»o 


Id 


^ 


« 
^ 


b 


-* 

b 


b 


CD 
b 


1^ 
b 


CO 

b 


s 


1^ 


1^ 


CM 


CO; 


■^ 


in 


4C 


1^ 




1^ 


o 
b 




s 




s 

F^ 




S 




1^ 

3 






s 


LO 




CM 


I 


S 


CM 


S 


CM 


CO 


CM 


CM 
CM 


CD 
CM 




s 


LO 
C?l 


s 


CO 
CO 


r- 
r- 


CM 


CD 


s 


s 


S 


s 


CD 


CM 


s 


S 


si 

ffi2 




CM 
LO 


to 

s 






ff 


8 

1^ 


CD 


s 


S 


CO 


no 




i 




r- 
^ 


2 


S 


LO 


lO 




CM 


f? 
n 


g 


a 


CO 


CM 


i 


CM 


CM 




CM 


S 


LO 


C3) 


CM 


i 


s 




§ 






V. 


CD 

5 




CO 


~ 




CO 


LO 
CD 


1 


s 


LO 


g 


s 


CM 
CD 


CM 


CN 


g 


S 


CD 
■CO 


c^ 

1^ 


crs 


s 

n 




CO 
?0 


s 


I 


a 


S 


LO 
CM 


r- 

s 


s 


CN 


CO 


CN 


CNi 


Q ^ 


t 


« 


t^ 


1^ 


5 

CM 


i 


E 


S 


1 


CM 
CM 


c^ 


lO 




C7 
CM 


1 


CD 




CO 

CM 
C31 


i 


HO 
CO 


CN 


8 


S 


s 
f- 


r*- 


i 


s 


s 


CD 




C^ 


LO 


s 




CO 
CO 
LO 


to 


i 


8 


11 

Q5 


s 


1 










^ 




LO 




CM 
LO 






i 


1^ 

-3- 


LO 

5 


CD 


1 


S 


1 


CM 
C7 




r- 

'^ 


LO 


LO 


LO 


CM 


CN 


i 


s 


CM 


r- 

s 


i 




CN 


CO 
CM 
CM 


CO 


CM 




s 


S 
g 


S 


S 




i 


i 


i 


s 


i 


LO 


CO 

5 


s 

•* 




S 


g 


LO 

S 


rt 
rt 


CO 
CO 


g 


g 

CM 


n 




t 


s 

CM 


LO 
CM 


g 

CM 


CO 
CM 


g 


CO 
CM 




i 


g 


s 


S 


g 


CO 




■D 

1 




CM 


s 


S 


s 


s 

T 


R 

^ 


g 


8 


s 


CO 
CO 


CM 






^ 


fM 


CM 


CM 
CM 


CM 
CM 


g 

CM 


g 


1 


CO 


LO 


LO 


3 


S 


a 




■*r 


<r 


CO 


5 


g 


CM 


a 


CM 


co 


1 


en 


h- 
^ 


CM 


a 

Cm 




8 


5) 


LO 


s 


a 


en 


s 


fc 


§ 


T 


1 


S 


S 


g 


5i 


g 


s 


a 




LO 
N- 




h- 


s 


fe 


s 


s 


s 


g 


s 


LO 


g 


3 


s 


1 

i2 


1 

1 




b 


b 


O 


. 


. 


rt 


■* 


IT 


(C 


1^ 


GO 


fli 


SM 


(M 


CM 
(M 




r4 




CM 


ri 


(M 


(M 




n 


CM 
*0 


CO 
*0 


<o 


ift 






CO 


fO 




-* 


CM 





Figure K-2. SOTIC Shooter's Log (Continued) 



K-29 



FM 3-05.222 





1? 












































s 






s 






















h- 


































































































































































rt 












s 








a 


s 
























S 


s 








S 




1^ 


s^ 




3 


























*r- 




























































































































2o 


3 


fS 




S 


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K-36 



FM 3-05.222 




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K-37 



Appendix L 

Tricks of the Trade 

The art of sniping requires learning, repetitious practicing, and tlie 
mastering of specific sl<ills. Tine sniper requires special abilities, 
training, and equipment. His primary goal is to deliver highly 
accurate rifle fire against enemy targets. 



GOAL 



L-1. To achieve this goal and ensure mission success, the sniper should 
always remember the following: 

• For best results, try to use a bulky, lightweight hooded smock in 
urban areas. Select colors for the smock that will blend with the 
colors and types of building materials in the area. 

• Avoid movement during daylight; if movement is necessary, 
keep movements slow and deliberate. 

• During movements through or occupation of building rooms, be 
alert to the principles of camouflage and concealment. Do not allow 
"being inside" to lull you into a reduced awareness of the 
surroundings. 

• Stay in shadows, match clothing to blend with the room or area, 
hang black sheets to eliminate backlighting against openings or 
light sources. 

• Don't be the only open window in an air-conditioned building. Use 
existing curtains and leave windows intact. To make a "shooting 
hole," remove one pane or small corner of the glass. 

• Move into the area with help from the host nation. 

• Blend into the activities of the area; for example, maintenance 
crew, civilian clothing, and civilian luggage (guitar cases will 
always look out of place). 

• Try to carry in more equipment and work with multiple teams 
to cover the entire area. 

• Choose a position (if possible) that is naturally in a shadow; if doing 
so is not possible, make your own shadows by building a "cave" with 
dark cloth. 

• Wear dark clothing to match the background. 

• Stay back from the wi ndow. 

• Don't flag your weapon in your loophole. 

• If time allows, make crawl holes from room to room. 

• Avoid background light, such as doors opening behind you. 



L-1 



FM 3-05.222 



• Be careful of neutral personnel; handle with care. 

• Check firing positions (rooftops) and ensure you— 

■ Stay below peak line as much as possible. 

■ Don't overhang barrel. 

■ Put up some type of shade if you are going to be in position a 
longtime. 

■ Try to find a position that has a background of some type. 

• Have the following equipment and resources for urban operations: 

■ Camera. 

■ Communications equipment (snipers and command). 

■ Food and water. 

■ Spotti ng scope with stand. 

■ Binoculars. 

■ Dark cloth. 

■ Roofing hammer with nails. 

■ Tape. 

■ Glass cutter. 

■ Complete cleaning kit. 

■ Multipurpose knife. 

■ Silenced pistol. 

■ Notebook, pencils, and tape recorder. 

■ Sleeping or shooting pad. 

L-2. In some cases, the team leader appoints a high-value target to 
several snipers and they cannot agree on the range (with associated scope 
adjustments). If this occurs, then each sniper places the range data on his 
telescope according to his own best estimate. The snipers would then fire 
simultaneously, thereby increasing the chance of obtaining a hit. 

L-3. When operating in a denied area, it is sometimes appropriate to use 
an indigenous weapon and ammunition. The evidence left (casings or 
recovered bullets) would disguise the true identity of the sniper and the 
sponsor. This planning consideration should not be interpreted as 
"battlefield recovery." 

L-4. The sniper must be aware of the ground beneath the muzzle of his 
rifle. This point is critical when the ground is sandy, dusty, or loose soil. 
The sniper should either wet the area (urinating will save valuable 
drinking water) or cover with a suitably sized cloth. In damp conditions 
(early morning), the sniper should be aware of the possibility of the 
exhaust smoke indicating the position. An area with broken ground or 
foliage will help conceal the smoke signature. Also, the sniper should be 
aware of the muzzle blast moving tall grass and small plants, and 
therefore, choose his position carefully. 

L-5. When in a static position, it is wise to build the sniper hide to 
provide a direction of fire at an angle to the front of the enemy. This 
method provides cover and concealment, and the enemy hit by the 
sniper's fire will look to his front for the sniper's location. 

L-6. If the sniper suspects that his system has lost its zero, and the 
situation allows sighting shots, then he should use "self-marking" targets 



L-2 



FM 3-05.222 



that do not betray his direction of fire. The sniper may use pools of water, 
cement walls, or layers of brick. He should not use cans, boxes, or other 
targets that can be used to sight back on azimuth to his location. 

L-7. The sniper's hide should be in a location away from any obvious 
target reference points. If it looks like an obvious position, it is. 

L-8. When firing long ranges where the arc of the bullet will be high, the 
sniper should always try to visualize the bullet's arc before firing. This 
practice ensures that there will be no obstacles in the path of the bullet. 
The sniper should consider this the "mask and overhead clearance" of the 
sniper rifle. 

L-9. Selection of the final firing point is critical to mission success. If the 
target is expected to be moving, the sniper should select a position that 
allows a shot at the target as it moves toward or away from him. Relative 
to the sniper's position, the target will be a stationary one and, therefore, 
require a no-lead hold. 

L-10. If it is necessary to engage a unit of enemy personnel, the sniper 
should engage the targets that are the greatest threat to him and his 
team's survival. If this is not a factor, he should engage the targets 
farthest away from him and not in the front of the enemy formation. If he 
hits the front-most targets first, the remainder of the unit will deploy and 
conduct fire and movement to pin the sniper down and engage him. By 
eliminating the rear-most targets first, the sniper buys himself more time 
as their numbers will be decreased, possibly without their knowledge. 
This practice also ensures the sniper the best possible (least suspecting) 
targets. 

L-11. The sniper and his weapon can be of great help in the 
counterambush immediate-action drill. He should look for target 
indicators (muzzle flash, disturbed vegetation, ejecting brass) and use 
a "searching fire" technique. This approach enables him to fire rounds 
approximately nine inches from the ground, every 6 inches into the 
suspected enemy location. 

L-12. When a sniper and another team's sniper are dealing with 
multiple targets, such as two hostage-takers, they must coordinate to fire 
simultaneously. Taking them out one at a time may allow the second 
suspect time to harm the hostages. One technique (if snipers are within 
earshot or in radio contact with each other on a clear frequency) is for 
each of them to keep saying aloud in a steady, low voice, 
"wait... wait... wait..." as long as they do not have a clear shot. When they 
do, they should stay silent and listen for the moment they are both silent. 
They should allow a 1-second pause, then open fire together. Another 
technique is to establish an audible countdown and fire on that number. 
In some cases, two snipers are assigned to engage a single suspect, 
particularly if he is behind heavy glass and there is fear that shots may 
be deflected. One option here is for one sniper to aim for his head and the 
other for his chest and fire simultaneously. 

L-13. In a CBT situation, hostage-takers have been known to switch 
clothes with the hostages. This trick requires the sniper to distinguish 



L-3 



FM 3-05.222 



facial features and place top value on higher-powered spotting and rifle 
scopes. It can also cause him to risk compromise if he decides to move 
closer to the target. 

L-14. The position behind a loophole should be darkened with a drape so 
that the sniper is not silhouetted and no light comes through the loophole. 
The sniper should shut his loopholes when anyone enters or exits the 
hide. 

L-15. The observer can tell if the target is hit. The target's response is 
similar to that of big game. An animal that is fired at and missed always 
stands tense for a fraction of a second before it bounds away. When an 
animal is struck by the bullet there is no pause. It bounds away at once 
on the impact or falls. Thus, a stag shot through the heart commences his 
death rush at once, to fall dead within 50 yards, whereas a stag missed 
gives that telltale sudden start. If a human is hit, he falls forward or 
appears to crumple I ike a rag doll. Continued activity or falling to the side 
indicates a superficial hit. 

L-16. Speed is important. The sniper should practice for an aimed shot 
in 2 seconds or less. 

L-17. The sniper should use armor-piercing rounds for anti material 
missions to take out the weapon, not the crew. The crew is easier to 
replace. 

L-18. Short of optical or laser range finders and in an offensive role, the 
mil-relation formula (mortar-crew mil system) will help the sniper 
determine accurate range. In the defensive role, the surest method of 
determining precise range is by triangulation. 



L-4 



Appendix M 

Sniper Team Debriefing Format 

After the mission, tlie sniper employment officer or S-3 representative 
directs tlie sniper team to an area wliereit prepares for a debriefing. Tine 
team remains in tlie area until called to the operations center. 



SNIPER TEAM FUNCTIONS 

M-1. The sniper team will— 

• Lay out and account for all team and individual equipment. 

• Consolidate all captured material and equipment. 

• Review and discuss the events listed in the mission logbook from 
insertion to return, including details of each enemy sighting. 

• Prepare an overlay of the team's route, AO, insertion point, extraction 
point, and significant sighting locations. 

S-3 FUNCTIONS 

M-2. An S-3 representative controls the debriefing. He directs the team 
leader to— 

• Discuss any enemy sightings since the last communications with the 
radio base station. 

• Give a step-by-step account of each event listed in the mission logbook 
from insertion until reentry of the PLOT, including the details of all 
enemy sightings. 

• Complete a mission report (Figure M-1, pages M-2 and M-3) and draw 
an overlay as discussed. The team leader either completes the report or 
has the observer complete different sections. The team leader then 
returns the report and overlay to the S-3 representative, while the 
observer performs postmission maintenance tasks. 

M-3. When the debriefing is complete, the S-3 representative releases the 
sniper team back to its parent unit. 



M-1 



FM 3-05.222 



Team Number Date-Time Group (DTG): 

To 

Maps Used: 1:25,000: 

1:50,000: 

1:250,000: 

Special: 

A. Size and Composition of Team: 

Team Leader: 

Observer: 

B. IMission: 



C. Priority Intelligence Requirements (PI R) (Use attached sheet): 

D. Continuing Intelligence Requirements (CI Rs) (Use attached sheet): 

E. Time of Departure (DTG): 
Method of I nsertion: 



Point of Departure (Six-digit grid coordinates): 



F . E nemy Spotti ng E n Route (U se attached sheet, if needed): 

1. Ground Activity: 

2. Air Activity: 



3. Miscellaneous Activity: 



Routes (Out) (Provide overlay): Dismounted- 
ByFoot: 



By Vehicle (State type): 
By Aircraft (State type): 



H. Terrain (Use attached sheet in the following format): 

Key Terrain Terrain Compartment 

Significant Terrain Terrain Corridor 

Decisive Terrain Map Corrections 

Avenues of Approach (State size) 

I . Enemy Forces and I nstallations (Use attached sheet): 



Figure M-1. Sample Mission Report for Debriefing 



M-2 



FM 3-05.222 



Miscellaneous Information (Use attached sheet, if necessary): 

1. Lack of Animals or Strange Animal Behavior: 

2. Mutilated Plants: 

3. U ncommon I nsects: 



4. Abandoned Military Equipment (Check for and include number and type): 
a. Out of Fuel: 



b. Unserviceable (Estimate why): 



c. Destroyed or Damaged on Purpose by E nemy Forces: 

d. Operational Equipment Left Intact: 

5. Abandoned TownsA/illages: 



K. Results of Encounters with Enemy Force and Local Populace: 

L. Condition of Team, Including Disposition of Dead and Wounded: 



M. All Maps Returned or Any Other Identifiable Material Returned with Team: 
Yes; No; What Is Missing?; State Item and Where Approximately Lost: 



N. Conclusions and Recommendations: 



O. Captured Enemy Equipment and Material: 



P. Time of Extraction (DTG): 
Method of Extraction: 



Extraction Point (Six-digit grid coordinates): 
0. Routes (Back) (Provide overlay): 



1. Dismounted by Ground (E&E): 

2. Flight Route Back: 



R. Enemy Spotting En Route to Base (Use attached sheet, if needed): 

1. Ground Activity: 

2. Air Activity: 



3. Miscellaneous Activity: 
S. Timeof Return (DTG): 



Point of Return (Six-digit grid coordinates): 
Team Leader: 



(Print Name) (Grade) 



(Unit) (Signature) 
Additional Remarks by I nterrogator/Debriefer: 



Figure M-1. Sample Mission Report for Debriefing (Continued) 



M-3 



Appendix N 

Sniper Range Complex 

Sniper training requires closely located ranges designed for conducting 
initial or sustainment training programs. Individual ranges should allow 
the sniper to train and test in field fire, observation, range estimation, 
and stalking exercises. Live-fire ranges should be grouped together to 
reduce construction costs and land use by combining surface danger 
areas. Setting targets, scoring, and critiquing students requires moving 
up and down range while adjacent ranges are being used. Areas for 
trainingfieldcraft and other exercises should be close enough to maintain 
training tempo but not interfere with ongoing live-fire exercises. Ranges 
should also be self-sustaining, to include integrated administrative, 
classroom, and storage structures. Figures N-1 through N-3, pages N-2 
and N-3, show a recommended sniper range development plan. 



f 



1600-Meter 

Field Shoot 

(Up to .338 Cal) 




2000-Meter 

Field Siioot 

(Up to .50 Cal) 




NOT TO SCALE 



Figure N-1. Sniper Range Complex 



N-1 



FM 3-05.222 



12 Firing Points 
(8 Shown) 



Flood Lights 



4-Story 
Urban Hide and 

Roof Top 
Firing Platform 



1D0M OIVI^ 




3-Story 
, Urban Facade 
^X With 

Snaps and Movers 



Snaps^ 



Deliberates 
Target 
Do i leys 



900 M 800 M 700 M GOO M 500 M 400 M 300 M 200 M 100 M ^ i, » « » 

t. -3 j_ ^ i_ 

^^ ^ — ^ ^— ^ ^ — ^ ^ — ^ > .? > rt > 

° 3 o fe o 

5 O E 5 ^ 



Target 



Shed 



5 NOT TO SCALE 



Figure N-2. Proposed KD Ranges 



N-2 



FM 3-05.222 



KD Range 

1000 M 

(A) 

12 Firing Points 



KD Range 

1000 M 

(B) 

12 Firing Points 



a 



/ 



N 



Space for Future 
Construction 



simulator 



To 



Student 

Parking 



Student 

Storage/ 
Weapon 
Cleaning 






SOTIC 
Storage 


SOTIC 

Arms 
Room 




Offices, Latrine, 
and Classrooms 



Ranges 



Cadre 

Military 
Parking 



Entrance and Visitor Parking 



ASP, 



P 

□ 



Figure N-3. SOTIC Compound 



N-3 



Appendix O 

Aerial Platforms 

Sniper teams on today's modern battlefield may occasionally find that 
staying on the ground to conduct their mission is not feasible or tactically 
sound. Mission analysis may determine that the aerial platform is the most 
tactically advantageous method of employment. SOF elements, in 
conjunction with aviation assets, are called upon to conduct airborne sniper 
duties in support of airmobile quick reaction force (QRF) operations. These 
elements provide the ground commander with accurate lethal airborne fire 
support. To accomplish their mission, snipers must be highly skilled in the 
art of aerial mission planning. This appendix provides information that will 
allow units to train and maintain SOF proficiency in airborne sniper 
duties. This training will enable snipers to provide immediate, safe, 
accurate, and lethal fires in support of the ground commander during QRF 
contingency operations. 

Safety considerations are paramount and apply to all friendly forces and 
aircraft (A/C). Critical to this operational capability is the ability to 
minimize collateral damage to civilian noncombatants and property. The 
main effort is to maximize the sniper's ability to selectively engage and 
neutralize high-value point targets from various angles (elevations) at 
ranges of up to 250 meters, and to suppress area targets at ranges of up 
to 400 meters. The end state will be SOF snipers and aviation assets 
trained and proficient in the planning, preparation, and conduct of safe 
airborne sniper operations. 



MISSION PLANNING REQUIREMENTS 

0-1. During mission analysis, snipers must determine if conditions require 
the use of an aerial platform. Situations requiring aerial sniper support 
usually arise during urban or maritime (for example, visit, board, search, and 
seizure [VBSS]) operations. Planners must conduct a thorough mission 
analysis so as not to rule out the possibility of using helicopters as a firing 
platform during routine SF training and operations. Snipers must also be 
able to articulate the additional requirements for firing from various rotary- 
wing A/C, communications (COMM) with the pilot, COMM with other 
members of the team, and COMM with ground forces. 

0-2. The first planning requirement for using aerial platforms is to 
determine the commander's intent and whether or not there will be 
helicopters available for use by the snipers. If the commander's intent is to 
conduct a deliberate assault, then helicopters may not be the platform of 
choice due to the possibility of loss of surprise, which is paramount during a 



0-1 



FM 3-05.222 



deliberate assault option. The next step is to look at the capabilities of the 
given A/C and what is to be accomplished during the mission. 

0-3. Each mission objective has specific requirements that must be met to 
succeed. Therefore, planners must analyze unit capabilities and determine 
which COAswill meet these requirements. Factors to be considered include— 

• Distance from FOB to crisis area. 

• Time on station (fuel requirements). 

• Number of A/C required to support snipers and assaulters (can A/C do 
double duty?). 

• Can the assault force endure lapses in coverage, or do they require 
continuous coverage? 

• Weather. 

• Night-flying capability of supporting A/C. 

• A/C crew familiarity with support of SOF-type missions. 

• A/C crew familiarity with support of aerial-platform missions. 

• M ake-up of enemy forces expected in crisis area. 

• Weapons capabilities of expected enemy forces. 

• CSAR capabilities in case of downed A/C in crisis area. 

• A/C type (will it support the weapons and weapons support to be used?). 

0-4. If a mission requires an aerial platform with the capability to provide 
precision fire be present during all phases of the operation, then the number 
of A/C versus the number of available snipers must be considered. Loiter time 
for any given A/C will have a major influence on this aspect. Ultimately, the 
restraints of the A/C will dictate how a mission is accomplished. 

0-5. The aerial mission planning requirements can easily be defined using 
the following five Ws: 

• I/1//10— is flying the mission and who is the sniper team? 

• What— type of mission is to be executed (assault, SFAUC) and what 
type of A/C is to be used? 

• l/l/Zien— is the mission to be flown and when are rehearsals? 

• l/l//iere— is the mission to be flown (urban or rural)? 

• Why—'\5 the unit conducting the mission and what are the desired 
results? 

0-6. The unit leader then puts this information into a five-paragraph 
operations order format and briefs it as an annex during the sniper briefback. 

SUPPORT OF GROUND SNIPERS AND GROUND ASSETS 

0-7. When supporting ground-based snipers, the aerial platform can act as 
an observation post relating positions of both friendly and enemy forces, a 
blocking position to slow either the advance or retreat of enemy personnel, a 
precision firing platform to reduce point- or crew-served targets encountered 
by the assault force, and ultimately as an evacuation vehicle for assault force 
members wounded during the operation and the items recovered. I n an urban 



0-2 



FM 3-05.222 



environment, the aerial platform can act as a crowd deterrent against 
noncombatants who may be massing for demonstrations against current or 
ongoing operations, such as rotor downwash from a low-hovering A/C. If 
extended operations are a possibility or heavy fighting is encountered, the 
aerial platform can act as an on-call resupply asset if supplies are pre- 
positioned inside before takeoff. 

0-8. During a VBSS, the aerial platform becomes the primary shooting 
platform and evacuation vehicle for the assault force due to the distance from 
land that the operation may betaking place. Snipers can orbit the ship that is 
boarded and provide covering fire for the assault force while they are on the 
weather deck and engage targets of opportunity that may appear from within 
the ship while the assault force is clearing the interior of the vessel. The 
aerial platform may also act as a COMM link to the FOB during the 
operation due to the reduced COMM capability caused by the metal hull of 
the ship. 

0-9. It is important to remember that helicopters have their own gun 
systems. These include M-60 and M-240 machineguns and M-134 miniguns. 
Although normally used in the defensive role, they are equally effective when 
used offensively. Snipers and air safety officers (ASOs) must be prepared to 
designate targets for the aircrew. This method allows the sniper team to use 
an area engagement weapon with a high volume of fire to suppress targets 
beyond the capabilities of the sniper's precision weapons fire. Snipers must 
also familiarize themselves with thefunctioning of the A/C's weapons systems 
and be prepared to take over their operation if required. Variations in the 
configurations of the weapons when modified for A/C use means operator 
training is required. This training is especially important when using the 
M-134. 



URBAN OPERATIONS 



Urban Assault 



O-IO. A deliberate urban assault or missions requiring the use of SFAUC 
techniques are two situations that may require the use of hell borne snipers. 
In either of the following scenarios, aerial platforms are a highly effective 
way to provide SOP snipers and their supported assault force with an 
advantage. 



0-11. Conditions surrounding the use of aerial platforms in urban 
operations must be examined carefully. Although helicopters are common in 
many cities, flight routes into the objective area may not coincide with normal 
aerial traffic patterns. This action may alert the adversary to an impending 
assault. Establishing flight corridors and conducting flybys with 
nonthreatening civilian helicopters during the preassault phase may cause 
the enemy to become used to the idea of helicopters in the area. However, 
unusual aerial traffic patterns can also arouse suspicion and may lead to a 
premature compromise of the operation. Using helicopters as a diversion 
during the assault may also be a possibility. 

0-12. Anytime a helicopter is being considered for use as a firing platform, 
careful attention must be placed on the type of fire it will be required to 
provide. Wherever possible, the mission to provide precision fire should not 



0-3 



FM 3-05.222 



be relegated solely to an aerial platform. The less stable position provided by 
an aerial platform as compared to a ground-based position makes it more 
difficult to accomplish the sniper mission. Careful consideration must also be 
given to enemy standoff (for example, RPGs) and ADA capabilities. 



SF Advanced Urban Combat 



0-13. In this scenario, the aerial platform will most likely be used in 
support of the SOF mission. Unlike the deliberate urban assault, where the 
location of the crisis site and possibly even the crisis point is known, this 
operation finds the assault force moving through an urban environment 
either looking for the items that they must recover or, after having recovered 
the items, encountering an enemy force that is hindering their evacuation of 
the crisis area. 

AERIAL PLATFORM TRAINING 

0-14. Airborne sniper training will be conducted in five phases. A detailed 
discussion of each phase follows. 

Phase I— Planning 

0-15. Planning consists of coordination and deconfliction between SOF, 
range control (for training operations), and aviation assets. A major point for 
deconfliction, especially for training, is obtaining the necessary waivers to 
remove seats and seatbelts from the A/C. When using a UH-60 helicopter, it 
is possible to leave the four rear seats and one forward-facing center seat 
without losing any capabilities except troop transport. To remove all seats 
requires greater planning time to obtain a waiver to remove seats. Depending 
on the aviation unit and A/C type, a waiver may be required to remove 
selected seats to optimize rigging configuration. The amount of time 
necessary to effect a seat-removal waiver depends on the permission 
authority level. 

0-16. Normally, several coordination meetings are necessary and a good 
projected planning time is 2 to 3 weeks in advance. All resources must be 
considered, to include available aviation assets, sniper ammunition, door 
gunner ammunition, transportation, range scheduling, targets, ballistic 
blankets, rigging materials, harnesses, and ongoing operations. Once trained, 
planning for a mission can take place in a matter of hours. Phase I ends after 
final coordination is complete. 

Phase II— Preparation 

0-17. Premission preparation consists of obtaining targets and ammunition, 
range and target preparation, A/C rigging, aircrew brief, range safety brief, 
range operation brief, and rehearsals (Figure 0-1, page 0-5 through 0-7). 
Sniper personnel will be organized into lifts. The range safety officer (RSO) 
will designate one individual as the ASO for each lift. The designated ASO 
will be ASO for the lift following his sniper lift, thus staying on the A/C after 
firing and being immediately knowledgeable of requirements. The range 
NCOIC will brief ASOs, snipers, and range personnel on the ground of their 
duties; the NCOIC is also in charge of conduct of the range. Assistant range 
NCOIC will issue guidance to ground personnel and prepare targets and 



0-4 



FM 3-05.222 



ammunition. The A/C commander will receive a copy of the flight manifest 
from the range NCOIC. Phase II ends after final rehearsals and upon mutual 
agreement between A/C commander, range 01 C, and RSO that all 
requirements have been met to ensure safe training. 



Roll Call/Introductions 

• Senior sniper. 

• Sniper team leaders and observers. 

• Pilot (each A/C). 

• Co-pilot (each A/C). 

• Crew chiefs. 

Questions to Aircrew 

• Type of A/C available. 

• Number of A/C available. 

• Time and location of crew brief. 

• Number of packs that can be carried (sniper team/equipment plus ground 
force/equipment). 

• Time to target area. 

• Time over target area. 

General Information 

• Type of operation. 

• Safety instructions. 

• Primary radio frequency (A/C to ground force C2, A/C to FOB). 

• Alternate radio frequencies. 

• A/C call signs. 

• Ground force 02 call sign. 

• Target area description (in general from the air). 

• Marking SOP for PLOT of ground force. 

• Known obstacles in area to A/C. 

Coordination Data 

• Time and location of rehearsals. 

• Time A/C available for rigging (sniper teams must also tell aircrew approximate time to rig 
A/C). 

• Approximate takeoff time. 

• Initial ingress speed. 

• Direction of ingress (given in relation to target area, such as from west over building #1 ). 



Figure 0-1. Sample Pilot and Sniper Team Air Brief or Pilot's Brief 



0-5 



FM 3-05.222 



• Initial altitude on ingress. 

• Initial distance from primary target (initial target to be engaged by sniper team). 

• Sectors of responsibility (if more than one A/C is used). 

• Initial direction of racetrack (clockwise, counterclockwise). 

• Preferred location in A/C for primary shooter. 

Scheme of Maneuver: A Brief Overview of Operation 

• Clearance to engage. 

• Infiltration of ground force (if required). 

• Race track (time to complete). 

• Location of targets. 

• Position of A/C to primary target. 

• Close on target. 

• Engagement of secondary targets (or targets of opportunity). 

• Turnover time (if refueling is needed or exfiltration of wounded before mission 
accomplishment). 

• Maximum time on target. 

• Exfiltration of ground force or PC. 

Operational Information 

• Number of passengers on each A/C (to include aircrew and sniper teams). 

• Number of snipers per A/C. 

• Location of snipers. 

• Type of weapons to be employed. 

• Location of ammunition in A/C. 

• Location of senior sniper (by A/C call sign; or if he is on the ground, a senior sniper will 
need to be designated for control of aerial platform snipers). 

Type and Number of Equipment Needed: Equipment Requirements to Be Provided 
by Aircrew 

• ICS. 

• Gunners' belts. 

• Head sets. 

• Floatation devices (if over water). 

Sequence of Events 

• Rig A/C. 

• Inspect rig (primary sniper rigs, observer inspects). 

• Rehearsal positions. 



Figure 0-1. Sample Pilot and Sniper Team Air Brief or Pilot's Brief (Continued) 



0-6 



FM 3-05.222 



COMM check (radios and intercom systems). 

Senior sniper demonstrates liand-and-arm signals for tine following: 

Time to target (10 minutes, 5 minutes, 2 minutes, and 30 seconds). 

Clear to load and make ready. 

Cleared hot. 

Cease fire. 

Observe and look. 

Make safe. 

No COMM. 

Rest easy. 

Slide (commands given to helicopter: forward, aft, right, and left). 

Nose (right, left). 

Tail (right, left). 

Hover. 

Altitude (increase, decrease). 

Open distance to target. 

Close distance to target. 

Abort engagement. 

Emergency Procedures 

• A/C problem (snipers will take all commands from aircrew). 

• Loss of COMM. 

• Weapons malfunction. 

• Aid to injured persons while in flight. 

• Emergency exit procedures. 



Figure 0-1. Sample Pilot and Sniper Team Air Brief or Pilot's Brief (Continued) 

Phase III— Range Fire 

0-18. RSO and A/C crew chief ensure A/C is rigged properly and all 
personnel are both seated with seat belts fastened (required for takeoff and 
landing) and secured in the A/C using RSO-approved harnesses and locking 
carabiners. Sniper equipment and gear will be secured in the A/C using 
secure quick-release equipment (such as carabiners or fastex buckles as 
appropriate). After receiving approval from RSO, A/C lifts and training 
commences. Snipers remove seat belts and assume their shooting positions on 
command from the ASO. Upon receipt of "clear to fire" command from 
RSO, the A/C commander gives the "weapons free" command to the ASO. 
The ASO then gives the sniper approval to fire at designated targets, and 
ensures the sniper adheres to all safety considerations. If COMM link 
between sniper and pilot is not available, commands relating to A/C attitude 
and altitude will be relayed via hand-and-arm signals through the ASO (see 



0-7 



FM 3-05.222 



COMM section below). Anyone, at anytime, is authorized to call "cease fire" 
if an unsafe act is observed. On order from the ASO, sniper changeout will 
occur while airborne between passes. He notifies the A/C commander and 
ensures personnel remain secured in the A/C with a safety harness at all 
times. When changing out lifts, the RSO will call "cease fire" and notify the 
A/C commander when "clear to land." Lifts will load the A/C upon 
notification of the crew chief, and the procedure is repeated. To maximize 
valuable limited airborne training time, changeouts must be safely and 
swiftly executed. Phase III concludes at the final cease-fire. If possible, the 
A/C will land and personnel will participate in the after-action review (AAR) 
immediately following training to capture aircrew perspective, ideas, and 
techniques while fresh. 

Phase IV— After -Action Review 

0-19. An immediate AAR is conducted with all participants to continue to 
refine TTPs, address relevant points, and capture lessons learned. The range 
01 C administers the AAR with suggestions from senior snipers. The AAR 
spans Phase I through Phase III, and Phase IV is complete when the AAR is 
finished. 

P liase V— R ecovery 

O-20. Recovery consists of accountability, range police, clearing the range, 
and weapons cleaning. Recovery is complete as per detachment SOP, range 
NCOIC guidance, and per approval from each element commander. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

0-21. Communications will be one of the most complex aspects of an aerial 
mission. Radio nets during standard SOF missions can become extremely 
crowded. Adding one or more A/C to the equation must be carefully thought 
out. Communications requirements will need to be met by the sniper TOC in 
coordination with the company COMM section. Compatibility of equipment 
and communications security (COM SEC) items must be considered, then 
radio nets and priorities of use must be coordinated. Either C-E or the 
company COMM section will provide any additional radios that may be 
required. The company COMM section will ensure the aircrew is fully briefed 
as to the needs of the sniper team. The sniper commander will receive the 
COMM plan during the sniper brief so that any conflicts can be corrected 
before the brief to the ground force commander and the start of rehearsals. 
Primary responsibility for providing cryptographies needed by the A/C will 
fall to the sniper TOC radio operator in conjunction with the company COMM 
section. The aerial sniper team observer (before the first rehearsal) will verify 
the COMM plan with a complete COMM check. 

Special Communications Requirements 

0-22. Any COMM plan must include provisions for primary, alternate, 
contingency, and emergency COMM methods. It must provide COMM 
systems for the following requirements: 

• Ground to air and air to ground. 

• Ground to ground. 



0-8 



FM 3-05.222 



• Requesting DU STOP F and aerial IMEDEVAC. 

• Sniper to ground commander and ground commander to sniper. 

0-23. The following radio nets, either sole-use or shared, must be provided 
for: 

• A/C toA/C (if multiple A/C are used). 

• A/C to ground force C2. 

• A/C sniper team to pilot (can be accomplished using ICS). 

• A/C sniper team to ground force C2. 

• A/C sniper team to ground-based sniper teams. 

• A/C to FOB. 

• A/C sniper team to FOB (can be accomplished by using A/C to FOB net 
via ICS relay). 

0-24. Commands and verbiage from sniper or ASO to pilot can originate 
from either depending on COMM capabilities; for example, COMM helmets. 
The primary means of COMM between the sniper team and the aircrew 
should be direct COMM. The aircrew COMM helmet with two COMM feeds 
will normally satisfy this requirement. These helmets are still new and their 
issue to U.S. Army SF units is currently limited. A substitute that will meet 
this need can be fabricated using repair parts obtained from an electronic 
maintenance shop. The push-to-talk button is ergonomically located using a 
hook-and-loop fastener to allow the sniper to communicate directly with 
either the pilot or the ground commander. The basis for this fabrication can 
be a U.S. Navy crewman helmet or a U.S. Army combat vehicle crewman 
helmet. These helmets are recommended because their shape does not 
interfere with the sniper's cheek-to-stock weld. 

0-25. The alternate COMM plan is more indirect and, unfortunately, less 
responsive. The ASO receives targeting information from the ground 
commander via headset and organic A/C radios. The ASO then designates 
targets for the sniper directly using a target designator (for example, laser 
illuminator) or indirectly using reference points or the clock-ray method. The 
sniper gives the ASO hand-and-arm signals to adjust the attitude of the A/C 
so that he can engage the target. The ASO relays these commands to the 
pilot. 

Hand-and-Arm Signals From the Sniper to the Air Safety Officer 

NOTE: Most pilots prefer to receive the commands in a countdown given in 
feet. An example is "up 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5..." 

0-26. The following are fairly standard commands and are mostly self- 
explanatory. The commands most confused are "tail left" and "tail right," 
and are used to pivot the A/C. Pilots normally think about the attitude of the 
A/C in terms of moving the tail because that is how their controls operate. A 
'Tail left" command moves the nose of the A/C to the right, and vice versa. 

• "UP." Sniper uses thumb pointing up with remaining fingers closed 
(standard thumbs-up signal). Sniper will normally give this command 
once, and ASO will make a determination on height and relay this to 



0-9 



FM 3-05.222 



the pilot. Sniper can halt the A/C by giving the command "hover," or 
give the command "up"togain more altitude. 

• "DOWN." Sniper uses thumb pointing down with remaining fingers 
closed (standard thumbs-down signal). Sniper will normally give this 
command once, and ASO will make a determination on height and 
relay this to the pilot. Sniper can halt the A/C by giving the command 
"HOVER," or the command "down "to lose more altitude. 

• "HOVER." Sniper clenches his fist in the standard "freeze" command. 
This command can be used at any time to halt the movement of the 
A/C. ASO relays to the pilot. 

• "SLIDE LEFT" or "SLIDE RIGHT." Technique 1— Sniper opens palm, 
fingers and thumb extended and joined, and makes a pushing motion 
to the left or to the right. Technique 2— Sniper extends index finger 
from a clenched fist and points left or right. Either technique may be 
used as long as the sniper and ASO have coordinated beforehand. The 
ASO relays command to the pilot. 

• "FLY FORWARD" ov "FLY B/\c/ci/iMRD. " Sniper extends index finger from a 
clenched fist and points forward or backward. The ASO relays this to 
the pilot. 

• "PIVOT LEFT" or "PIVOT RIGHT." Sniper, with fingers and thumb 
extended and joined, palm slightly down in the most natural and 
comfortable position, points either left or right in the direction he 
wishes the A/C to turn. Sniper normally uses the "hover" command to 
stop the A/C 's turn. ASO relays this to the pilot. 

AERIAL SNIPER EMPLOYMENT 

0-27. Inherent to effective sniper marksmanship from airborne platforms is 
to accurately engage targets at rapidly changing ranges and angles, while 
moving, and still maintain muzzle and situational awareness. However, 
numerous methods can be used si nee the ranges and angles change so rapidly 
and normal sniper ranging procedures are ineffective. When shooting at an 
angle, the round strikes higher than normal; the greater the angle, the higher 
it will strike. An effective technique at 200 meters (m) or below (not the only 
technique) is to zero the rifle or set the comeups at either 175 m or 200 m and 
aim (or hold off) for the actual range to target. At ranges greater than 200 m, 
sniper experience comes into play and hold-offs become critical. There is no 
secret recipe for doing this, and because ranges and angles change rapidly, 
changing scope settings while shooting is not recommended. Conducting 
unknown distance angle shooting (for example, in mountainous terrain) using 
instinctive ranging techniques is good training to offset these factors. Also 
knowing the various hold-offs for set zeros (for example, 300, 400, and 500) 
will allow for a single elevation change to accommodate further ranges. As an 
example, a shift to the 400-meter setting may permit engagement out 500 
meters using stated mi I -holds for that zero. 

0-28. Target identification or selection can be conducted in two basic 
manners, depending on the type of COMM available to the sniper. If the 
sniper is equipped with a helmet that has integrated COMM links, the 
ground commander can talk directly to the sniper and identify targets. If 



0-1 



FM 3-05.222 



helmet COMM is not an option, then the ASO can act as the spotter. If the 
ASO acts as the spotter, it is recommended that he use low magnification, 
wide-angle binoculars during the day for the widest field-of-view possible. At 
night, the choice of optics is lAW personal preference and availability. The 
ASO will receive target identification and report it to the sniper, essentially 
just pointing the target out. This method requires practice between the sniper 
and the ASO to establish the "nonverbal sniper dialogue" necessary due to 
the high background noise present when conducting airborne operations. It 
can be practiced on the ground to maximize training conducted in the air. 

0-29. Airborne snipers essentially have three different positions to fire 
from, regardless of weapon or A/C type. The prone position can be used, but 
helicopter vibrations are transmitted directly to the gun via either the bipod 
or the elbow and arm if using a sling-supported position. The floor-seated 
position, in conjunction with the rifle sling support, is probably the best 
position. It allows for both elbows to be supported on the inside of the knees, 
which helps the legs to act as shock absorbers eliminating the majority of the 
vibration. This position also affords very good fields of fire without placing 
the sniper in an awkward position that would sacrifice accuracy. 
A variation of the seated position that works well for taller snipers onboard 
UH-60 A/C is to remain in one of the forward facing rear seats adjacent to the 
door and use the rifle sling-supported sitting position. 

O-30. Variations to the seated position include using shooting mats folded 
and taped into position on the helicopter seat. Use of the crew door in the 
H-60-series helicopters aids greatly in acquiring targets and accuracy of the 
sniper. Other position aids are rucksacks, with a partially filled air mattress 
stuffed inside and covered with shooting mats or sleeping mats, used as a 
support for the sitting position when a sniper is seated on the floor or ramp of 
the A/C. This setup must be strapped to the floor to prevent shifting. Snipers 
can also use a utility strap across the door or ramp for support or place 
padding on the floor to help eliminate vibrations. Using the strap is the 
sniper's preference and is also useful for heavy sniper systems. However, 
unless a heavy sniper system such as the Barret .50 caliber or M500 .50 
caliber is used, the use of straps across the door is counterproductive to 
accuracy. Attempts in the past to use bungee cords or stretchable elastic-type 
ropes have only been partially successful and generally compromise accuracy 
for weapon support. Ballistic blankets rigged on the floor and used for sniper 
protection do provide some vibration dampening characteristics in the floor- 
seated position, but the use of additional padding is recommended, if possible. 
Snipers must ensure the ballistic blankets and any additional padding are 
rigged securely in the A/C to avoid dangerous padding shifts or sliding. 



COORDINATING INSTRUCTIONS 



0-31. A critical component of using airborne sniping platforms is developing 
adequate and appropriate rules of engagement (ROE). ROE are normally 
derived from guidance and promulgated through the OPORD and order-of- 
ground commander. The following are ROE considerations or methods of 



0-11 



FM 3-05.222 



reaction that should be reviewed by any unit tasked to perform the aerial 
sniper mission: 

• If A/C receives fire at any time, snipers will return fire lAW ROE in a 
manner designed to immediately kill or neutralize any enemy 
personnel. 

• If friendly ground elements are engaged at any time, snipers will 
deliver accurate fire on hostiles lAW the ROE. 

• Snipers will selectively engage targets designated by ground 
commander as meeting ROE. 

• If hostile elements should run and are identified as having weapons, 
snipers will use as much effective fire as needed to deter or suppress 
hostiles I AW the ROE to prevent friendly casualties. 

• If hostile elements run but are not identified as having weapons, 
warning shots will be fired and A/C snipers will continue to cover the 
ORF. 



AERIAL SWS SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS 



0-32. Airborne sniper elements are expected to provide organic direct fire to 
the ground commander using designated sniper systems. Dueto muzzle blast, 
it is recommended that 7.62-mm sniper systems and smaller be used in 
lighter, smaller helicopters configured with side doors such as UH-60 and 
UH-1. The blast from .50-caliber sniper weapons can cause pilot distraction. 
Sniper systems of up to .50 caliber may be used from A/C that are equipped 
with a tail ramp, such as the CH -47 and CH-53 series of helicopters. 

0-33. The M4 carbine (or the special purpose rifle) works well in an 
airborne sniper role due to its light weight, high rate of fire, and extensive 
selection of low-magnification optics. At night, it has a wide variety of night 
vision accessories and nonvisible lasers available. The primary drawback is 
its caliber, 5.56 mm, which has poor stopping power and terminal ballistics in 
comparison with 7.62 mm and larger. It is strongly recommended that the 77- 
grain, 5.56-mm round be used in lieu of the standard ball round, due to 
superior ballistics. Its effective range is not considered a liability due to the 
short ranges inherent in airborne sniping. However, to stabilize the weapon, 
slings should be modified similar to the leather slings supplied with the M24 
SWS. When using the sling for support with the M4 carbine, theSOFMOD kit 
rail interface system (RIS) should be used to minimize barrel strain, which 
changes POI considerably. If the use of aftermarket parts is an option, the 
sniper can use an inexpensive one-piece tubular hand guard that free-floats 
the barrel and allows the sling swivel to be solid mounted on the hand guard 
rather than the barrel. Because this is a semipermanent adaptation that 
prevents M4 RIS accessories (lights, laser sights) from being used, it has 
limited applications. 

0-34. The 7.62-mm, gas-operated sniper rifles (M21, Armalite AR-10, or the 
Knight SR25) equipped with low or variable magnification or red dot scopes 
are excellent choices for airborne sniping. They provide a high rate of fire, 
good external and terminal ballistics, accuracy, medium weight, sling- 
supported capability, and task-optimized optics. High magnification (lOx and 
above) can be used, but drawbacks similar to those of the lOx-equipped M24 



0-12 



FM 3-05.222 



SWS will be encountered (see above). Snipers should conduct extensive 
seated dry and rangefire drills to achieve accurate results. 

0-35. Although the M24 SWS (or any manually operated bolt gun with 
high-magnification optics) works in an airborne sniper role, it has several 
drawbacks. The system is relatively heavy, which can cause sniper fatigue 
and difficulty in rapid target acquisition. It has a slow rate of fire that 
negatively impacts engagement capabilities during multiple target scenarios. 
It is difficult to keep the lOx (or greater) magnification scope steady on the 
target due to A/C vibrations and wind gusts. However, the M24 and other 
guns equipped with high magnification optics can still be made to work very 
well with highly trained snipers or good instinctive shooters. Using a sling 
and conducting extensive seated dry and range fire drills during normal 
ground-range fire can optimize the use of high magnification optics. One key 
is that the shooter must be able to fire with both eyes open so as to 
superimpose the reticle over the target as seen by the left eye. 

0-36. Effective optics include Aimpoint scopes, Aimpoint scopes with 2x 
magnifiers, and Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight (ACOG) or Day Optical 
Scope (4x). If available, durable variable- powered tactical scopes such as the 
Leupold 3.5-lOx or 4.5-14x series are very viable when used at low 
magnification. With a variable- powered scope, the crosshairs on Leupold 
1-inch and 30-mm diameter scopes (and most other U.S. -manufactured 
scopes) are on the second focal plane, as opposed to the first focal plane. For 
practical purposes, this means that the crosshairs remain the same size 
regardless of the magnification. Therefore, the mil dots are normally 
calibrated to be accurate at only one magnification, normally the scope's 
highest power. Many European scopes— such as Kahles, Schmidt & Bender, 
Swarovski, and Zeiss— are first focal plane scopes, so if a European- 
manufactured, variable-powered tactical scope is used, the reticle and mil 
dots may change power with magnification. The newer LR series scopes by 
Leupold, with new reticle, and the newer Gen II reticles by Premier in the 
Leupold are positioned in the first focal plane, and the mils stay true mils 
throughout the power range. 

SUPPORT AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 

0-37. Using an aerial platform as a firing position places further 
requirements on the sniper team due to time and equipment required to set 
up for and conduct such a mission. Basic equipment will be as per theSFODA 
SOP. Each individual sniper team will determine their special equipment 
requirements. Any additional equipment required to support the platform is 
determined by the type of A/C. 

0-38. All sniper personnel wear body armor and a protective helmet. The 
day pack, which contains ammunition, munitions, and signaling devices, 
should be secured in the A/C by a snap link or fastex buckle and located so 
that it is available for quick weapon reloads. The day pack or additional 
rucksack should also contain the following additional items: 

• Night vision optics. 

• Maps. 

• Emergency COM M equipment. 



0-13 



FM 3-05.222 



• Emergency medical kit. 

• Food and water. 

Tine sniper should not wear his load-bearing equipment to facilitate accuracy. 
However, LBEs should be proximally located and secured (attached to day 
pack or snap linked/secured with fastex buckle in theA/C). 

AVIATION 

0-39. For training purposes on a small land-based range, one A/C should be 
used to minimize distractions and maximize safety. The UH-60, UH-1, CH-47, 
and CH-53 are all viable sniper platforms; the training depends on the 
mission and assets available. The use of more than one A/C on a small land- 
based range is feasible, but critical to safe conduct of the range is the use of a 
person experienced in A/C control. 

O-40. For training purposes on a larger land-based range or water-based 
range, more than one A/C may safely be fired from. If possible, a tactical air 
control party, combat control team, or SO terminal attack controller should be 
used to control multi-A/C training missions. If USAF control personnel are 
not available to assist, a competent Special Forces qualification course 
(SFOC) graduate familiar with close air support may be the A/C controller 
I AW the risk assessment, range officer in charge (01 C), and applicable local 
policies and regulations. 

0-41. The sniper planning cell will need to provide a solid timeline to the 
sniper command element so they can coordinate for the A/C to be available 
for rigging and rehearsals without interferring with ongoing ground force 
rehearsals. It is crucial for the snipers to rehearse with the A/C crew to 
develop the coordination required to function as a team. 

AIRCRAFT EMERGENCY PROCEDURES 

0-42. All snipers must receive a detailed briefing and conduct rehearsals on 
emergency shutdown procedures for the A/C (to include fuel supply) and any 
A/C gun systems. Snipers should know and rehearse the location of all exits, 
medical equipment, fire extinguishers, A/C COMM systems, ammunition, and 
survival items. They must also be instructed on A/C destruction, with priority 
and means of destruction designated for all systems. Special emphasis should 
be placed on cryptographic items. 

AIRCRAFT RIGGING OF A UH-60 (Modify as Appropriate for Other A/C Types) 

0-43. Seats. If permitted, remove all seats to allow more room for both 
snipers and any personnel being evacuated. FAA regulations require that a 
seat be present for each person in theA/C, and that personnel are seated and 
secured during takeoff and landing. If seat removal is not waiverable, then 
remove the center (forward) section of seats, leaving one seat in the center 
between or behind the pilot's seat facing forward, and leave the four seats in 
the back, which face forward in the A/C. This configures the A/C to accept 
four snipers in the rear seats and one ASO in the forward-facing (navigator's) 
seat. 



0-14 



FM 3-05.222 



0-44. Ballistic Blankets. The number of ballistic blankets able to be 
secured to the hard points on the floor is determined by the size of the 
blankets and location of mounting straps. Ideally, the entire floor of the A/C 
will be covered by a minimum of one thickness of ballistic blanket, with 
overlaps on adjoining blankets. If available, two thicknesses are preferred. 
Personnel should ensure the blankets are secured tightly to the floor and use 
100-mph tape liberally at the doors to prevent wind gusts from lifting the 
blankets during flight. 

0-45. Additional Padding. The ballistic blankets provide some vibration- 
damping capabilities for floor-seated or prone snipers. This capability can be 
improved by using additional padding, such as foam rubber or sleeping mats. 
Depending on the material used, the padding may be placed over or under 
the ballistic blankets. Personnel should ensure that padding is secured 
regardless of type or placement; padding shifts during operations can be 
unsafe. 

0-46. Safety Hookup. A safety ring constructed of climbing rope or 1-inch 
tubular nylon connected to no less than four hard points is recommended. 
The safety ring should consist of two separated ropes or one rope with a bight 
in it that forms two separated ropes. This provides redundancy in the event of 
failure. At four locations on the double-looped rope, corresponding to the 
location of the floor hard points, personnel should isolate the rope further by 
constructing four bights isolated with knots. Figure-eight loops are very good 
for this task. Personnel can use locking carabiners to attach each loop to a 
floor hard point. They must modify the ballistic blanket covering the center of 
the floor between the doors to allow access to the floor hard points. 

0-47. There are various sniper and ASO safety harnesses that are checked 
and approved by the RSO. The ASO ensures a safe hookup within the A/C 
before takeoff. The safety harness variations are as follows: 

• Aircrew safety harness (monkey harness). 

• Commercial climbing harness. 

• Seat, hip rappel with safety line (Swiss seat). 

• Safety I i ne. 

0-48. The safety line connecting the sniper's harness to the safety ring 
should be constructed of climbing rope or 1-inch tubular nylon, and connected 
with a locking snap link. It should be long enough to allow freedom of 
movement within the A/C, but short enough to prevent personnel from 
exiting the A/C. 

PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS (FOR TRAINING) 

0-49. Ground personnel indudethefollowing: 

• OIC. 

• Noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC). 

• Assistant NCOIC. 

• Range safety officer. 

• A/C ground controller. 



0-15 



FM 3-05.222 



• Range safeties. 

• Medic. 

• Range personnel. 

O-50. Air personnel include the following: 

• Airborne 01 C or A/C commander (normally the mission air commander 
or A/C commander). 

• Air safety officer (provided by QRF personnel). 

• Snipers. 

• Aircrew. 

0-51. Attachments and detachments include the following: 

• Tactical air control party, combat control team, or SO terminal attack 
controller. 

• Snipers not organic to the detachment. 

• Additional range personnel. 
Tasks to Maneuver Elements 

0-52. Duties and responsibilities include the following: 

• 01 C oversees conduct of the range. 

• NCOIC provides organization of the lifts and range operation. 

• RSO- 

■ Ensures a safe overall range setup and operation. 

■ Provides safety brief to all. 

■ Briefs the ASO on duties and responsibilities. 

■ Checks A/C rigging. 

■ Maintains close contact with A/C controller on the ground. 

■ Advises and assists the 01 C and NCOIC. 

• ASO- 

■ Ensures the overall safety of snipers and A/C. 

■ Provides safety-line hookups of snipers. 

■ Tells snipers when to load, go hot, and cease fire. He also visually 
inspects to ensure weapon clear. 

■ Ensures snipers fire in safe direction at designated targets. 

■ Depending on available COMM, controls A/C using headset for 
snipers to effectively engage targets. 

• Range assistant NCOIC— 

■ Receives direction from range NCOIC. 

■ Provides the targets. 

• A/C ground control I er— 

■ I nforms A/C when range is hot. 

■ Controls A/C as necessary. 



0-16 



FM 3-05.222 



■ Provides conduit between ground personnel and A/C. 

• Range safeties— 

■ Ensure ground personnel remain in safe area. 

■ Ensure range remains clear. 

• Range personnel— 

■ Consist of all excess personnel and snipers not currently firing. 

■ Assist with targets and range operations as directed. 

• Air commander— 

■ Oversees entire A/C and aircrew. 

■ Ensures detailed A/C safety and crew briefs are issued. 

Target Materials and Recommendations 

0-53. To achieve maximum benefit from limited airborne training time, it is 
recommended that targets be used which give immediate feedback to the 
snipers. A consideration when choosing targets is the effect of rotor wash on 
target materials and the amount of target maintenance required during 
training. Targets that require minimum maintenance during range fire will 
eliminate wasted time due to target changeout or servicing. The following are 
suggested target materials in order of preference from best to worst: 

• Steel/Iron Maidens. Excellent choice for targets. Provide immediate 
sniper feedback, require minimal attention once set up, and good for 
incorporating "instinctive" distance judging during training. Primary 
drawbacks are heavy weight and difficulty in initial fabrication. 
Personnel should spray paint targets to assist with feedback. They 
must also ensure that A/C remains a safe distance from steel targets. 

• Clay Pigeons and Clay Roof Tiles. Good choice for targets; however, 
they must be replaced as they are destroyed. Good feedback to the 
sniper, inexpensive cost, and availability make these a good choice. 
Primary drawbacks are the small size and time spent replacing targets 
during training. 

• Balloons, Inflated Surgical Gloves, and Inflated Condoms. Fair choice 
for targets, but several drawbacks make them less preferred. Balloons 
are normally small in size, which is not representative of the center 
mass of a man-sized target. A lot of time is also required to inflate the 
balloons. Additionally, the rotor wash or very hot weather tends to kill 
many balloons, which can give improper feedback to the snipers and 
definitely cause lost training time due to target maintenance. 

• Paper Targdis. Poor choice; least preferred. Provides no feedback to 
sniper and requires time-consuming target maintenance during training. 



0-17 



Glossary 



AAR 

A/C 

accuracy 



action 

ADA 
adjustable objective 

adjusted aiming point 

ammunition lot 

ammunition lot number 

AO 

APFT 

API 

ART 

ASO 

ATB 

ball ammunition 

ballistic coefficient 



ballistics 



after-action review 

aircraft 

In sniping, the ability of the sniper and his weapon to deliver 
precision fire on a desired target. Accuracy can easily be 
measured as the ability to group all shots close to a desired 
impact point. The deviation from the desired impact point or the 
size of the group is a function of range. Accuracy is the product of 
uniformity. 

The mechanism of a sniper rifle or other firearm that normally 
performs loading, feeding, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, 
and ejection. Also known as the receiver or frame. 

air defense artillery 

Fine-focusing ring on the objective lens of a telescope that helps 
to eliminate parallax. 

An aiming point that allows for gravity, wind, target movement, 
zero changes, or MOP P firing. Also known as a "hold." 

A quantity of cartridges made by one manufacturer under 
uniform conditions from the same materials. Ammunition within 
a lot is expected to perform in a uniform manner. 

Code number that identifies a particular quantity of ammunition 
from one manufacturer. It is usually printed on the ammunition 
case and the individual boxes in which the ammunition comes. 

area of operations 

Army Physical Fitness Test 

armor-piercing incendiary 

automatic ranging telescope 

air safety officer 

appears to be 

General -purpose standard service ammunition with a solid core 
(usually of lead) bullet. 

A number used to measure how easily a bullet slips through the 
air (aerodynamic efficiency). Most bullets have ballistic 
coefficients between .100 and .700. Higher ballistic coefficients 
are required for long-range shooting. 

A science that deals with the motion and flight characteristics of 
projectiles in the weapon, internal; out of the weapon, external; 
and effect on the target, terminal. 



Glossary-1 



FM 3-05.222 



BC 
BDC 
BDU 
beat 

berdan primer 

BMCT 

BMNT 

boat tail bullet 



boxer primer 

BRASS 

brass 

breech 

bullet drop 

bullet drop compensator 

C 
C2 
CA 
cal 

CARVER 

CAS 

CAT 

CBT 

CD 

chamber 

chronograph 
CIR 



ballistic coefficient 

bullet drop compensator 

battle dress uniform 

The sniper's operational area where established control measures 
(boundaries, limits) define his territory. 

Form of primer that does not have an integral anvil. Still found in 
Europe, it is reloaded with difficulty. 

beginning morning civil twilight 

beginning morning nautical twilight 

A bullet with a tapered base to reduce aerodynamic drag. Drag 
partly comes from the effects of cavitation (turbulence) and the 
progressive reduction of the diameter toward the rear of the 
bullet allows the air to fill in the void. 

Standard primer with an integral anvil. 

breathe, relax, aim, slack, squeeze 

E mpty cartridge case. 

The chamber end of the barrel . 

The amount that a bullet falls horizontally due to the effect of 
gravity. 

Any device that is integral to the rifle telescope that is designed 
to compensate for the bullet's trajectory. 

centigrade 

command and control 

Civil Affairs 

caliber— The measurement taken within the barrel from groove 
to groove or from the outside diameter of the bullet. 

criticality, accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, effect, 
recognizability 

close air support 

category 

combatting terrorism 

counterdrug 

Part of the bore, at the breech, formed to accept and support the 
cartridge. 

An instrument used to measure the velocity of a projectile. 

continuing intelligence requirement 



Glossary-2 



FM 3-05.222 



clandestine operation 



CLP 

CM 

CO 

cold-bore shot 

collimator 

COMM 

COMSEC 

concealment 

COOR 
cover 



covert operation 



CP 
crimp 

cross dominance 
crown 

CS 



CSAR 



An activity to accomplish intelligence gathering, counterintelligence, 
or other similar activities sponsored or conducted by governmental 
departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or 
concealment of the operation. It differs from covert operations in that 
the emphasis is placed on the concealment of the operation, rather 
than on the concealment of the sponsor's identity. 

cleaner, lubricant, preservative 

countermine 

combat operations 

The first shot from a clean, unfired weapon. 

Boresighting device. 

communications 

communications security 

Protection from view. This is not necessarily the same as cover. 
Cover provides concealment, but concealment does not always 
provide cover. 

coordination 

Protection from hostile gunfire. Cover is a relative term. Cover 
that is thick enough to stop pistol bullets may not be adequate 
protection against rifle bullets. This is a crucial fact to keep in 
mind when selecting cover. 

An operation that is planned and executed as to conceal the 
identity of, or permit plausible denial by, the sponsor(s). This 
differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on 
the concealment of the sponsor's identity, rather than on the con- 
cealment of the operation. 

command post 

The bending inward of the mouth of the case in order to grip the 
bullet or around the primer to seal it. 

A soldier with a dominant hand and a dominant eye that are not 
on the same side; for example, a right-handed firer with a 
dominant left eye. 

The technique used to finish the barrel's muzzle. The rifling at 
the end of the barrel can be slightly relieved, or recessed. The 
purpose is to protect the forward edge of the rifling from damage, 
which can ruin accuracy. 

Stands for 0-chlorobenzalmalnonnitrile— is actually a white solid 
powder usually mixed with a dispersal agent, like methylene 
chloride, which carries the particles through the air. CS is more 
stable, more potent, and less toxic than the more commonly used 
CN agent. 

combat search and rescue 



Glossary-3 



FM 3-05.222 



CT 

CUP 

DA 

deflection 

detailed search 

DOD 
drag 
drift 

drop 

dry firing 



DTG 

E-4 

E&E 

E&R 

EECT 

EENT 

effective wind 

EFL 

EST 

exit pupil 



exterior or external 
ballistics 



counterterrorism 

copper units of pressure 

Department of the Army: direct action 

The change in the path of the bullet due to wind or passing 
through a medium. 

A systematic observation of a target area in detail, using 
overlapping observation in a 180-degree arc, 50 meters in depth, 
starti ng i n and worki ng away from the observer. 

Department of Defense 

The aerodynamic resistance to a bullet's flight. 

The horizontal deviation of the projectile from its line of 
departure due to its rotational spin or the effects of the wind. 

The distance that a projectile falls due to gravity measured 
from the line of departure. 

Aiming and firing the weapon without live ammunition. This is 
an excellent technique to improve marksmanship skills and does 
not cause any damage to a center-fire firearm. It is best done with 
an expended casein the chamber to cushion the firing pin's fall. 

date-time group 

specialist 

evasion and escape 

evasion and recovery 

ending evening civil twilight 

ending evening nautical twilight 

The average of all of the varying winds encountered. 

effective focal length 

estimate 

The small circle of light seen coming from the ocular lens of an 
optical device when held at arm's length. The exit pupil can be 
determined mathematically by dividing the objective lens 
diameter (in millimeters) by the magnification. The result will be 
the diameter of the exit pupil in millimeters. (Example: for a 6- x 
42-mm telescope: 42 mm divided by 6 = 7 mm.) The size of the 
exit pupil will help in determining the effectiveness of the optical 
device in low-light conditions. The human pupil dilates to 
approximately 7 mm under low-light conditions, and a telescope 
with a 7-mm exit pupil will provide the maximum light possibleto 
the sniper's eye. 

What happens to the bullet between the time it exits the 
barrel and the time it arrives at the target. 



Glossary-4 



FM 3-05.222 



eye relief The distance that the eye is positioned behind the ocular lens of 
the telescopic sight. A two- to three-inch distance is average. The 
sniper adjusts the eye relief to ensure a full field of view. This 
distance is also necessary to prevent the telescope from striking 
the sniper's face during recoil. 



F 


fahrenheit 


FDC 


fire direction center 


FEBA 


forward edge of the battle area 


FFP 


forward firing position 


FID 


foreign internal defense 


FLIR 


forward-looking infrared 


FLOT 


forward line of troops 


FM 


field manual 


FN 


FabriqueNationale 


FO 


forward observer 


FOB 


forward operational base 


follow-through 


The continued mental and ph^ 



fouling 

fps 
free-floating barrel 



fundamentals after each round has been fired. 

Buildup of copper and powder residue in the bore. These two 
types of fouling require different cleaning solvents for complete 
removal. 



ft 

gn 

GPS 
grain 

grooves 
group 



feet per second 

A barrel that is completely free of contact with the stock. This is 
critical to accuracy because of barrel harmonics. As the bullet is 
traveling down the barrel, the barrel is vibrating like a tuning 
fork. Any contact with the barrel will dampen or modify these 
vibrations with (usually) a negative impact on shot-group size or 
point of impact. 

feet 

grain 

global positioning system 

A unit of measure; 7,000 grains are equal to 1 pound. Used to 
describe bullet weight (for example, 173 grains) or powder charge. 

The low point of rifling within a barrel. 

Formed from numerous shots fired at a target using the same 
point of aim, for checking accuracy. For standardization, it is 
best to fire five-shot groups with the same aiming point. It is a 
statistical fact that group size will increase with the number of 
shots fired. 

GT general technical 



Glossary-5 



FM 3-05.222 



GV 

GW 

HA 

hand load 

hand stop 

hasty search 

HD 
headspace 



HELR 
hide 

hold-off 



hold-over 
hold-under 

hollow-point 



HUMINT 

IAD 

I AW 

ID 

indexing targets 



given variable 

guerrilla warfare 

humanitarian assistance 

Also called reload. Nonfactory-manufactured ammunition. 

A device attached to the weapon's fore-end (modified with a metal 
rail) designed to prevent the supporting hand from sliding 
forward.